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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Thereafter, the solid product obtained in the pre-treatment phase passes through enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis, then fermentation and finally distillation. Sun and Cheng [ 17 ] emphasized that enzymatic hydrolysis is less expensive than acid hydrolysis and produces a higher yield. Enzymatic hydrolysis allows the union of the fermentation stage with the saccharification stage SSF , thus lowering costs [ 18 ]. This study is focused on the production of 2G ethanol through hydrolysis and fermentation of LM using the same reactor. The ethanol produced is qualified as anhydrous or hydrous and then commercialized in their respective markets.

Owing to the energy demands for various production activities, the thermal and mechanical energy produced by the cogeneration system in the sugarcane plant can be used to operate various systems in the plant such as control, lighting, and pumping systems. Although the present work is based on the Brazilian sugarcane sector, the same approach is applicable to other agricultural crops around the world. In the next subsections will be presented the characteristics of the Brazilian sugar-alcohol industry and the description of an electric power cogeneration plant, showing the current technological and financial parameters for the production of 2G ethanol and bioelectricity.

In Brazil, there are various types of energy demand for the different stages of the production process in a sugarcane plant. At present, the average thermal energy consumption is 2. The average electric energy for own consumption is 12 kWh per ton of processed cane. According to Dias et al. The remaining materials are collected for use in sugarcane plants, which are either burned in the boilers or lumped together with sugarcane bagasse as LM to produce additional volumes of ethanol. The bagasse sugarcane residues produced from the milling process is added to the straw collected from the field post-harvest to be used as LM in the sugarcane plant.

The calorific values for sugarcane straw and bagasse used for electricity production are The bioelectricity produced using the LM is 0. Then, the bioelectricity productivity is 0. The productivity of 2G ethanol is L per ton of LM [ 6 ]. We assumed that the sugarcane plant operates using a condensing turbine with controlled steam extraction, and the condensing turbine works only during the harvest period.

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The extraction-condensing turbine is designed for bioelectricity generation. The bioelectricity produced is a function of the enthalpy drop and efficiency, which it is calculated based on the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics [ 21 ]. Assuming that the turbine only operates during the harvest period, the potential power of the turbine is MW [ 14 ].

The surplus of electricity for exportation is determined from the difference between the total energy produced and total energy consumption of the sugarcane plant. The technical data used in the optimization model are shown in Table 1. In an investment appraisal, the feasibility of a project is related to its capacity to generate profitable cash flow throughout its lifetime for a given investment and interest and discount rates for taxes associated with the project risk. The equivalent annual annuity EAA and equivalent annual cost EAC are the methods are used to evaluate the feasibility of the project with respect to the NPV, as the projects can be analyzed by the discounted payback, beneficiary cost index, and IRR.

In the EAC method, the cost of an investment project is based on the project lifetime and discount taxes, provided that the project outcomes are related to the discount taxes. To determine the EAC, the fixed costs and variable costs are deflated by the extended national consumer price index known as the IPCA in Brazil , which were updated as of November Thus, the costs and historical data of the product prices are within the same temporal base. The costs and product prices for were used in this study, as shown in Table 2. Source: Own elaboration based on Dantas et al.

In addition to the aforementioned costs, electricity tariffs were included in this work. Based on the definition of discount tax used in ventures of the sugarcane industry, the interest rate imposed by the Brazilian Development Bank BNDES is chosen as reference. As the Equivalent Annual Costs EAC enable the appraiser to determine the annual cost of owning, maintaining, and operating an asset annually throughout the project lifetime, the EAC is typically used as a decision-making indicator for investment projects, especially when there are uncertainties in the revenue to be generated from the investment.

This is because the EAC provides an equalized assessment throughout the project lifetime, which serves as the basis to compare the financial capacity between multiple investment alternatives. In Brazil, the market prices of electricity sold in the regulated market are obtained from the electric energy auctions operated by the Chamber for the Commercialization of Electric Energy CCEE [ 24 ]; on the other hand, the electricity sold in the free market is obtained from spot prices [ 25 ].

It shall be noted that only the market prices from July to November are considered in this work. Figure 2 shows the market prices for electricity and anhydrous ethanol from July to November Historical data of the market prices for anhydrous ethanol and electricity in Brazil. Source: Own elaboration based on the data obtained from [ 24 ] and [ 26 ]. The market prices for anhydrous ethanol are primarily influenced by the volume of sugarcane produced during the harvest period, allocation of sugarcane during the production process in the sugarcane plants, sales of flexible-fuel vehicles, and dynamics of the market buying and selling.

In Brazil, currently, there are two environments for electricity contracts: 1 free contracting environment abbreviated as ACL in Portuguese and 2 regulated contracting environment abbreviated as ACR in Portuguese. In the free contracting environment, the market price for electricity is negotiated directly between the interested parties, where each party assumes all of the risks associated with the contract. In the regulated contracting environment, commercialization of electricity is organized by the CCEE through auctions.

To determine the monthly returns of each of the assets of the portfolio being analyzed, the equations for the definition of the Expected Return for ethanol and for the electric energy are used. Based on the base scenario defined previously, it is possible to expand the technological capabilities of 2G ethanol production due to the reduction in the production cost. The expected returns for 2G ethanol production for scenarios 2, 3 and 4 can be determined using Equations 3 — 5 , respectively.

In order to determine the optimal portfolio of 2G ethanol and bioelectricity from the lignocellulosic biomass of sugarcane, it is important to consider the volatility of the returns of the assets of this portfolio, which bear a financial risk. Then, the investor in the sugarcane sector can make their decision according to their risk propensity.

Although there are currently several models available to optimize investments at different levels of sophistication, we present an adaptation of the mean-variance optimization model proposed by Markowitz [ 15 ], which is considered a benchmark for the financial market, to solve the problem of the sugar-energy sector proposed in this study.

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The justification for choosing this tool is due to the high relevance of the uncertainties of product prices in the decision-making process for the allocation of LM in the portfolio of these products. It is worth emphasizing that risk and return grow proportionately: the higher the expected return of the portfolio, the greater the risk of losses. Therefore, we considered that the investor of the sugar-energy sector is a rational agent who follows the following premises:.

Between two assets with the same risk, the investor will always choose the one with the highest return;. Whenever the investor has to choose between two assets with a same return, the investor will choose the one with the lowest risk;. The total assets are divisible, and the investor may allocate percentages for each product;.


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Using a bi-objective model to minimize portfolio risk variance and maximize expected return, we obtain the following model:. The value of the sugarcane plant is typically assessed based on the financial capacity of the production process. The financial capacity of the sugarcane plant can be assessed based on the NPV, which is obtained by the sum of cash flows C F in each period t that is discounted at a rate adjusted to the level of risk capital k and subtracted from the investment value I over the lifetime of the investment.

When the Net Present Value NPV is positive, then the financial capacity is advantageous to carry out the investment [ 28 ]. This is one of the criteria that, together with the return and the risk of the efficient frontier, serve as the basis for the decision making for investments. The NPV [ 28 ] can be determined from Equation 8 :. The optimum allocations of LM for electricity generation and 2G ethanol production in a representative sugarcane plant are determined using the Equations 6 and 7 presented in Section 2.

For scenario 1 base scenario , the minimum variance for the product portfolio is 0. The expected return of the product portfolio increases with the increased risk variance of asset returns, as shown in Table 6 and Figure 3. In this base scenario, the percentages of LM that should be allocated for generation of electricity to be traded in the regulated and free markets are Figure 3 shows that as the return increases, the percentage of LM allocation to the regulated market increases, albeit slightly, with the increased risk. Therefore, in this scenario, the best decision is to allocate LM to the production of electricity for the regulated market.

Millennials: The Me Me Me Generation

In this case, a higher percentage should be allocated for electricity generation to be traded in the regulated and free markets Figure 4 and Table 7 demonstrate that the percentage of LM allocated to the production of 2G ethanol decreases until it becomes insignificant. Therefore, in this scenario, only an investor very adverse to risk would invest in the production of 2G ethanol. Figure 5 and Table 8 show that the percentage of LM allocated to the production of 2G ethanol slowly decreases with increased risk.

Therefore, in this scenario, a risk neutral investor would make moderate investments in the production of 2G ethanol. In this case, the percentages that must be allocated for generation of electricity to be traded in the regulated and free markets are As can be seen in Figure 6 and in Table 9 , the percentage of LM allocated for the production of 2G ethanol increases considerably for increases in risk. Lopez, and Bienvenido N. Santos, who were established names by then, and were in fact not only predecessors, but enunciators of what writing should be.

Villa had his annual list of good and bad short stories. Rotor criticized the writers for being removed from the world of the readers in Writers without Readers. The response of Franz Arcellana was symptomatic; his rebuttal was entitled Readers without Writers. So while there was respect for the older writers, the younger ones were not completely awed by them.

The writers in English formed a coterie. They knew of each other, if they were not in direct contact. Most of them belonged to the prestigious UP Writers Club, meaning that most of them came from the University of the Philippines. This was the result of the educational system, which was pyramidal in structure, with the tertiary-educated elite at the apex. This was true of both private and public schools. The educational system enabled a qualified student from a barrio in Dumangas, Iloilo, Ricaredo Demetillo, to study in the U. Although the University of the Philippines was still the principal source of and meeting place for writers, a spread had begun to take place, with Demetillo and the Tiempos coming from Silliman although the Tiempos began at the U.

Reyes from the University of Sto. Tomas, and Serafin Lanot from the National University. Journalism was the other venue for the pursuit of a career based on a deep fascination for the English language. Gonzales is the Horatio Alger of Philippine literature in English. Nick Joaquin was a contributor to weekly magazines before he became famous as novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, and Quijano de Manila. After publishing their first poems and stories in the Tribune, Graphic, Philippine Magazine , and other publications, some of these writers ventured further not only into creative writing, journalism, and education, but eventually into the newer venues for writers, like cinema, advertising, music criticism, theatre arts, news services, and public relations.

The milieu was congenial to writing in English. The weeklies encouraged young writers. The continuity of the worlds of Manuel Arguilla and Francisco Arcellana, and of Carlos Angeles and Jose Garcia Villa, gave substance and sustenance to the contiguous coterie.

These writers were in touch with each other in school or at work. They were distinct, separate, respected, admired; they were a breed apart. They were the writers in English. The American influence shaped them. The accent of the college English curriculum was still on British literature, yet the reading fare of the writers was mostly contemporary American literature, because of the stocks in libraries and bookstores.

These writers were shaped by American books, magazines, and movies, and not by the lectures and assigned readings in their English classes. Most of them were writing while in high school, meaning that they showed facility with English early in their careers. At the U. Teaching was of course the other venue that especially welcomed those proficient in English, and therefore many writers became teachers at some point — if not till retirement. The fact that daily life was carried on in the vernacular and the academic in English meant that the writer would use the contents of his quotidian life as the material for his poems and short stories, and English as the medium and therefore the vessel for his artistic products.

American English furnished the expression and the framework which caged the experience. The Filipino experience as content delimited and constrained American lingo, which was attuned to the American experience. This is how Filipino English came to be.

Not content with the accepted style of the short story, they meddled with the genre. Rotor would have that confidence only in The new generation was brashly daring at an early age. The brashness of the Veronicans signified discontent with the old forms, as well as a confidence born out of winning national writing contests on the high school level, and the ease with which their contributions were accepted for national publication.

Many were from Tondo, the militant bourgeois matrix of Manila. They were sensitive to the temper of their times — R. Zulueta da Costa adapted Walt Whitman to nationalism, and forged a national paean in English. These efforts at striking out in an unknown, uncharted direction, were stymied after the war with the writers attending the Iowa Creative Writing Workshop, and with the Rockefeller and other American grants.

The trend for experimentation of the mid-thirties could have led to new genres and literary expressions had the break from the U. This happened in the case of Latin America. Unfortunately we were not able to break the mold and become an influence on American literature. Of the first generation, it was only Bienvenido Santos who received some kind of formal training in the craft of writing — in the United States.

On a Rockefeller Grant, when he was already president of Legazpi College. All the others had only had their undergraduate classes in English as training ground. In this second generation, the first Filipino writers who participated in the Iowa Creative Writing Workshops — the Tiempos, Ricaredo Demetillo, Dominador Ilio — not only brought back American standards and norms, but went on to train younger writers in the Silliman Writers and the U.

Creative Writing Center workshops. They also brought back the tenets of New Criticism. Later still, Franz Arcellana and N. Gonzalez were sent to the U. Where therefore their predecessors had American teachers in their high school and college classes, this generation had direct exposure to American writers and critics, and with this brought a particular and permanent shaping influence both to Philippine writing in English and to literary criticism.

These writers shared as well the experience of the war. The Japanese occupation found most of them young professionals with families, and participation in the struggle, survival through the three years, and liberation by the American forces eventually figured strongly in their attitudes and in many of their writings. We interviewed these writers when they were in their early seventies, mostly retired but still active. Franz Arcellana, N. Gonzalez, Ricaredo Demetillo, Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero, Dominador Ilio, and Edilberto K. Tiempo had retired from their universities, but were still either teaching on emeritus status or, in the case of Guerrero, living on campus and writing plays still being presented by U.

Aguilar Cruz had retired from journalism and from the UNESCO, but was painting and writing; Carlos Angeles had retired from a career in public relations, but he too was writing. Narciso G. Reyes was in the process of retiring from a diplomatic career, but was acting as government consultant, writing for the newspapers, and trying to find time for a novel.

Sinai Hamada had not retired from his own newspaper or from the practice of law, but was also planning a novel. Serafin Lanot was a working astrologer with books in mind to be written. Trinidad Tarrosa Subido proclaimed herself retired and lazy, yet the next year published her translation of Florante at Laura. Armando Malay had retired from university deanship and journalism, but was writing a daily newspaper column and actively participating in the fight for justice for political detainees.

Renato Tayag was a director of the Philippine National Bank, and had just published a book of essays. Aside from the eighteen writers included in this book, three others were interviewed. Angel de Jesus, who was writing a newspaper column, gave us an interview that was mostly off the record, being about his reactions to the Marcos years, which were prominently on his mind at the time. Agcaoili and Ligaya Victorio Fruto did not return the transcripts sent to them, and we honor their unspoken but clear wish not to have them published.

The interviews, like those in the first volume, were taped, transcribed, submitted to the narrator for checking, editing, and approval, and then edited by the interviewers for publication. Since the subjects of the interviews were writers, the approved texts were not always completely oral in quality, because many of them rewrote extensively. The journalists — E. Reyes — generally edited very lightly.

The writers — especially Edilberto K. Tiempo and N. Gonzalez — were inclined to reorder, to expand; to polish, and thus to produce texts that weave the oral and the written. Its content and rhythm are as he spoke them, and therefore it is his interview, and that of raconteur Abe Cruz, that are most purely oral history.

Since Renato Tayag had passed away by the time his transcripts were ready, the text was kindly checked and approved by Abe Cruz, who had participated in the interview.

For the interview of Manuel Viray, we had to change our stance as interviewers. Where we had always tried to subsume our own ideas to those of the narrator, providing him only with a sympathetic listening presence backed by research on his work, with Viray we had to discuss at some length, counter with our own ideas and lock horns with his, because he asked questions and demanded answers. Although willing to answer our questions, he would always return to his, admitting that he need people to talk to as he had long ago at the legendary Wah Hing restaurant with the Veronicans, and has not had since then.

Nick Joaquin, certainly one of the giants of this generation and of Philippine literature, offered, instead of an interview, a foreword. In this he wrote about himself and his milieu in a way we would probably never thought to ask, and for which we were grateful. Where we had asked about milieu as shaping the writer, he wrote about milieu as entering the writing as well as the writer.

The interviews checked and approved by the writers were edited by us to focus on the writer milieu. We realize that material which we edited out of the book could be valuable for biographers, social historians, and other researchers, and should therefore be available to them. Moreover, the handwritten notations on the transcripts, and the retyping personally done by N.

With this second volume, we realized that the traditional process of oral history from tape to type, does not end there in the case of our work with literary history. Memory sometimes faulty, more open quite alive, was searched, checked, explore, later corrected and ordered. In the process the narrator, primed by both the interest and the understanding, came to see the past world anew. The curiosity of present teachers, students, and researchers provided new light in which to see the past structure of literacy standards, reactions, and interactions.

Discourse occurred, discourse was created, and because the interviewee was literary artist, a literary text was born. The process, therefore, is from tape, to tape, to text —and one that cannot be called merely oral history. At the very surface, this new text certainly provides data on the literary milieu, and is indeed oral history.

Secondly, however, it is a literary statement, and therefore material for literary criticism. Thirdly, it is a voice-or character-print of a person who is also a literary artist, and thus a primary biographical resource. Fourthly, it is a document of the quality of the English language as employed by a Filipino writer, and thus a linguistic record. The final text has value not only as a historical source, but as an accomplished text mediated by an oral impulse.

As Franz Arcellana said in a note accompanying his edited transcript, What a wondrous thing this is after all. We are grateful for the research grant from the Faura Research Center, Inc. Joaquin G. Bernas, S. Library; the work of Carolina N. Santos, Dr. Arturo B. Rotor, and other friends too numerous to name. This book, we gratefully acknowledge, is the work of many, but its shortcomings we claim as ours alone.

When I started writing in the late s I was aware enough of my milieu to know that it was missing from our writing in English. The Manila I had been born into and had grown up in had yet to appear in our English fiction, although that fiction was mostly being written in Manila. It seemed as if the city itself, the Manila I knew, had become invisible to our writers in English. Something in their upbringing, in their schooling, had made them unable to see what had been so apparent to their grandfathers. These young writers could only see what the American languages saw.

Lydia Arguilla once remarked that she lived in Intramuros for ten years, during the s, and not once noticed the feast called La Naval de Manila. That celebration was, year after year, the biggest in Intramuros, but for the young Lydia it had become invisible because she had been trained to ignore such things as backward and irrelevant. But back in the s it was modern and even nationalistic to snub anything that wore the name of tradition.

The result was a fiction so strictly contemporary that both the authors and their characters seemed to be, as I put it once, without grandfathers. It was fiction without perspective because for the authors Philippine history had really begun only with Commodore Dewey. Such observations are not necessarily disparaging.

After all, as our writing in English has proved, a literature of quality can be produce without historical perspective and even without grandfathers. However, I realize now that what impelled me to start writing was a desire to bring in the perspective, to bring in the grandfathers, to manifest roots. But there might not have been an urge to write had there not been so many outlets available. I was encouraged to write by the number of periodicals open to writers, whereas the beginning writer today has practically nowhere to go to publish his fiction and verse.

All through my growing up, Manila seems to have been a paradise of magazines, with a plethora of weeklies and of monthlies, not to mention the Sunday of midweek supplements of the dailies; and each and every one of this magazines carried at least one piece of fiction per issue. That was the reading I was gobbling up while growing up: the short stories of those I suppose fly by night sheets as well as in the more prestigious pages of the Free Press , the Graphic , the Sunday Tribune Magazine and but this one came much later the Promenade.

What shaped me as writer were those early works of Philippine fiction — mostly juvenile efforts or potboilers — that I devoured in every local magazine that came to my hands. I suppose that like kids in general I grew up on pulp fiction, with the difference that the pulp fiction that enthralled me was not Nick Carter or Bertha Clay but the effusions of novice writers whose names have not survive.

But quite a number of their stories live on in my mind.


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  • One story that thrilled me was about this guy who, at every important turn of his life, tosses a talisman coin to see if his decision is to be heads or tails, but eventually finds that his talisman coin is a freak: tails on both sides. On another plane altogether were the first Villa works I came upon: the prize story Mir-i-nisa and the O. Sevilla utterances in the Graphic. I had a copy of his anthology, The Best Philippine Short Stories of , and the pages were dog-eared form my intense perusal.

    Calalang stories.

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    Still worrying my memory is the question of was it Calalang who wrote the story about a race between two guitars to determine which could be the heard farthest? Anyway, the Jose Garcia Villa anthology- his own writings- were among my earliest influences. So far I have been referring to the time before puberty, the wide eyed childhood years. With the teens I stepped onto international ground. I had already sampled Dickens in digest, in the set called Book of Knowledge , which carried brief retellings of his novels; but now, at the National Library, I got hold of the complete books themselves, with the quaint Phiz illustrations.

    Not till much later would I learn to enjoy Pickwick and Pip. But the Dickens Book that became my top favorite was David Copperfield. It still is. However, I find that, as I grow older, Dickens seems to become more and more unreadable. I still read him — but now I skip entire pages when before I lovingly dwelt on every line. However, according to the engagement studies, mature workers and the new generations of workers share similar thoughts on a number of topics across the generation gap.

    Generation gap

    Additionally, the majority of Millennials and mature workers enjoy going to work every day, and feel inspired to do their best. Generational consciousness is another way of distinguishing among generations that was worked on by social scientist Karl Mannheim. Generational consciousness is when a group of people become mindful of their place in a distinct group identifiable by their shared interests and values. Social, economic, or political changes can bring awareness to these shared interests and values for similarly-aged people who experience these events together, and thereby form a generational consciousness.

    These types of experiences can impact individuals' development at a young age and enable them to begin making their own interpretations of the world based on personal encounters that set them apart from other generations. A nursing home in Deventer, The Netherlands, developed a program wherein students from a local university are provided small, rent-free apartments within the nursing home facility. In exchange, the students volunteer a minimum of 30 hours per month to spend time with the seniors.

    The students will watch sports with the seniors, celebrate birthdays, and simply keep them company during illnesses and times of distress. That program quickly spread to 27 other cities throughout Spain, and similar programs can be found in Lyon, France, and Cleveland, Ohio.

    In order for sociologists to understand the transition into adulthood of children in different generation gaps, they compare the current generation to both older and earlier generations at the same time. Not only does each generation experience their own ways of mental and physical maturation, but they also create new aspects of attending school, forming new households, starting families and even creating new demographics. The difference in demographics regarding values, attitudes and behaviors between the two generations are used to create a profile for the emerging generation of young adults.

    Following the thriving economic success that was a product of the Second World War, America's population skyrocketed between the years , to which the new American generation was called the Baby Boomers. Today, as of , many of these Baby Boomers have celebrated their 60th birthdays and in the next few years America's senior citizen population will boost exponentially due to the population of people who were born during the years and The generation gap, however, between the Baby Boomers and earlier generations is growing due to the Boomers population post-war. Where this drastic racial demographic difference occurs also holds to a continually growing cultural gap as well; baby boomers have had generally higher education, with a higher percentage of women in the labor force and more often occupying professional and managerial positions.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 March Mittal Publications. Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 23 May The New York Times. ProQuest ebrary. White Paper. The Bilingual Research Journal. USA Today. Retrieved 8 May The Economist. Retrieved 1 December Journal of Business and Psychology. Randstad USA. Youth Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.

    PBS NewsHour. San Francisco: American Society on Aging,