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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Two of the findings address the relationship between native and nonnative English-speaking teach- ers. The first concerns the accents of nonnative English-speaking teach- ers. The only difference is that we are not White. They do not want us to stay in school. No matter how well we do, they do not like us. The diversity they have found is not restricted to ethnic and linguistic minorities.

The undesirable consequences of how ESL learners are named and categorized are a theme addressed in four contributions. Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe this issue , for example, based on their research on mixed-heritage adults in the U. Interesting common themes emerge from the research of Nero in the U. One question I have wrestled with as a graduate student in the field is whether we are unwittingly serving exploitative multinational corporate interests as missionaries once served conquistadors, weakening the cultural and linguistic resources of people in a manner that makes the carnage of local cultures and economies possible.

MacPherson is not alone in wrestling with this question. Duff and Uchida demonstrate convinc- ingly that language and culture are, to some extent, inseparable. Culture relates to not only the cultural content of the courses L2 educators teach but also the subtle practices that are characteristic of their teaching: the way they arrange seating in their classrooms, the questions they ask, the stories they tell, the exercises they set.

Morgan notes that classroom relationships and interactions both consciously and unconsciously define what is desirable and possible for learners. Like Duff and Uchida, he observes that the influential role of the teacher is determined not only by the explicit content of the lessons but by the type of materials incorporated into a lesson and the methods used by the teacher. As Starfield this issue suggests, drawing on her reading of Cummins , Goldstein , and Wink , teachers in the West cannot be complacent about the extent to which teaching practices can both constrain and enhance possibilities for ESL learners.

Notwithstanding questions raised about the spread of English and Western cultural hegemony, the research in this issue cautions against drawing neat conclusions about the learning of English in either EFL or ESL contexts. Next, I drew on the issue as a whole to address a recurrent theme: the relationship between identity and the ownership of English.

I conclude with a few reflective comments. This special-topic issue attempts to do justice to the individual accounts of learners and teachers in different parts of the globe and seeks to ensure that debates on language and identity have taken the voices of learners and teachers seriously. Second, the Forum contributions of McNamara and Hansen and Liu suggest that research on language learning and identity has hitherto been rather fragmented and insular.

This special-topic issue is an attempt to address such fragmentation. I hope that readers will take the opportunity not only to compare the different theories, research traditions, and findings in the various articles and reports but also to enrich the debate with their own contributions. Finally, because the mandate of TESOL is the teaching of English, I suggest that if English belongs to the people who speak it, whether native or nonnative, whether ESL or EFL, whether standard or nonstandard, then the expansion of English in this era of rapid globaliza- tion may possibly be for the better rather than for the worse.

I also thank Patricia A. Duff, Margaret Early, and Sandra McKay for insightful comments on an earlier version of this article. Her research addresses ques- tions of language and identity, critical discourse, and English as an international language. The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, M. The prehistory of novelistic discourse. Lodge Ed. New York: Longman. Bhabha, H. The location of culture. London: Routledge.

Kmart, Sears, and ESL: How a Hedge Fund Became One of the World's Largest Retailers

Bourdieu, P. The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Informa- tion, 16, — Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Britzman, D. Practice makes practice: A critical study of learning to teach. Canagarajah, A. Introduction: Partial truths. Marcus Eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Corson, D. Language, minority education and gender. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. Cummins, J. Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society.

Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education. Gilroy, P. Goldstein, T. Two languages at work: Bilingual life on the production floor. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Hall, S. New ethnicities. Donald Eds. Halliday, M. Spoken and written language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hewitt, R. Language, youth and the destabilisation of ethnicity. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University. Kachru, B. World Englishes and applied linguistics. World Englishes, 9, 3— Kramsch, C. Context and culture in language teaching.

Oxford: Oxford Univer- sity Press. Lowenberg, P. IssuesS of validity in tests of English as a world language: Whose standards? World Englishes, 12, 95— Martin-Jones, M. Introduction to the special issue on education in multilingual settings: Discourse, identities, and power. Linguistics and Education, 8, 3— May, S.

In This Article

Making multicultural education work. McKay, S. Multiple discourses, multiple identities: Invest- ment and agency in second language learning among Chinese adolescent immigrant students. Harvard Educational Review, 3, — Morgan, B. Promoting and assessing critical language awareness. Morley, J. The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages.

Ndebele, N.

Carrier Nov. 17 by Campus Carrier - Issuu

The English language and social change in South Africa. The English Academy Review, 4, 1— Maintaining domination through language. Academic Develop- ment, 1, 1—5. Petals of blood. London: Heinemann. Decolonising the mind: The politics of language in African literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moving the centre: The struggle for cultural freedoms. Ports- mouth, NH: Heinemann. Peirce, B. Language learning, social identity, and immigrant women. Social identity, investment, and language learning.

The cultural politics of English as an international language. Phillipson, R. English only worldwide or language ecology? Rampton, B. ELT Journal, 44, 97— Siegal, M. Creation of the other: The case of White women learning Japanese and the implications of discursive practices. Swales, J. English triumphant, ESL leadership, and issues of fairness. Tollefson, J. Planning language, planning inequality: Language policy in the community. Walsh, C.

Kevin Roxas and Ramona Fruja

Language Arts, 64, — Weedon, C. Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. London: Blackwell. West, C. A matter of life and death. October, 61, 20— Widdowson, H. The ownership of English. Wink, J. Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world. Zentella, A. Latinos and their language, or why we need a politically applied linguistics. Errata In the Summer issue Vol. We apologize for the omission.

But identity is not so much a map of experience—a set of fixed coordinates—as it is a guide with which ESL students negotiate their place in a new social order and, if need be, challenge it through the meaning-making activities they participate in. In this article, I demon- strate how issues of language, power, and changing identity might be approached in ESL pedagogy.

The central focus for my discussion is a classroom activity that developed awareness of sentence-level intonation as a strategic resource to challenge forms of ascription based on gender and ethnicity. M y ongoing interest and inquiry in the area of ESL pronunciation has at times been an integral component in the contextualization of identity work in my classroom. This article provides an example of my efforts by examining what I judge to have been a particularly successful language lesson.

What stands out most in this activity is how the foregrounding of social power and identity issues seemed to facilitate greater comprehension of sentence-level stress and intonation as strate- gic resources for re defining social relationships. Several direct and indirect factors contributed to the relative success of the activity and will be the focus of the various sections of the article.

Finding ways to relate the sound system of English more closely and meaningfully to social interaction remains a formidable challenge for most classroom teachers. To begin, I offer a brief theoretical account of some key elements of ESL pronunciation that have helped me in this pursuit. Such emphases, I believe, potentially encourage greater inte- gration of pronunciation throughout the ESL syllabus and provide practitioners with a more detailed understanding of how language shapes and reflects social identity.

The next section of the article describes the specific circumstances of my workplace, the students I teach, and the way these conditions influenced my collection of data. I then describe the classroom lesson, the central focus of the article, to show specific examples of how theory informed my practice, and offer a few teaching suggestions. Possibly the most important factor that underlies this lesson is my conceptualization of social identity and its relevance for ESL pedagogy.

In this regard, I believe that identity work in an ESL classroom is not just descriptive or interpretive but fundamentally transformative see Cum- mins, ; Peirce, Wherever and however meanings are ex- pressed, shared, challenged, or distorted, language practices are always implicated in how people define who they are and how they subse- quently act upon the possibilities such meanings convey Simon, This conjunction of language and identity would suggest that, in many ways, each ESL classroom is a unique, complex, and dynamic social environment shaped by what Giddens terms the reflexive project of the self :1 Each classroom, in this sense, becomes a resource for commu- nity development, where students re evaluate the past i.

Rather, societal values, norms, and rules are real only insofar as they are perceived, acted upon, or potentially transformed through the discursive practices that individuals participate in. This capacity for individuals to collectively generate new social rules does not negate the formidable coercive resources governments and dominant groups employ to shape perception. But it does emphasize that consent is never a foregone conclusion. More significantly, reflexive notions implicitly affirm an emancipatory potential in all educational and communicative practices.

The challenge for ESL teachers then is to recognize that classroom relationships and interactions both consciously and unconsciously define what is desirable and possible for newcomers. This influential role is expressed not only in the explicit advice teachers offer but also in the materials and methods they bring to the class—and, as I hope to demonstrate, in the uncom- mon ways teachers promote the emancipatory potential of common subject areas such as pronunciation. As noted by Morley , with the movement towards more communicative, functional-notional, and task-based ap- proaches, this emphasis seemed increasingly dated and out of place.

Recently, the ESL field has seen both renewed interest in pronunciation activities and calls for greater awareness and integration of them throughout the ESL syllabus Morley, ; Murphy, According to Crystal , the linguistic use of pitch or melody— the intonation system—provides the most important suprasegmental effects in language. The use of rising or falling pitch contours tones , or their combination, can serve a number of functions in an utterance.

Intonation can effectively mark out clausal and sentence units as well as provide coherence within and between larger informational units e. Intonation can have other grammatical functions as well. Pitch contours can mark an utterance in the declarative mood e. Also, pitch and stress together can provide focus, contrasting a specific lexical item with one that might occur in the same place with the same function i.

For example, a focus on you—with a specific tone slow rising —in the example above could be used to emphasize both displeasure and surprise within the general function of a question e.


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Such functions of intonation can be taught communicatively and integrated into various situational activities. Gilbert and Beisbeir offer many useful classroom exercises that demonstrate the various grammatical and semantic functions available through intonation and stress. The Dynamics of Intonation One particular function of intonation, in my experience, is not so easily taught in a controlled and analytical approach because the moment of its application is largely unpredictable and highly dependent on shifting meanings and intentions that reflect context and the perception of social relationships.

Several prosodic elements that enable this semantic movement are elaborated upon by Halliday and require a brief note here. The first important element is the vocal production of informational units, or tone groups, which provide the function of tonality p. Tonality thus sets up particular focal points to be more easily defined within an utterance.

The boundaries of tone groups are not arbitrary but reflect the informational intent of the speaker. In 1b the speaker has probably used separate breaths and equal stress on each word to emphasize displeasure or irritation. The second element of importance involves the establishment of specific focal points of prominence within tone groups. This function, which Halliday , p. Of related interest, Crystal distinguishes seven different tones and their functions for saying the word No!

Through elements such as tonality and tonicity, speakers respond to and define an interaction as it is being shaped and negoti- ated. One possible means of presentation would be to analyze various dialogues, which students could transcribe and practice. This activity would be beneficial, but it would diminish the use of intonation as a rhetorical device to reset priorities in response to largely emergent and unpredictable develop- ments in a dialogue.

Another useful approach would be to recognize unpredictability as only a partial element of what was taking place in the dialogue. This configuration of tenor, field, and mode would constitute what Halliday calls register. Intonation is essential for highlighting the meaning potential of a spoken text; the meaning of a text cannot be separated from the specific context of its creation or expression. In the classroom, much more attention and elaboration could be given to social roles when students participate in role-play exercises.

Why are they having this conversation? What do they want to do with language in this situation? And finally, whenever individuals talk of dynam- ics or change in social relationships, they are invariably talking about power relations and the multiple ways in which tradition, moral regula- tion, and authority are invoked, modified, or resisted through language practices. So, ultimately, ESL teachers would need to conceive of their students as having social needs and aspirations that may be inseparable from linguistic needs if language instruction is to be most effective.

Any time function is identified through form and form through function, there is the potential to overlook or simplify complex social and ideological processes that shape the experi- ence of identity but are not directly encoded or materially evident in texts. The discussion of intonation in this article may be one example. The use of a particular intonation pattern to surreptitiously achieve particular social goals would probably have timely and limited use. As noted by Halliday, new meanings arise from the friction between text and context and within the larger context of culture.

This relationship is inherently dialectical: Patterns of regularity influence variations that, in turn, can cumulatively transform prior norms in linguistic communities. Some elaboration of dynamic social context is now required in order to highlight the convergence of the various components that make up the lessons described below: pronunciation as a resource for empower- ment, social identity in transition, and the specific conditions of my work that both enabled and constrained the treatment of thematic material and the collection of data.

ESL instruction is only one of a number of settlement services that attract students to the agency. Our program has continuous intake, mixed-streaming, and no compulsory testing. Some students have been in my class for several years, others for only a few months. Close personal relationships between students and teachers are common at the community center and sometimes take priority in organizing classes. Funding for my class comes almost entirely from local and regional governments—an increasingly precarious source—and is incumbent upon maintaining mandatory attendance figures.

Given the absence of tuition fees and grading and the presence of competing agencies nearby, teachers in my program have over the years developed a heightened sensitivity to both the expectations of students and the possible negative ramifications of their teaching practices. Research Methodology: Freedom From Observation and Documentation It is against the backdrop of this program that I carefully considered the selection of an appropriate research methodology for data collec- tion. This article refers to few if any sources of empirical data e. Data collection took place over 2 days and consisted almost exclusively of writing participant observation notes from memory immediately after lessons and from short phrases jotted down in class.

Included as well are two examples of student compositions given to me with permission to use them subsequent to my request. My reluctance to follow more formal modes of discovery see, e. From my work experience at the community center and from close personal relationships with many students, I have found that many established research methodologies have the potential to be overly intrusive and counterproductive, most of all in terms of encouraging a classroom environment where openness, experimentation, and chal- lenges to the status quo were central to discovering the meaning potential of intonation.

Many teacher educators take the position that research should and can be a benign and politically neutral activity. Moreover, they would suggest that failure to achieve the desired level of personal detachment and objectivity was one of application rather than premise see Day, Let me elaborate. Some have told me of their uncertainty regarding the perma- nence of their legal status, especially if they transgress public ordinances and relatively insignificant laws e. Others have mentioned their fears of retribution against family and friends back home as a result of a politically sensitive comment.

And others, showing a critical awareness born of experience, have been suspicious of the fundamental assumptions that motivate enquiry. Such experiences and concerns are carefully guarded and rarely discarded at the door of the classroom. Certainly, I would not claim that these experiences are necessarily generalizable to or representative of a specific percentage of the ESL student body.

But I would argue that teachers who choose not to interview, tape-record, or externalize the emic voices of their students should not be excluded from contributing to the knowledge base of the TESOL profession. I would also argue that this option becomes even more imperative when researchers consider the implications of identity work that explores language resources—such as intonation—to chal- lenge power relations in the family, community, and society. In such cases, they might instead encourage teachers to recognize the ethical and ideological conditions in which freedom from observation and documentation becomes a necessary prerequisite for transformative practice.

In the event that teachers choose, instead, modes of inquiry that are experimental, speculative, and fundamentally interpretive see Canagarajah, , it may be for reasons that contribute positively to the general understanding of identity and language learning. Social Identity in Transition The students who participated in the lesson described here all claim Chinese ethnicity. Of the 15 students who participated in this class, 11 were women, and 12 were over the age of On a superficial level, a considerable degree of homogene- ity might be assumed.

Since , Hong Kong has been the largest source of immigration to Canada Thompson, That number represents one sixth of total immigration to the country. Recent policy changes by the federal government have made immigration more possible for investors in particular. Other immigrants come under the family reunification program and must be sponsored by immediate family. In the investment and independent point system categories the Canadian government generally selects as immigrants those from the more affluent and elite sectors of Hong Kong society. Systemic forms of discrimination in assessment of professional training, work experience, and education persist in Ontario see Burnaby, ; Podoliak, Those fortunate enough to find work are disappointed at the lower salaries and higher taxes compared with those in Hong Kong.

Investors find the return on their investments and government and labour regulations a hindrance. The result has been large numbers of single-parent families and increases in divorce and family breakdowns. In families that have stayed together in Toronto, many women have entered the work force to help generate income for their families, sometimes becoming the sole means of support. These responses to Canadian life have introduced new challenges to family relationships as they have been traditionally defined.

In the context of identity formation, it is important to point out that national immigration policies do not select from a wide range of socioeconomic groups but tend to be narrowly focused. The manner in which gendered and classed values in one society articulate to dominant values in another will have a significant influence on how immigrant identities are negotiated and whether specific families remain intact. To reiterate my earlier comments, this influence does not imply the inculcation of immutable social laws but rather the internalization of values that contextualize how social agents reflexively experience and act upon new social possibilities as they are perceived through discursive practices in the classroom and the community.

I specifically selected it because it approximated the types of experiences intimated by my students during informal class discussions and touched on several of the settlement and familial pressures mentioned above. As well, it suited the high-intermediate level of the class. Each chapter in the book begins with a description of a problem followed by a number of controlled and relatively open activities that elicit practice in oral and written English. Yuen-Li is the wife of Chian-Li. They have been in the United States for two years.

Chian-Li is very traditionally minded, believing that a wife should stay at home, make herself beautiful for him, and look after their two teenaged children, Steve and Sue. Chian-Li has attended English classes because sometimes he needs English in his job. He is an importer. Yuen-Li feels very isolated.


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  5. What was particularly advantageous for identity work was the relative anonymity the exercise allowed for. While overtly providing advice for Yuen-Li, students could potentially introduce their own difficulties and beliefs with less fear of personal attribution and criticism from peers. The following solutions for Yuen-Li came from the text and were compared and evaluated by the class: Solution No.

    Try to explain to her husband that she, too, would like to take English classes. Solution No. Ask her children to try to convince Chian-Li that she should go to English classes. Explain to Chian-Li that her lack of English will have a bad effect on the family. Go to English classes during the day, and hope that Chian- Li will be pleased when he discovers that she has learned the language.

    Find a hobby to pursue at home to keep herself occupied. Get together with some friends who are in the same situation and employ a tutor to teach English to them in their homes. Talk to some of the leaders of her ethnic community group and persuade them to start classes in English for housewives. Most of the class preferred Solution 3 for Yuen-Li as opposed to Solution 1. All the students felt that to invoke family over individual needs would be the most powerful form of persuasion available.

    Three students liked Solution 2 because they felt that Chian-Li was more likely to be persuaded by his children than by his wife. In regards to Solution 4, two of the men in the class stated that they would be angry if the option of secret lessons were used in their households. In contrast, about half of the women felt that this was the best option because it ensured that Yuen-Li would learn English and would increase her opportunities in Canada.

    One of the men, then unemployed and seeking work, replied that in Canada women have more power than men. When I asked him to explain, he elaborated on his comment, noted for its quality of resentment. Sentiments appeared to be mixed both in support of and against his evaluation. A couple of students stated that it was equally difficult for immigrant women to find work, especially for good wages. Another added that domestic duties, which husbands rarely shared in, often prevented immigrant women from seeking employment. Our class unanimously rejected Solution 5 and showed moderate interest in Solutions 6 and 7.

    When I asked for possible solutions other than the ones stated in the exercise, none were immediately volunteered. Because it was near the end of the class, I did not try to pursue the possibility any further, though in retrospect other suggested solutions would have contributed positively to our discussion. As well, more critical discussion of the existing solutions would have been helpful. How is their authority established and exercised? Do they respond to the needs of all community members equally?

    A Spontaneous Intonation Lesson The next day I brought in a scripted dialogue that incorporated some of the ideas that had been discussed the day before. I chose to elaborate on Solution 4 because it had generated the most discussion and opposing viewpoints the day before. From this discussion, I also sensed that this option personified the contradictions of changing identity I outlined earlier in a way that the other solutions did not. In Solution 4, Yuen-Li demonstrates individual courage and resistance i.

    I gave the dialogue to just one student, and we read it together. I then asked the class to determine which solution was being discussed. After a short discussion and repetition of the dialogue, I gave each student a copy. Yuen: Sue, would you mind helping me cook dinner? How did you learn those words?

    I really enjoy it, and the teacher is very good. Chian: You should have told me first. You know that the customs here are different and you might cause some trouble for us. My initial objective for this scripted dialogue was to provide some guidance for lower level students in my class who occasionally have trouble producing their own work.

    My intention was to place students with partners who had expressed sentiments similar to theirs the day before and have them collaborate on a dialogue for presentation to the class. As mentioned earlier, I am interested in integrating pronunciation in as many activities as possible. Prior to placing students in pairs, I went over a few features of linking and palatalization in the scripted dialogue e. I had a few students read the dialogue to the whole class and followed up with corrections and comments.

    These intonation patterns became the unplanned focus of our lesson. To highlight the intonation resources available to the surprised husband, Chian, I asked the two male students who disliked the option of secret lessons to reiterate their sentiments.

    ENGLISH CONVERSATION - Conversation tips to sound like a native speaker! - Rachel's English

    Their responses provided the social context necessary to elaborate on the semantic and functional potential of intonation. Then I asked several other students to recall their reasons for choosing Solution 4 for Yuen. One single word became our focus: Oh. Together we plotted strategies and possible intonation patterns to realize them. This response might indicate fear of Chian or a more covert form of resistance. All the other wives are studying, too. This pattern of the lesson continued.

    We looked at each sentence, negotiating intonation patterns and particular words and phrases that would be most effective for Yuen. In this last example, some students opted for greater tonic prominence on the stressed syllable of many whereas some chose Chinese within the larger intonation focus of the four words.

    The first one claims the force of numbers whereas the second claims the force of ethnicity. I had each student practice reading the scripted dialogues with a partner as I went around the room listening and offering suggestions regarding the use of intonation. For some students, the recognition of what to stress was not so easily transferable to larger elements of speech. In part, this may be a particular interlanguage problem common to speakers whose L1 uses tones phonemically to determine meanings at the level of a word e.

    Most of the class had little trouble altering their intonation to distinguish focal points but did not achieve what would be termed native English performance. I was not disappointed by this because I expected the recognition of potential more than demonstration of mastery at that time. Most important, the students seemed to understand that intona- tion can play an important role in a strategic interaction between people and that its function in that interaction could be modified to reflect the social context in which it was transpiring.

    Each pair of students then produced their own dialogue. I went around the room making suggestions and corrections. At the lunch break, many ESL students joined Manhattan College students outside at the prayer vigil. During the lunch hour that day, the computer lab was also a busy place, with students alternately e-mailing friends and family, and checking Web sites for information about what had occurred.

    By Wednesday afternoon, floods of e-mail messages had arrived from former students and our associates all over the world, expressing their grief and solidarity. The fire-orange, red and yellow leaves in the woodlands surrounding Rye may have offered a reassuring signal that the cycle of nature continues unabated, even in the face of horrible experiences such as New York and America had recently seen.

    There is a certain predictability to the change of seasons, and participants in the weekend at the Rye Town Hilton likely returned home with steadier nerves and a clearer shared vision of the future of our chosen vocation. During the year following the Al-Qaeda attacks in America, intensive English programs at colleges and universities across the country struggled to protect teaching jobs while applications from international students dropped precipitously.

    By early , prestigious ESL programs at the University of Berkeley and the University of Minnesota were shut down, and career ESL instructors were being retrained for new occupations. Programs which survived were moving quickly to a new model, less dependent on elite, educated students from abroad; ESL publishers shifted resources to the development of new materials better suited to meet the needs of first- and second-generation immigrants whose less-schooled dialects differ significantly from the standard English required for academic success at the university level Reid, J.

    Repercussions from were felt not only at university programs. During the past two and a half years, ESL MiniConference has documented methodology debates; concerns about poor working conditions for part-time teachers; political arguments for and against bilingual education; the controversy over the restructuring of the ERIC Clearinghouses; and, primarily, new information generated at local workshops and regional conferences in the U.

    One lasting impression for me from the emotionally charged days and weeks following September 11th was the importance of remembering the people who influence our lives, and helping to make their ideas, experiences, insights and suggestions more widely accessible to others who may benefit from them. She was great! As I mentioned before to you, the theme of our conference was Languages of the Heart. I could tell from your interview that Betty Azar was influenced by the language of her heart, so I thought she would be perfect as the featured plenary of our conference….

    Thank you for doing that interview, or I might never have had the tenacity to make all the contacts I needed to make to get Betty for our featured speaker. Gillespie, C.

    ESL teacher learns how dangerous cultural differences can be

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