A third of German Jewry lived in the capital of the hird Reich. Like elsewhere in German cities, violence there also dominated the picture in the early weeks ater the Nazi ascension to state power. Concurrent with a massive anti-Jewish propaganda campaign in the press and on the street, the SA also engaged in raids in the Scheunenviertel Barn Quarter in Berlin-Mitte, where most of the Jewish residents were orthodox Jews, many from Eastern Europe. Juni Statistisches Reichsamt, Berlin , pp. Heinrich Sahm, incumbent since Lippert did not seek to conceal his views; he immediately embarked on measures against Jewish physicians and law- yers in municipal positions.
Quickly Lippert mustered support for these anti-Jewish measures within and beyond the municipal administration. Jahrhundert, Berlin , pp. Lippert later wished to institute a disciplinary proceeding against Morawski aimed at getting him dismissed from the municipal adminis- tration; ibid. The anti-Jewish boycott operation and its consequences April to the end of he string of persecutions in the irst two months, both by the SA and the municipali- ties, provoked a mounting wave of international criticism. Hitler capitalized on that as a pretext for a nationwide anti-Jewish initiative. It tried to expel judges and lawyers working there.
While active anti-Semitism was rare among the greater mass of citizens, many would feel nonetheless a sense of repugnance. Everything has to be thought through carefully. Heinrich — later Henry — Marx — , journalist, emigrated in to the U. Parallel with these administrative initiatives, violence con- tinued to rage on the streets of the capital.
In the following months, the municipal adminis- trations became even more committed to discriminating against Jews by means and measures they initiated. Berlin introduced certain business and professional restric- tions, and as a consequence thousands lost their jobs and source of income. Along with civil servants, now teachers, physicians, lawyers and judges were dismissed from municipal institutions in a far more consistent and brutal manner than the initial laws had stipulated.
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Berlin cancelled subsidies for Jewish institutions and halted rentals to Jewish organizations. April , in: Das Scheunenviertel. Spuren eines verlorenen Lebens, ed. Verein Stitung Scheunenviertel e. April , Berlin , p. On 10 May, across from the University of Berlin, the central event of the widespread organized book burnings took place, at which Reich propaganda minister and NSDAP Gauleiter Goebbels delivered the main address. But that did not put an end to the discrimination of Jewish residents in Berlin.
Doctors were arrested and the permits for market stands were cancelled by the municipality or the municipal district authorities. While persons engaged in trade and commerce oten still had a limited livelihood in this phase, more than a third of Jewish white-collar oice personnel, and almost half of Jewish factory workers, remained jobless. While the number of Jewish children enrolled in public schools plummeted until , dropping from 12, to some 8,, the number of pupils at Jewish schools surged from 2, to 4, Of 10, factory workers, 4, were unemployed; of 53, independently employed in trade, only 22 were without work.
See also Gruner, Reichshauptstadt, p. In the sphere of education, the municipality in cancelled the reduced rate in school fees for Jewish children, and prohibited teachers who had married Jews since the past year from working in the Berlin schools.
How Can Music Be Torturous?: Music in Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camps
But since there were no central government reg- ulations in force, in some cases diferent views inside the municipal administration existed on just what course should be pursued. Texte und Bilder, Berlin Moreover, municipalities such as Berlin did not take action isolated or without rear cover. If adverts by non-Aryan irms were prohibited as a matter of principle, then such advertising could be rejected. Karl Fiehler, the mayor of Munich, was appointed executive and Herbert Tref, mayor of Berlin-Steglitz, was appointed as his deputy.
Lippert, as State Commis- sioner for Berlin, headed the Prussian Council of Municipalities, one of the regional branches of the national organization. Its main oice in Berlin organized discussions on local initiatives, distributed information on their results and supported various individual plans in contact with Reich agencies. Leiser Shoes was also a large Jewish irm, with 22 outlet stores in Berlin. Since Tref was at the same time head of the Dept. At the end of May , the Berlin oice of the Reich Emigration Agency was besieged by a surge in Jews seeking advice. Various countries were still prepared to admit refugees.
Parents sent their children on ahead. Families then brought in their relatives, friends helped their acquaintances emigrate. However, only 9, Jews emigrated in , a clear decline contrasting with 13, the year before see the table in the appendix. On top of this, there were ordinances and injunctions from the chief of police, the courts and the chambers of commerce.
But many who wished to lee simply no longer had the necessary funds to emigrate.
New laws and measures of discrimination January to the summer of Ater the German victory in the referendum on the reintegration of the Saar territory in January , fresh violence erupted in several regions to spur the expulsion of the Jews. In Berlin, new violent attacks occurred in June in several districts. Foreign Jew! Police attack squads twice dispersed the crowd of to persons. Around midnight, the storefront window was smashed by a stone. One of his irst oicial acts on 20 July was to order a designated closing time of 7 p.
On 9 August , the Nazi party local branch Oliva asked the police to arrest Georg Cohn, his wife and daughter and to hand them over to the Gestapo, because it alleged they had urged customers and passers-by to boycott the shops of those Party members who had been behind the arrests of Jews. Eine Gesamtdarstellung der natio- nalsozialistischen Judenverfolgung, Munich , p. Dokumente des faschistischen Antisemitismus —, Leipzig , Doc. He signalled to the stockyard that if there any violations would happen that provided an opportunity to remove them, that option should be utilized.
In , the local and national anti-Jewish policies merged in several individual areas. Kunsthandel in Berlin —, Berlin In the municipal homes for the terminally ill, eforts were being made to place all Jews together, according to the newly appointed municipal health inspector Leonardo Conti from the Berlin Main Health Oice, who later became Reich Health Leader.
Instead of a central ban on Jews at swimming pools, which was to be avoided because of foreign policy considerations, signs for this purpose should be aixed in the Berlin public bathing facilities — except for the beach at Lake Wannsee, because of the numerous foreigners there.
Shipment printed , p. In the summer of , the Gestapa and Security Service of the SS agreed at national level to work together, each with speciic tasks. In the event of suspected preparations for emigration, oicials no longer were required to report Jews only to the tax oice and the Gestapo headquarters in the city, but also to the customs investigation oice for Berlin and Brandenburg, the district mayor, the Reichsbank and the chief regional tax administrator. Down to the end of , the Berlin municipality had introduced far more than 80 anti-Jewish regulations of its own, over and beyond the familiar discriminatory measures at the national level.
Das Gesetz als Wafe, Paderborn A similar tendency could be observed else- where throughout the Reich. In the autumn of , the Gestapo intensiied its eforts to register the names of all Jewish Community members. In future, only 20 specially selected Jewish physicians were to be permitted to administer to the medical needs of over 10, needy Berlin Jews. At the same time, the municipality printed lists of Jewish physicians and dentists in order to warn municipal workers not to go to their oices for treatment. In the wake of the annexation of Austria, Goebbels, ater conferring with Hitler, ordered the police chief in April to provide him with a drat plan for a uniform policy of persecution in the capital.
October During the second week in June, Jews were sent to the Sachsenhausen camp just from Berlin alone, a full third of the Jews arrested across the Reich. See Gruner, Geschlossener Arbeitseinsatz, p. Fotos antisemitischer Schmierereien in Berlin, , Berlin Probably acting on a suggestion by Helldorf, the Party defaced the Jewish shops with slogans.
According to a Gestapo report, the Berliner Fritz Gelbart stated in July that the economic measures had considerably heightened tensions within the Jewish population. See also the mention of a personal order by Hitler on 21 June issued from Berchtesgaden in Wildt, Judenpolitik, p. Ater being reprimanded at the police station for not having removed clay vases from out in front of his shop, Rosenberg asked whether the precinct Police chief had not become a small Hitler in the hird Reich himself, who was imposing a dictatorship on his district, and could harass indi- viduals just because they were Jewish.
In mid-August, this same oice ordered the gathering of data on Jewish recipients of social welfare, where the unpaid compulsory laborers Plichtarbeiter would be listed separately. GSW , registered its Jewish tenants on 1 September , and then ordered them to vacate the premises. About half moved out voluntarily, the remainder opposed the evictions. Speer needed their Berlin apartments to rehouse those who were living in buildings slated to be demolished in the framework of urban renewal. In the summer of , hundreds were toiling away as unpaid unskilled construction workers in a number of districts of the city.
With the Sudeten crisis, war loomed ever closer on the horizon, and the Nazi leadership once again chose to resort to violence. I, 3 September ; and ibid. November Dokumentation einer Veranstaltung des Vereins Porta Pacis am 7. November im Gedenken an die Reichspogromnacht vor 60 Jahren, Berlin , pp.
Prelude to Destruction, New York et al. See also the report by the Colombian ambassador, 16 November , in Simon, Bilder, die sich Dante nicht vorstellte, p. Some paid for their criticism with arrest ater others had brought a complaint to the police. Some wished to doc- ument the destruction and took notes of the names of shops that had been destroyed. Others photographed the damaged facades. Quite a number of these persons taking photos were seized by SA or SS members, or passers-by, and handed over to the cus- tody of the police.
In Berlin this operation went on for two weeks. It is believed that just here alone 12, men and youth aged 15 or more were arrested. Many of them perished in the following weeks in Sachsenhausen camp from hunger, cold and violence. For this design they also had recourse to the Berlin Gestapo memo of April and its ideas. Die Kennkarte. See also Sopade, No. See also Simon, Bilder, die sich Dante nicht vorstellte, p. Ater the prohibition on attending public events and cultural and sports facilities, the chief of police announced that the government quarter Regierungsviertel would LA Berlin, B Rep.
For Jews remaining in Germany, the process of persecution was pressed ahead in four major areas: property, welfare assistance, conscript labor and concentration of housing. Like in other localities, the Berlin City Pawn Oice expressed disappointment with the assortment of better pieces, such as jewels or pearls, presented for obligatory purchase.
But as a result of the impact of persecution, the Jewish Winter Relief had to support every ith Jew in Berlin, some 25, persons, with additional assistance for food or heat- Figure based on Fischer, Anna ed. Halbjahresband, pp. Utilizing a discretionary provision in the law, Lord Mayor Lippert issued an order on 19 May to report any premises rented to Jewish tenants. Formen, Funktion und Rezeption, Potsdam , pp. April ; Amtsblatt der Reichshauptstadt Berlin, 80 , special edition, 25 May , p. Several areas of the city, including the Bavarian Quarter, were to be closed for new residents wishing to move in.
It was hard to ind rooms to rent, forbidden to purchase plots of land, and there was no money for new construction. For that reason, the Jewish Community now began to set up homes in synagogues, schools and combined apartments. In the irst six months of alone, the number of emigrants leaving Berlin soared to 16,, the total number for the year before.
Life in the community of compulsion September to August Until the attack on Poland by Germany, some 80, Berlin Jews led the country. In the following weeks, the Gestapo deported several thousand Jews from Vienna, the Protectorate and Kattowitz. But then, due to tech- nical reasons, Himmler postponed the irst transports of German Jews planned for November to February Eppstein, 7 July Since its formal establishment in July , all Jews were obligatory members.
Its main tasks encompassed preparation for emigration, welfare and the segregated Jewish schools. Ater the war began, it compelled hundreds of Berlin Jews to work, initially in short-term deployment loading boxcars at Berlin train stations and as farm laborers in the root crop harvest. Ater an intervention of Gauleiter Goebbels, on 4 July police chief Helldorf limited the shopping time for Jews throughout Berlin to just a single hour in the late aternoon.
In September , the police chief had ordered that in buildings where Jews and non-Jews still lived together, separate air raid shelters should be set up. At the end of November, the Central Welfare Oice instructed the Jewish Community to absorb all welfare expenses for Jews living in poverty. Berlin was the last city in the Reich to rid itself of its duty to provide welfare for the Jews. At the beginning of , Hitler had demanded 1, apartments for future victims of bombing raids. Geheime Ministerkonferenzen im Reichspropaganda- ministerium, Stuttgart , p.
In September there were still 72, Jewish residents in Berlin; ibid. On this in detail, see Willems, Der entsiedelte Jude, pp. See also Gruner, Reichshauptstadt, pp. Eine Dokumentation, ed. Jewish Religious Association [registered society] to slash operation expenses by dismissing 1, of its 2, staf members, teachers and temporary workers, and terminating all courses in manual crat skills. Because of work on Saturday, they could not attend the Sabbath services, which is why the Jewish Community arranged extra religious services. Reproached that the legally required sign on that prohibition for Jews was strangely missing, he laconically replied that he had lost it.
Die Aufzeichnungen der Volkswirtin Elisabeth Freund, ed. Carola Sachse, Berlin On the number of irms, Gruner, Berichte, p. Berlin edition , No. The mass deportations September to November With the attack on the Soviet Union, the Nazis radicalized their course of action on all levels. In preparations for the mass deportations, the RSHA now intervened more directly in local policies of persecution. In this context, Goebbels wished to propose to Hitler to limit the food rations and the use of public transport for Jews, to require Jews in the Altreich Reich borders to wear a distinctive badge, and to house all the Jews in Berlin in barracks camps.
Down to November, more than 4, persons had been deported in four transports. Since by now tens of thousands of Jews performed forced labor important to the armaments industry, the Ibid. For detail, see Chap. Stitung Topographie des Terrors, Berlin However, in the second transport wave to Riga and Minsk, from the end of November to the end of January , despite the agreements, the Gestapo also deported several thousand forced laborers from factories vital to the war efort. Just in the second half of October alone ater the transports began, 79 Jews committed suicide in Berlin. Because of the large number of forced laborers in Berlin, the Gestapo sought a compromise between the needs of the armaments industry for manpower and the plans for transports.
Now they were required to register their domestic pets, and later had to hand them On forced labor and the deportations in detail, see Gruner, Geschlossener Arbeitseinsatz, pp. Ausbeutung und Vernichtung — , Darmstadt , pp. Die Wannseekonferenz am Januar For that reason, the Gestapo summoned representatives of the Berlin Community and the Reich Association on 29 May and informed them about the arrest of Berlin Jews as reprisal. Of these, had been imme- diately shot, and the remaining had been sent to a concentration camp.
In this openly visible way, the Gestapo would deport a total of some 15, Berlin Jews in the years to follow. Edwin Kunz with a team of more than 25, most former detectives; later on, more SS personnel joined the staf. For heresienstadt, there were some 6, potential deportees. Since mid-October, the Gestapo carried out selection in the Jewish Community oices.
When 20 staf workers led, the Gestapo arrested a similar number of representatives of the Community and the Reich Asso- ciation, and later eight of these were executed. In this month of October, most of the deportees from the Altreich came from Berlin, a total of 2, persons. On the organization of the Berlin deportations, see also idem, Deportation der Juden aus Berlin. Without warning, they carried out raids, rounding up all the residents on entire streets. Since terrible news spread about the fate of the deportees, ever more persons sought to escape the threat- ening transports.
Whoever could not ind assistance from non-Jews in Berlin had no chance.
Holocaust and Genocide Studies
While from to , the Jewish Community had registered suicides in a Jewish population of over ,, in she buried Jews who had taken their own lives, although the Berlin Jewish population had decreased to only several tens of thousands. Geltungs- juden under the Nuremberg Law supplementary legislation comprised three categories: 1.
For that reason, the Gestapo announced to private entrepreneurs that the binding date for inal deportation of Jews was 31 March But its central focus was in Berlin, with a population of more than 11, forced laborers and their relatives. Along with existing camps, provisional assembly points in barracks or administrative buildings in Berlin-Mitte and Moabit districts were pre- pared to receive those rounded up and detained. Several thousand women, men and children had to wait under catastrophic conditions for several days until deportation, JNBl. Including transports to heresienstadt, between 9, and 9, Berlin Jews became victims of the largest single wave of deportations for some time.
Figure based on Fischer, Erzwungener Freitod, pp. Jewish Community , which had been incorporated into it in late January , and coniscated all assets. Berlin earlier on, as other municipalities, had already acquired a large segment of the assets of the Jewish Community. In the spring of , the Berlin municipality purchased, for a sum in excess of 1. From the spring of , the Gestapo also started to use it as a camp for interned Jews or those in conscript labor for the SS. Repeatedly, smaller deportation transports were organized from there.
Gemeindevorsteher von bis Industriekultur in Berlin im Jahrhundert, Vol. Juden im Untergrund und ihre Helfer, Munich In the following months as well, the Gestapo deported dozens of individuals again and again in smaller transports to Auschwitz and heresienstadt. On 1 July , there were 5, Jews still oicially resident in Berlin. Both groups, under greatly difering conditions, were put to work at extremely hard and exhausting menial work in labor camps throughout the Reich. Forewarned by the Reich Association rump organization by means of transport orders, many avoided deportation.
In other localities, like in Berlin, there was a shortage of transport capacity. Die Opfer der Judentransporte aus Deutschland nach heresienstadt — , ed. A total of more than 50, Berlin Jews, stripped of their assets, had been deported from the Reich capital, the command and control center for the policy of annihilation against European Jewry, in almost 60 separate transports to the East and in more than trains to heresienstadt.
See tables at the end. In conclusion A careful look at the Berlin source materials contradicts the customary view of a passive Jewish population under persecution. Right from the outset, both individual and collective, spontaneous and organized resistance against the anti-Jewish poli- cies existed. Because of the municipal measures of discrimination, the excesses of the SA, the arbitrary arrests and rigid police checks, more than ca.
Despite the terror against Jewish institutions and facilities, representatives of the Jewish Community and Jewish organizations repeatedly protested against the persecution to municipal and national authorities. Jewish irms intervened individually and in concert against boycotts. Many Jews did not obey the anti-Jewish regulations, and particularly opposed local rules and regulations. Quite a number spoke critically in public even if they risked being reported to the police and Gestapo.
On the basis of that behavior, the police arrested Berlin Jews accusing them of treachery and malice, or handed them over to the Gestapo. Later such incidents were punished by incarceration in a concentration camp. Yet, also non-Jews repeatedly showed solidarity with the persecuted. Even ater the outbreak of the war, Jews disobeyed discriminatory regulations, such as bans on entering a particular place, wearing an identifying badge, or adhering to prescribed restricted hours for shopping.
Many Jews led from conscript labor and the deportations, disappearing into the underground of the metropolis, where they tried to survive with the help of non-Jewish Berliners. Hundreds resorted to the inal act to resist deportation by suicide. Along with the national government under Hitler, the municipality discriminated Jews in the spheres of society, culture and the economy.
Like Berlin, a number of municipalities were quite a few steps ahead of central policy. From the summer of , the ledgling police chief Helldorf established a proile as a new actor on the stage of persecution. Trials against Jews for sexual relations with non-Jews now constituted part of the round of everyday life in the local courts.
Organizations for commerce and handicrat, health insurance companies, sports associations and private facilities participated actively in the separation and segregation of the Berlin Jewish population. From on, Goebbels sought to intervene more directly in the planning for persecution in Berlin, though without notable success. For that reason, through the agency of police chief Helldorf, he had the police harass and criminalize Jews in every imaginable way.
If initially in this phase local and central interests oten conlicted with each other, the discussion ultimately served to accelerate coordination and cen- tralization. Soon measures adopted in Berlin were integrated into national policy, especially ater the November pogrom and with the redesigned anti-Jewish pro- gram of the government. Irrespective of the now dominant central strategies, even during wartime the Berlin authorities signiicantly shaped the concrete forms of persecution in the city. Not until the beginning of the mass transports in did the RSHA rule over the policy of persecution.
While the municipality came into conlict with the Gestapo in connection with a number of local measures, it was also able to prevail and implement some of its decisions. In retrospect, the Berlin municipal administration, with its regulations that jumped out ahead of the central government, radicalized policy against the Jews in a cool and calculated bureaucratic way far more than the Party formations with their riots and boycotts. Ater the collapse […] every Berliner was able to pass judgment on me. None of the four and a half million residents of the former Reich capital reproached me for anything — and that is suicient for me.
Only a few thousand Jews, from a community once numbering more than , Jewish residents, survived in Berlin and would experience the downfall of the Nazi dictatorship. On 31 January, Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor. Step by step, a dictatorship was established. SA and SS persecuted and arrested political opponents in large numbers. Eine Dokumentation, Reinbek , p. Only ater repeated pressure and threats from the SA does the local police precinct headquarters agree to the removal of the lag. IV: Renewal and Destruction —, eds.
Lowenstein, New York , p. LA Berlin, A Rep. Die Lage der Juden in Deutschland, ed. One important local court was located in Berlin-Moabit.
During the intrusion, they grab lists with names of Jews stemming from Eastern Europe and other papers. It handles the highest proportion of the print jobs tendered by the municipality, for example the printing of the oicial journal of the municipality, the drats of the agendas for invitations, the social welfare journal, ofprints and the main budget plan. Representatives of the Fighting Alliance for the Industrial Middle Classes, Professional Group Food Trade, issue a demand that the municipality should only be permitted to authorize suppliers who support the national revolution; the municipality agrees.
In a meeting, ultimately all Jewish members of the executive board step down. Members should likewise avoid utilizing the ser- vices of Jewish pharmacists, clinics, truss makers, opticians, owners of swimming pools, massage centers, institutes for light therapy and X-ray, and dentists Circular decree A No.
Johann von Leers, drating a national law that will prohibit any and all functions for Jews in state administration and the spheres of inance, culture and education; it will ban marriages between Jews and non-Jews, place Jews under state surveillance and deport foreign Jews. Cus- tomers or visitors are photographed or ilmed in many places.
I. State of the Research on Music in Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camps
At 10 a. In some instances, visitors are forcibly prevented from entering. Representatives of the National Socialist Factory Cell Organizations show up at Berlin companies, demanding the immediate dismissal of Jewish employees. At the inal rally in the Lustgarten, Gauleiter Joseph Goebbels gives a speech, talking about the upcoming measures that will be taken against the Jews. On this occasion, the police, SS and SA even carry out street checks and house searches publicly, accompanied by journalists from the press and radio. Initially, the law exempted those who were civil servants already before and the so-called combat veterans of World War I.
Up to the Nuremberg Laws in , this notorious clause, extending far beyond its direct stipulations, shall form the basis for anti-Jewish restrictions on all levels in German society. Bilder und Dokumente, ed. According to a communication from the Health Oice, the municipality has can- celled inancing of the beds previously used by the Berlin municipality at the Birken- werder sanatorium, which belongs to a stateless Jew Decree, State Commissioner for Health.
Cohn, Breslau n. Eine Dokumentation, Reinbek , pp. Likewise, Jewish youth are banned entry to public sports grounds, gyms and youth homes, or their entry is made more diicult. Existing leases must be terminated at the next possible date Decree, Lord Mayor. Karl Landau to Obermagistratsrat Dr. Mit Plan der Innenstadt, ed. Ausstellungs-, Messe- u. Fremdenverkehrs-Amt der Stadt Berlin, Berlin Similar campaigns are organized at other German universities.
Martin Wolf, Professor of Civil Law, so that he is forced to stop lecturing. Magnus Hirschfeld. Hirschfeld, who founded the institute in , is ired as its director, and the facility is then closed. Dokumente einer Diskriminierung und Verfolgung, ed.
Bilder und Dokumente, p. Toggle facets Filter your search. Digital Availability. Digitized In English 1, Personal Stories. Memoirs 2, Diaries Books and Published Materials Key Events. Kristallnacht 1 Voyage of the St. Klagenfurt: Kitab, Anti-Nazi movement, Austria, registers. Belpoliti, Marco, and Andrea Cortellessa. Milan: Chiarelettere, Holocaust survivors, Italy. France, World War. Benz, Wolfgang. F, Berman, Irene Levin. Blatman, Daniel. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, Death marches, Holocaust.
Hoe was het mogelijk? De Holocaust in de context van de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Leiden: Universiteit Leiden, Bock, Gisela. Zwangssterilisation im Nationalsozialismus: Studien zur Rassenpolitik und Geschlechterpolitik. Munster: MV Wissenschaft, Nymburk, Czech Republic: Vega-L, Atrocities, Czechoslovakia.
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