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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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But you can see this trend all over the web for instance well, for sure not in the headlines of the Corriere della Sera , probably because doing it the English has more appeal. My point is what does the Crusca or manuals of style say about it? I feel that there's a logic in the assignment to masculine or feminine, but usage always wins against logic. I left the additional one put by Lohoris. You could contribute to the site making a question like that.

Thanks for all the help! I just hoped that somebody would add it as an answer instead of a comment for the future users. I don't know how I've overlooked this for so long. I am simply asking what is true. As far as I can tell 'any opinion An opinion is needed for debates, not when asking a question. It sounds really weird. Many thanks. I was wondering what it is that you mean.

Mine was a note for future readers, rather than for you. As for the Latin, sorry, I didn't notice. As for the sentence, I just wanted to remark that it's a fixed saying. Thanks, I appreciate it. Or, in this case, too, you don't have an opinion? Actually there's also a more vague kind of this one even more improbable , with composite tenses. You probably have done a statistical prediction based on data, but you're asserting a result which you believe to be true.

If you want to convey uncertainty, you need the hypothetical construct see my comments below the question up here. Italian creates the future with no auxiliary except for the composite , so the correspondence is not If you want to express uncertainty you need the hypothetical construct. I've heard people using it, but they were all from the same place. EU has all the right and, has to to decide how its coin should be called in official documents, just as they decided its name in first place.

Imagine the incredible series of problems they would face if that was not standardised. Plus they don't really say anything about spoken language, non official documents, and dialect usage. If EU, as it can and should, only rules about its official documents and not about the language at large, its rulings are not relevant discussing Italian language, as we are doing here.

Do we really want to appeal to the facebook users as a reference? Fin qui siamo d'accordo? I take your arguments and I've edited the answer. I'll hence remove the reference to mute h in my answer. Thanks for the comment, it helped improving the answer! History is full of commercial, literary, political made-up words and phrases that have taken a life of their own, independently of the intentions of the originators. Outside of restricted settings official documents, corporate papers , there is no reason and no way to enforce a linguistic rule and some attempts to do so have been tragic.

Let's imagine it was a strange friend who had to prove being a friend my goodness, it sounds even more weird in English. Do I disagree with myself here? Or, maybe, do these sentences break some rule? But I never found it in written Italian, at least not in newspapers. Look closely and you'll sometimes find it also in newspapers, mostly when reporting speech. I think that if you write this way no one will think that the Pope and Mother Teresa are your parents. You can also use Oxford's comma in italian. Maybe it is not grammatically correct, but is commonly used.

That should be posted as an answer, so it can be upvoted and accepted. Where have you seen it? Why don't you put it into an answer? I believe it's the different grammatical number, plural and singular, that requires repeating the preposition. In your sentence that's obvious, in the question's one it is not.

I disagree with you, infatti I am writing this comment. These examples are certainly more clear but I still have the same question: what if there is no other person and I'm talking to myself or writing something? Ho l'impressione che siamo un po' conservatori. It's just one of those linguistic abuses you can easily meet. Non mi sembrano proprio pochi. Si tratta di un'altra cosa tempi lunghi, conquiste del apssato It doesn't make any sense! Speaking of not needing education, using a grammatically incorrect sentence is deliberately ironic. It has just become fashionable to break the rules.

Thank you. If this is not the case, a reword might be a nice thing to do. It's probably a symptom of a strong culture of pride: when a Spanish-speaking person says that they believe in something, there's no room for doubts. In case, please tell me what they are; thank you. Not a critique, but it's a good practice on StackExchange to mark one answer as accepted if you think it answered your question properly. I do not support anything, I'm only interested and I study this from a scientific point of view in language change. I just noticed the fact and it wasn't clear to me whether it was a voluntary choice or just inexperience with the SE network.

Thanks for clarifying. It's likely not a well-thought intentional poetic license, but rather something the author didn't even think about. Still, this doesn't change the meaning and I don't consider it an abuse. I'm pretty sure it's something people use a lot in order to sound intellectual and well-educated.

Unfortunately, I'm afraid we're falling in the territory of opinions here. Still I think the meaning falls in the context of my answer, i. The same holds for some of the examples in the answers. When they do it, I just stay where I am. I ain't never not heard of one of them nor I ain't nor nothing. So it would have been better to do a little research and, if something was still unclear, to ask a more specific question, after summing up what can be easily found out. Do you have some hint that it might be? I just remember that using it in Lombardy would cause you to be looked as an ignorant person.

As such popolare , it has been used by some authors who are sensitive to shades of use of words. Where would the dictionaries be missing anything? Seems to be a Romance language thing. Miller Can you provide some examples? I don't know French, but the imperative in Spanish does not use the infinitive tense, and as far as I can recall, instructions are given with the imperative rather than with the infinitive.

Non sono una grande amante di Google come fonte di informazioni, per cui non avevo cercato nella Rete. Leggere la prima pagina del suddetto sito internet fa venir male, a volte I kept the question vague on purpose to see what sort of input I could get. I punto Mi pare che sia un termine ricorrente, principalmente in film americani o in fumetti giapponesi. I agree with the general reasoning. Nevertheless, in the everyday spoken language, everybody gets that whatever election law you setup it will never bring something good with the 1st sentence.

It's been a wonderful read. I will have to read that article. I agree it seems the most plausible, yet Benedetto alleges it's related specifically to a sesteiere, which has been repeated by other authors. Your link accepts the Polo Emilione link which is documented in primary sources, but doesn't give a reason. How likely is Benedetto's theory?

BTW I found other pages that try to indicate that the Milion name was given to the Polo after the book , and not viceversa. The names are really ancient. Great link. I presume 'San Polo' is a Venetian dialect version of 'Paolo' St Paul , and is distinct from the birds which are associated with the coat of arms of the Polo family Otherwise it is just overdue :- Same for the third example.

Thanks, mau. I've edited the answer. The quotations of Markus and Munkler seem to be a direct translation from one another or from some earlier source. It would be ground for leaving a significant other using it. Although it would be more grammatically correct in most circumstances. Ben fatto! Una situazione, una persona, un rapporto? I've never heard anyone using such a verb, even informally. Do you know where in Italy, one can hear that verb?

Aggiungo qualche parola alla mia risposta. I've checked Treccani before; didn't think of it this time. Treccani only says that the latter is preferrable. As to the corresponding English words and phrases, well, might we be excused if we are not necessarily up to par? Nel veneto alla regione. Ho anche trovato la citazione corretta.

Grazie a WalterTross per l'originale. Mille grazie randomatiabuser! Any source for that? In these cases you use the reflexive verb as you would use for plural subjects. Il decreto sul lavoro, non il decreto sui lavori! Hai qualcosa da rispondere alla sua domanda? Thanks for pointing this out.

O un nome non ha? Ho l'impressione che a volte i vocabolari non siano al passo con la lingua effettiva, questo parrebbe esserne un altro esempio. In letteratura e in poesia ne esistono numerosi esempi. Wouldn't you use the imperative for that, not the infinitive? That seems really odd. It is a negative reflexive form. It is build with an infinitive and a personal pronoun. Let me add it to my answer. It all makes sense to me now! It'd upvote your answer, but it won't let me due to insufficient reputation Thank you!

My Italian isn't adequate to understand the article. Anyway it seems like it exists in vocabulary. I was only pointing out that in contemporary use you don't need to look or to postulate a specific object, but only to know that those verbs are used like that. Spero di non dovervi rinunciare, un giorno Their use imho just depend on regional or personal preferences. However, I'm curious to read answers to this question, also because I have some doubt about their transitive properties. Thank you for your comment. Is anybody here aware of any regionalism in the use of the two verbs?

They are certainly not perfectly interchangeable synonyms of course, but that was already clear. I have edited the question accordingly. Then it spread nationwide like a disease. Se dovessimo regolarci in base alle avventure di anni fa delle parole di oggi, non ne dovremmo usare quasi nessuna.

Ho due osservazioni: 1. Mi riferisco alla mia esperienza 2. In effetti in buona parte la mia risposta si basa su impressioni personali, quindi non so quanto sia utile. So my reading is that he's interested in why scandals are named with the suffix. This is a case of intervocalic spirantization which has become wholly automatic in Spanish, as Bruno notes immediately above. He also says he can't think of a positive meaning for a word ending in -poli. In the end, you can read scandal or not, but it is irrelevant when answering the question. What more? You insist on seeing a scandal meaning to this question and it is your problem.

They share the form, not the meaning. Pedantry, maybe. Otherwise I don't think you really enjoy being teased like that unless you are being masochistic. Any opinion? This is also the reason why it is used as synonym for male genitalia. A person who is responsible does not necessarily have to answer for their behaviours. A person who is accountable does, willingly or not. Note that in your example you can be legally responsible for your children without, de facto, being actually accountable this may be a function of the legal system, for example, or the pressure originated within the society.

In any case I think that, even if he made a mistake, it's better to have things polished here. Verbatim quotation should not be modified unless the changes are explicitly pointed out, as Kyriakos suggests. The item you refer to is called 'stecca' or 'spranga'. Quindi il greco c'entra, ma molto alla lontana. Said in a less colourful way: that verb is quite questionable. Sarebbe un attimo rispondere se si avesse un dizionario con gli anni di prima attestazione delle parole come lo Zingarelli , in un formato comodo per farci ricerche.

Serra voleva usare una parola buffa e fulminea e l'ha messa in corsivo , non intendeva coniare un neologismo duraturo. I knew about the origin, but I always thought the surname was ending in -i. Un investimento per definizione non dovrebbe perdere valore nel tempo anzi! Per svaluta intendo che perde valore, se quando lo comprato potevo barattarlo con pagnotte di pane e adesso lo posso barattare con 1 per me ha perso valore. Aspetto la tua risposta L'investimento non perde valore, sono i beni che eventualmente perdono valore.

However, it is not just a preference of mine. If we are discussing a word, we should mention it explicitly. How would you say it? There is simply not a 1-to-1 correspondence between words of different languages. Or, if you did so, what was wrong with the answers you found? There's no such mention in the dictionary. I would think twice before using it even in a book. Grazie comunque! If you are serious about learning Italian you should consider browsing an actual, complete paper or digital vocabulary. I agree with mau that, for instance, the second example you give sounds overly formal and would definitely sound more strange than the other version.

Thank for the useful link, anyway! Actually your question is very interesting, but don't you think that it all refers to Latin? That is, that verbs mostly reflect the original Latin conjugation? No grazie. Stessa cosa anche in riferimento a utenti di forum o altri siti web. Lo spreco di puntini serve a nascondere le carenze nella sintassi. Thank you for highlighting that. Are we sure it is not just a mistake? Mathematically a number is definitely not an acronym, but a single object. It can be a lemma or the inflected form of a lemma … I think we can agree on that?

Can you produce sources suggesting the contrary? I was under the impression that in all languages, more or less, some foreign city names get adapted Better safe than sorry Si tratta di un caso raro, sono poche le parole con differente significato tra maschile e femminile. Some course you are taking? The final alternative name from Walter also makes that connection clearer. User, the translations below are correct, but i don't think you can learn more then a 0. Italian language is pretty hard to learn, because of its particularities and given that even several native speakers can't master its syntax.

In ogni caso, se non lo vuoi lo gnocco fritto lo prendo io! Now all is clear. Io avrei detto che le braccia ha valore collettivo allo stesso modo di dita e indica tutti gli arti superiori di una persona. Ad esempio. Certamente corretto, comunque. Io sono trentino ed ho studiato in provinia di Vicenza.

In entrambe le province si usa prevalentemente sporta. I can't thank you enough for all this work. Parecchio scomodo insomma. It is far from uncommon in its simple usage. Sound alone cannot explain this. Hence my question. Could be because I'm WalterTross I will also edit the other question to explain how I encountered the expression.

Thanks a lot! That's why I think that either, or you don't understand very well the the meaning of my translation, or you are totally missing the point here. Thanks for noting, I'll edit my answer. The sentence simply doesn't provide an answer without more context. The algebra solution is the overkill solution. That's why I asked the question in the first place. A bit on the informal side, maybe, but nothing more. I like comparison between whichever and whatever as well. I live in Lombardy, and in some places articles are never used in front of masculine names.

This label could apply to three separate speech varieties. Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language. Scottish English is a dialect of English. Scots is the closest relative of English and shares a common ancestor rather than having ever split off from British English. It has shared some evolution with English and had a steadily increasing amount of influence from English so that many people are ignorant of its origins and assume it's a dialect. Maybe I wasn't clear enough. As an example, Moldovan and Romanian are considered two different languages even if they are just two variants perfectly mutually understandable of the same speech.

On the contrary, e. Bavarian is considered to be a dialect of Standard German, while a German a cannot understand a Bavarian's speech. In Transnistria I'm not sure if they insist Moldovan is a separate language but they do still use the Cyrillic alphabet. This, more than an answer, looks like a comment. Would you please try and expand it? Se non lo dici, non scriverlo. Maybe this was the justification? Buono a sapersi, comunque. Do you mean proper or common nouns? Could you provide some explicit example of the phenomenon you are curious about?

Is this right? If so, it would be quite hard to give you an answer. You use these to identify more precisely the object of your sentence. Does this answer your question? I guess it is just because there is an implied specificity that Italian just makes direct. It's just our language, and there are also differences from region to region. For example in the north east the article is placed in front of women's first name. Forse il cugino del padre potrebbe essere di 2 grado anche lui? Ho corretto e aggiunto una fonte.

Non sembra che in italiano esistano nomi specifici per parentele lontane. Pronuncia dal ramo francese pesanemente ereditata nei termini anglofoni. Quindi mi pare che nulla, formalmente, ne vieti la formazione del comparativo. That one is an artificial lake. However, it looks like a park rather than a seaport of sorts. Does it function as both? Around the lake there is a big park. I'm not sure whether to accept your answer over the other both correct, thought yours is much more thorough. Questo risponde alla tua domanda? Possibilmente hai ragione. Trovo molto curiosa l'esistenza in italiano di queste tre parole che corrispondono a un solo vocabolo in molte lingue.

Concretamente penso che nessuno, normalmente, ci farebbe caso. Non prenderla a male! E l'espressione suona bene! Ma effettivamente questa domanda sembra off topic. Tali parole simile possono avere un uso e un senso nel linguaggio comune diverso da quello che si fa in italiano. Spero che questa non-risposta possa essere di qualche aiuto. Quindi forse varrebbe la pena separare le due questioni e scegliere un diverso esempio andar mi faccia il Re nel … Belgio? Bene, cerco di farlo. Per quanto riguarda il Belgio, questo fa eccezione alla regola suggerita da Kokoroatari e vuole l'articolo in molti casi in cui altri paesi non lo vorrebbero.

A volte dopo il punto interrogativo ci va addirittura la virgola!!! Any kind of activity could be included, not just the job. Look at the minute B Con valore rafforzativo del compl. Thank you for the links - I'll take a look. The adverb or preposition added don't actually change the meaning of the verb as in the case of the English language.

I don't know if this qualifies as a programming language. Some people stick with the old pronounciation. This may mean that it is a very infrequent expression and this is the reason of my question. Potere dell'italiano! If a question is asked in English you should answer it in English. Mixing the two doesn't work very well because the OP may not be able to understand your reply think of someone that just started learning Italian, or an Italian that doesn't speak English.

Both may ask a question here. Apparently they even use to give beer to horses to improve performance. But in the current usage the two are often exchanged, and the nature of the place tends to dictate the preposition to be used: whether it is a city, a country, a street Unfortunately, Italian grammar is often taken for granted in high school, so it's not discussed in greater depth when students have more maturity for understanding the real processes.

Usage will come natural after a while. Only little point: I would say Scotch is used as a generic trademark in US English as well, it is not just an Italian thing. Si un po' sono rimasto deluso.. Look like I will go with 'bibliofila' to add to my description of myself in Italian. As a native English speaker I am well aware of of the kleptomaniac history of my language. As a student of Italian, I love the way that it builds new words.

My latest favourite is 'palestrato', derived from palestra, and is far more interesting than gym junkie. I will probably never master Italian, but at least I am trying. But I am probably nitpicking Una risposta dettagliata! As a native Italian speaker, I never heard of such a word, and I wouldn't have understood it if someone mentioned it in a conversation. I was concerned with found a way to explain the literal meaning, and I forgot a really common case.


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I'll edit my answer. Therefore, I believe that strictly speaking this question is not on topic. Most people outside of Italy do not understand many Italian gestures. This said, I would move this discussion to meta. Sorry, I misunderstood what you were saying. La locuzione sembra essere in fase di elaborazione culturale in Italia, dove sono in corso dei dibattiti per chiarirne il significato.

Not to mention that the translation back into English says something else again. Have my upvote. It is more an Americanism. I enjoy how many of the contributors here are so patient and informative. Lui parla italiano in maniera meravigliosa. Also Raddusa seems to come from Arabic. It's very kind of you to personally thank contributors. Grazie per la risposta. I also find that Raddusa is believed to be of Arabic origin. It was not clear what the question was. So I tried to give an advice on the use of the word: don't use it as inclusive or but be aware that some use it exactly that way.

Nel tuo esempio sull'agente di polizia le due traduzioni hanno significati completamente diversi. Forse conviene cercare un esempio migliore se vuoi supportare quella tesi. L'esempio si riferisce al secondo caso, l'esempio di Renzo Arbore al primo. Also, I am not sure that the common ending of words with a different etymology is entirely due to chance: there might still be some contamination effect, e. Also, Ragusa has quite a composite etymology, from Greek to Arabic in the first version to Arabic in the second version to Latin and finally to Italian.

Qui a StackExchange ci aspettiamo risposte ragionevolmente lunghe, composte principalmente da fatti, e supportate da delle fonti; considera l'idea di allungare la tua risposta. A me sembra un suggerimento utile. Ho modificato, spero in meglio, la mia risposta. The first answer seems the closest, i. But the various comments people have made indicate that it may or may not be out of chance due to the fairly large number of examples. The point here is not the gender of the person but the grammatical gender of the noun, and, even more precisely, that of the receiver of the action.

It is fine: you didn't do anything wrong. So be bold and, when you have a question, just ask. Please keep asking whenever you encounter any difficulties in understanding specifics of Italian. And please believe me, everybody here is glad to answer a good question. It is clever and obvious at the same time. It seems that this platform rewards users for editing contributions but also punishes those who are frequently clumsy with wording.

I appreciate all the help I get here with developing my understanding of the beautiful language. Examples always help to make the point clearer. The examples help to clarify the point. After a lifetime of using English, I am finding Italian challenging but very much worth the effort. At least I can't come up with any example where this isn't true. Feel free to keep posting; just pick up the habit to ensure that your question is on-topic and hasn't been already answered. La aggiungo alla risposta, anche se credo che il tuo dubbio fosse sugli aggettivi!

This has been bugging me for ages and this helps to make it much clearer. Dunque, sembra che si tratti di un'espressione idiomatica siciliana. Secondo me, Camilleri cerca di descrivere quello che un personaggio sta pensando in quel momento e lo fa usando le parole che passano per la testa di tale personaggio. Grazie per avermelo segnalato! Perhaps a hand palm drawing circles in the air with thumb pointing upwards?

Usually my somewhat unlearned examples are not the actual sentence I am trying to translate but merely an example. All contributions, however, are appreciated. These tenses are very hard to grasp for a native English speaker. I then move on to having more than one past tense in the same sentence and my brain starts to hurt AHHHH! Of course I didn't intend to criticise you: I only seized the opportunity to mention an inaccuracy common to many Italians as well and to myself as well, until someone pointed out this to me!

Aren't you explaining the meaning of the sound in the question itself? Your English is way better than my baby Italian. Also thanks for link it's seems useful. First one is not. Entered my 30 characters. So, if you want to state the mere existence of something plural , you omit the partitive article; if you want to stress the relative scarcity of something, you use it.

That's also why we can use other words to clarify what we mean e. Context usually disambiguates. Feel free to edit my answer with more information. The person is asking for a clarification over an Italian jargon word, and aims at understanding its meaning so it's perfectly ok. What is the context? I searched for 'carved into the face' on Google and it seems the phrase is only used in a realistic and quite graphical way. If it is about the comprehension of an Italian expression independently on how to say the same in other languages , please rephrase your question.

O forse sono io che frequento troppe librerie e biblioteche. Tuttavia sentendo quella frase detta da una persona non di madrelingua mi verrebbe se non altro da sorridere. Da notare tuttavia che questo piatto si discosta abbastanza da quello che hai descritto! Grazie anche per il link! E tutte e due parti della parola, secondo Pianigiani, provengono dal latino. Forse va anche considerata come locuzione polirematica.

Communicating the idea is the most important thing in writing or speaking. I believe that your expression is conveying an image of someone with hollow, emaciated facial features, as suggested by the comments above. Could it be a van? If possible, clarify what kind of fruit is being sold. The stall I am writing about is for a lampredottai, not a fruttivendolo. Prague, May Preface to tlie Third Edition.

The third edition of this grammar differs in some important points from the preceding ones. As a new element some rudiments of comparative grammar have been introduced. As, however, this book is principally destined for practical purposes, the author has been obli- ged to be rather abstemious on this subject. Since it is not, with a few exceptions, treated in the text, but limi- ted to some foot-notes, pupils may, if they choose, simply lay aside this part of the grammar.

But let me hope that many others will be glad to find some indications that enable them to understand the history of the Italian idiom and its affinities with the other Romance languages French, Spanish etc. Without entering into a scien- tific system, I wanted to direct the attention of the vn learner to this interesting study, and besides, to facilitate several parts of the grammar. Thus, f. These new observations, which I beg leave to qualify as a first essay, are based on the excel- lent "Dictionnaire d'etymologie frangaise" by Dr.

Sche- ler, Bruxelles Besides, a good many exercises have been added, espe- cially on the Irregular verbs, this important part of speech not having been sufficiently exemplified in the former editions. Finally, upwards of a hundred Italian sentences have been inserted, to elucidate the rules of grammar. All these examples are marked M anzoni. Notwithstanding these numerous improvements, the character of ray book has undergone no change, and I may say that in its present shape it may without any difficulty be used together with the second edition.

Salzburg, September Charles Marqiiard Sauer. Preface to the Fourth Edition. The fourth edition of this grammar has been tnost carefuUy revised by the author as well as by Prof. Cat- taneo at Stuttgart and Dr. Worthmann at Heidel- berg. As the great distance of my present residence from the publisher's and the printing-office prevented my VIII superintending the publication, Prof.

Cattaneo bestowed his attention on the Italian part, and Dr. Worth mann undertook the revision of the English text. I beg leave to return my best thanks to my learned collaborators, by whose exertions this grammar has greatly improved. Thus I may venture to hope that the fourth edition will prove no less successful than its predecessors. Trieste, Charles llarqiiard Saner. Preface to the Fifth Edition. This fifth edition does not essentially deviate from the foregoing editions in the theoretical part, but consi- derably in the practical part, especially in the exercises. Convinced that this new edition will, even in a higher scale than the foregoing editions, gain the favour of all persons either teaching or learning Italian, I beg to re- commend it kindly to their favour.

At the same time I return my sincerest thanks to Prof. Cattaneo at Stutt- gart and Prof. Milller at Heidelberg for their conscientious and effectual endeavours to render this new edition as accomplished and as correct as possible. Charles Uarquard Sauer. First Part. On Pronunciation. Letters of the Alphabet On the Article 9 Second Lesson. The Substantive Declension of Substantives. On Prepositions On the Genitive Partitive On terminations modifying the meaning of Substantives 31 Eighth Lesson.

On Proper Names The Auxiliary Verb avere, to have. Exercises on avere She Auxiliary Verb essere, to be. Exercises on essere Determinative Adjectives Possessive Adjectives Numerals 57 Sixteenth Lesson. Ordinal Numbers Indefinite Numerals On the Adjective Degrees of Comparison On the Regular Verb Peculiarities of different Verbs. On Pronouns Demonsti-ative Pronouns Tetcenty- fifth Lesson. Possessive Pronouns. Relative Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns. Twenty-seventh Lesson. On the Passive Voice Neuter Verbs Twentg-eighth Lesson. On Adverbs Thirty-first Lesson. On Conjunctions.

Reading Exercise: II sofista convinto. Thirty-fourth Lesson. On Interjections TJiirty-fiflh Lesson. Thirty-sixth Lesson. The Irregular Verbs continued Tliirty-serenth Lesson. Reading Exercise: Le mie prigioni Thirty-eighth Lesson. Vowels On the Accent First Leseon. On the use of di, a, and da Fifth Lesson. Some particular remarks on the use of Proper Names.

On the Pronouns. Reading Exercise: Le mie prigioni Tenth Lesson. Reading Exercise: Le mie prigioni Twelfth Lesson. Indefinite Pronouns continued. Reading Exercise: Le mie prigioni Tliirteenth Lesson. On Adverbs. Fourteenth Lesson. Fifteenth Lesson. Seventeenth Lesson. Verbs whereof the Complements are dif- ferent in both languages. Nineteenth Lesson. Peculiarities of some Verbs. Reading Exercise: Lettera del Ganganelli.

Twentieth Lesson. On Moods. Twenty-first Lesson. On the Consecution of Tenses. On the Infinitive Mood. Reading Exercise: Qiial fa tal riceve Ttcenty-third Lesson. On the Participio passato.

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On the Participio assoluto. Reading Exercise: Beniamino Franklin Page. Materials for Conversation H. Proverbs III.

I due volti della bellezza

Specimens of Italian Poetry 1. Voci deyli animali II marinaio La farfalla e il cdvolo La rondinella, by Tommaso Grossi. From Petraca's Canzone to the Holy Virgin. Third Canto of Dante's Ltferm. Sauer, Itaban Grammar, oth edit. On Pronuuciation. Letters of the alphabet. The Italian alphabet consists of 22 letters, which are exhibited as follows: Character.

M, m, emme. B, b, be. N, n, enne. C, c, tshe. D, d, E, e, F, f, de. P, P, Q, q, R, r, pe. G, g, dshe. S, s, esse. H, h, akkah. T, t, te. I, i, e. U, u, V, V, Z, z, voo. K, X, r, W do not occur in Italian. On the use of the Apostrophe and the Accent. It is met with in Italian on the last vowels of some words only, and is used to mark either a contraction as: citta formerly cittate , or a ter- mmation of the verb which must be sharply pronounced, as: avrd, amb, cessb. We put it on every word, in order to show the pu- pil, on which syllable the stress is laid. From the tirelfth Lesson fonvard we shall only make use of the accent with such words that otter a deviation from the general rule, or where the pronunciation might perliaps appear dubious.

In the Reading Exercises, on the contrary, we shall nerer employ the accent, in order to accustom the pupil early to read Italian without the assistance of this guide. On the pronunciation of the vowels. A, a sounds like a in the Englisli 'svords are, father, last, but never like a in natne or ball. Examples: dma, cdra, fara etc. E, e has two different sounds, a broad one, almost like the a in the English words hate, name the French fe , as: pessimo very bad , mensa table , and an acute one like ey in they, grey the French 6 , as: cena supper , pera pear , sete thirst.

The e at the end of a word is never mute; its sound, however, is less open and much shorter than at the beginning or in the middle of a word. Ij 1 sounds like the English i in milk, sister, children, field, but never like the i in child, fire, idle. Ex- amples: inni, ivi, hrindisi toast. At the end of a motwsyUahle its sound is sJiort and shar2 as: m, ti, si, vi. U, u sounds like oo in boots, but never like the English u in union. This vowel is sometimes sJwrt as in tu thou , and sometimes long as in cura care. Further observations on pronunciation are given in the second Part of this grammar.

On the Diphthongs. Real Diphthongs, as we have them in English, French and German, do not exist in Italian, where every vowel must he distinctly pronounced. For instance: mi 'i, pron. E-u-ro-pa; buoi, pr. See: Second Part, On pronunciation. Pronunciation of the consonants. C, C has a double sound: 1 Before a, o and ii and before consonants it is pronounced like the English k, as: cdrro, corso, ciilto, creta, credere.

Whenever c before e and i is to be pronounced like k, an h is put after the c, as: chiesa, pr. For this purpose an almost In- atidible i is put after the c. Examples: cidrlare, pr. D, d, as in English: diiro, dare, della. F, f has the same sound as in English: fare, fiero, felice. G, g has a double sound: 1 before a, o or u and before consonants except I and n it corresponds with the English g in the word God. Examples: gdllo, gola, grdnde. In Older to harden the soft sound of this letter before e or i, an li is added to it, as in streghe, pron.

If before a, o or n the soft sound is required, g must be followed by an almost inaudible i, as in giardino, pr. Hj h is never pronounced. J, j sounds like the English y in the words youth, year, as: jeri, ajutdre. Modern Italian orthography very seldom admits of this consonant, usually putting i in its stead, as: ieri, aiutdre, aiuolc. L, I, as in English: lieve, Unto, hello. The beginner must not forget, that where conqjonnd consonants occur 11, mm, nn, pp, rr etc.

Q, q, which never occurs Avithout u, sounds like the English qi in the word quire, as: qucsto, qncilo, cinque, ncicque etc. B r, as in English, but somewhat shriller. Examples: rdro, rcnderc, rcfe. S, s, as in English: servo, seta,, seme. Between two vowels its sound is less hissing. Examples: rosa, cosa, rese; except cos so, thus , cdsa house , see and sci sound like shcy and shee. On the pronunciatiou of gn and gl. The sound of gn is not unlike ni before on the French gn in montagne in the words pinion, minion, union, as: nwntdgna, pr. Exceptions: negllgere to neglect , where it sounds exactly as in English, and its derivations, as: negligenza, neglighite etc.

Promiscuous Examples. Reading- Exercise. Lasciate che ciascheduno s'ingegni e travagli a pro- cacciarsi la sussistenza, conciossia ogiuino che ha Feffigie d'uorao porti seco pure Fimpronta degli stessi privilegi che ha qualunque liltro della sua specie; soltiinto gli sfac- cendati ed oziosi, i quali secondo la consnetudine del gio- vani agiati d'oggidi passano i loro giorni nella sciopera- tezza e trascuragcrine, meriterebbero a mio giudizio Tab- bandono ed il disprezzo della societa. From the novel Nicolo de' Lap! Quella piazzetta per la quale al di d'oggi si passeg- gia ad ogn' ora liberamente, incontrando soltanto o con- tadini tranquiUi, e che vi rispondouo cortesemente in quella loro armonica e corretta lingua, o brigate di cittadini villeggitinti ne' contorni; quelle casucce che presentano oggi giorno 1' immagine della poverta quieta e contenta: quegli iisci, ingombri di bambini di tiitte le misure, di donne che attendono all' utile e pulito lavorio dei cappelli di paglia; tutto, al punto che vi giiinse Fanfiilla, era pieno di genti strane, di disordine, di schiamazzi.

II suolo fangoso, immondo, pesto pel gran passare d' uomini e cavalli: le case piene di soldati, le miira sudice ed atfumi- cate, la chiesuola ridotta una taverna, e la piazza in- gombra di frascati sotto i quali eran vivandieri con pane, grasce, barili di vino ecc, ed avean rizzata quivi la loro bottega con assai buon giudizio, sapendo che la vista della corda e delle forche era un ottimo trattato di mne- monica per quegli avventori che potessero scordarsi di pagare.

Mentre Fanfulhi s' agginiva considerando a cbi gli conveni'sse dirigersi per domandar di Troilo, udi levarsi un bisbiglio tra la gente, s' acoorse d' un agitarsi di per- sone nel lato ov' eran le forche, e vide pui die appoggia- tavi una sciila saliva un uomo ad acconciare il laccio, e prepanir 1' occorrente per far giustizia. Accostatosi per curiosita, vide poco lontano dal patibolo a pie d'un muro la persona che pareva destiniita al supplizio.

Era iina donna, colle mani legate dietro le reni, e, posta ginocchioni a piedi d' un cappuccino, si confessava. Fanfiilla si maravigliava che avessero ad impicciire una fenimina, ma gli crebbe la maraviglia vedendo che di sotto i panni le spuntava fuori il fodero d' una spiida. First Lesson. On the article. Dell' articolo. The article indicates the gender of the substantives. There are two articles in Italian as in English: the definite art, T articolo defiuitoj and the indefinite art.

V ar- ticolo indefinito. The Italians call the s impure, when it is followed by another consonant, as: sh, sc, sd, sf, sg, sm etc. In this case the article is not il but lo. Examples: lo sbdgUo, the mistake; lo sdegno, the anger; lo specchio, the looking-glass. The reason is, that the Italian ear cannot bear a meeting of three consonants il sbdglio.

Thus they say: In Isvezia in order to avoid in Svezla , con isdegno, with anger etc. Also words beginning with z can take the artikle lo, as: lo zio, the uncle. In plural they always take the article gli, as: gli zii, the uncles. The article la is used before every feminine noun beginning with a consonant, as: la cdsa, the house; la stanza, the room; 7a pidnta, the plant. It deserves to be no- ticed that the Italian Nominative case is not derived from the Lat. Ablativus, but from the Accusativus.

The indefinite article Tarticolo indefinito is for masc. Examples: un padre, a father; una mddre, a mother; un lihro, a book; iina penna, a pen; un dngelo, an angel; un aniico, u friend; uno spettro, a spectre; uno scoldre, a scholar; un' dnima, a soul; un' oca, a goose. In the following list of words the gender is indi- cated by the letters m. We recommend the pupil, when learning these words by heart, to add the defin. Padre, m. In the Plural feminine nouns usually retain their full article, as: le dnime, the souls; le 6che, the geese.

But the Apostrophe must be used, when the same vowels meet, e. The sound of the vowel o is open, if it stands for the Lat. Thus nono from suyn or nunt. Proven9al yardin, jardin, jerziv ; Fr. French jardin; Grin. German bartcii. Jfo 10, have I? Itai tu, hast thou? Tu hai il libro. Hai tu un libro? Egli ha uno specchio. II padre ha il giardino. La madre ha il pane.

II fanciullo ha lo specchio. La sorella ha uno specchio. La zia ha un' oca. Mio fratello ha un cane. II re ha lo scettro. II re ha uno scettro.

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Noi abbia- nio un fiore ed una pera. Voi avete I'onore. Eglinp hanno un cavallo. Hanno esse un cane? Avete voi un fiore? Ella ha un cappello. II fanciullo ha un fratello ed una zia. Exercise for translation. I haye the book. I have a rose. Thou hast the hat. Hast thou a dog? Hast thou a looking-glass? He has the coat. My father has the bird. Has she a pear? Has he the bread? We have a hat.

Have we the gun? You have the goose.


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They have a garden. Have they f. The king has a horse. Have they m. They f. The child has a book. The queen has a rose. My aunt has the bird. My brother has the dog. My mother has a pen. Ho io la rosa? Voi avete la rosa. Si, io ho il libro. Note 1. For the polite mode of addressing a person, see the same lesson, Note 4.

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Latin verb capere; OFr. Old French chapel; Fr. Si, il tVatello ha nno schioppo. Avete voi Tabito? No, voi avete I'abito. Hanno essi una pera ed una Si, essi hanno una pera ed una ciriegia? Ha egli il pane? Si, egli ha il pane. Ha ella un fiore? Si, ella ha un fiore. Hanno essi una sorella? No, essi hanno una zia. Second Lesson. The substantive. II sostantivo. On the Plural of the nouns substantive.

Words ending in a preceded by c or g, take in the Plural an h after these consonants, in order to retain the hard sound. Words ending in co or go form the Plur. In the first Part we always indicate the Plur. Except those feni. For further observations on irregularities in the formation of the Plural see the second Part of this grammar. The Plural of the article la is le, as: la casa — le case; la miidre — le madri; Tanima — le anime.

The Plural of the article lo is gli, as: lo scettro — gli scettri; lo specchio — gli specchi;? II temperino, the penknife. Vnscio, m. Reading Exercise. Noi avevamo un coltello. Voi avevate due coltelli. Mio fratello ha i temperini. La casa ha due porte. Avevate voi le fnitta? Si, noi avevamo le frutta. II re aveva due ca- stelli. La regina ha i palazzi. Mio zio aveva veduto tre papi. Ecco i quadri e gli specchi, Noi abbiamo veduto quattro sorci.

I fanciuUi avevano tre pei'e. I duchi ed i monarthi avevano i paesi. Mia zia aveva una stufa. II duca aveva tre cavalli. Le zie avevano i gatti. Mia madre ha due sorelle. Ecco il palazzo del ofthej duca. In Gei mania Ger- many vi sono quattro re. I had three brothers. The duke has the sword.

The children have the flowers. The men had the gods. We had also'" seen the pictures. Here are the games, the pen- cils, and the coats. Here are also the houses, the castles, and the palaces. Had she the hats? No, she had the coats. The countries have the canals. My father has three sisters. Hadst thou a physician? Yes, I had a physician.

I have seen the gardens and the trees. Had they f. No, they had four dogs and three cats. The wives have the eggs and the fruit. The eye is large. I have two eyes. Here is the house of the poet. There is a God. Stubc; Sp. Avevamo noi un temperino? Aveva io i coltelli? Rai tu veduto nn papa? Cili uoraini hanno veduto gli dei? I fanciuUi avevano i quadri? I duchi hanno le spade? Avevano eglino veduto i ca- stelli ed i palazzi? La zia ha le frutta?

Avete voi un novo? Mio padre ha i giuochi? Quanti hoiv many fratelli avevi tu? Quanti fanciuUi aveva I'uomo? Avevate voi veduto i poeti? Voi avevate un temperino. Si, tu avevi i coltelli. Si, io bo veduto due papi. No, gli uomini non not hanno veduto gli dei. I fanciuUi non avevano i quadri. No, i monarchi hanno le spade e gli scettri. Si, eglino avevano veduto i castelli ed i palazzi. No, il fanciullo ha le frutta. Si, egli ha tre giuochi. Io aveva due fratelli e tre sorelle. L'uomo aveva tre fanciuUi.

No, non avevamo veduto i poeti. Third Lesson. Decleusion of substantives. The Italian nouns substantive form the different cases of their numbers by means of prepositions. These pre- positions, however, are not, as in English, simply put before the article, but undergo a contraction with the article into one word.

There are five cases in Singular and Plural; the nominative nominativo and accusative accusativo are always alike. See II. It is used to express a derivation, distance or removal, but also a dwelling upon, a characteristic tolcen or fitness for anything. Also to is rendered by da when it expres- ses going to some one. Like di and a, this preposition is joined with the definite article, and forms the following contractions: Sivgular. It may be observed, however, that di commonly drops its final i and takes an apostrophe in its stead, as: un padre, a father; una madre, a mother.

Da, on the contrary, is never apostrophised, and in- stead of a, for the sake of euphony, ad is preferred. The demonstrative adjectives questo m. Perspicuous exhibition of the declensions. Sauer, Italian Grammar. Vanima, the soul. I qiiesti palazzi, these palaces. Gen, di queste strade, of these streets. In the same manner are declined the above mentioned possessive adjectives mio, my, iiw, thy, suo, his, her etc.

II creatore, the creator. Vanimdle, the animal. II padre del fanciullo. La madre dei figli. Le porte delle case. Le finestre dei palazzi. II gatto e un animale. Io do il ritiatto all' amico. Io do le rose ai cugini ed alle engine. Voi date gli scrigni agli amici ed alle amiche. I nemiei degli uomini. I fogli dei libri e dei quaderni writing-hooks.

Le foglie di questi fiori. Le tinestre di questa casa. Io vengo dalla citta. Figli PI. Thus a lady would say: Ho cinque figli, due tuaschi e tre feminine, I have five children, two boys and tree girls. The brother of the cousin m. The sisters of the cousin f. The gates of the town.

The houses of the towns. The windows of the houses. God is the creator of the world. The dog is the enemy of the cat. The dog is the friend of the man. I give the book to the brother. The sleep of the child. Of the death of my del niioj friend m. Here are the clothes dbiti, ni. J of the children. We speak noi jxirlidmo of the trees and of the plants of the earth. I come from the duke's palace. Ho io il libro del cugino?

Tu hai il libro del cugino. Hai tu il ritratto della zia? Si, io ho il ritratto della zia. Ha egli veduto il giardino Si, egli ha veduto il giardino del re? I fanciuUi hanno gli scrigni? Si, i fanciulli hanno gli scrigni. Chi icho aveva la penna del Io aveva la penna del fratello.

Di chi sono queste pere? Di chi sono quest i giardiniV Sono del re e della regina. Di chi sono questi libri? Questi libri sono di vostro padre. Avete voi veduto il cane del- Ecco il cane dell' amico. Di chi sono queste oche? Sono di vostra cugina. Fourth Lesson. Frequently the cases of substantives are governed by prepositions, which appear almost in every sentence, and should therefore be learned early. Properly speaking the Italian prepositions govern no particular case, i.

The sentence Di chi sono le pere? In elegant speech, however, some of them are constructed with the genitive and dative case, whereby a slight variation in the original signification is effected. See P. Lesson The prepositions in in , con with , su on , tra, fra between , and per for are often contracted with the ar- ticle in one word; such is usually the case with in, con, and su, and sometimes with tra, fra, and per, as the pupil may learn from the following table. La scuola, the school. Vdcqua, the water. The contractions with tra and the article are very rare. Gj — di and ami Lat. Luigi, Lewis.

Sono io, am I? II gatto h dietro la stufa. Siete voi in cucina? Luigi e da mio padre. I cavalli sono davanti la porta. Dopo la pioggia. Durante la notte. Avanti il giorno. II fanciullo 6 sotto 1' albero. Questa pera h per mia zia. Mia zia e in chiesa. Senza danaro money. Mia cugina sta a Parigi Paris nel la casa di mia zia. Io ho il coltello in mano. Egli aveva le mani in tasca. II libro 6 nella tasca del padre.

In the yard. During the rain, I am before the house of the physician. Lewis is in the garden. The servant is in the room. The masters are at school. Before the night. The birds are on the roof of the church. I speak io pdrlo of the coat Gen. My sister is at home. Where are the cats? They are in the kitchen. The three children of my cousin m. The horses are in the water. The penknife of the boy is on the table. Without my father. I am eone anddto with my sister. I come with the friend of my brother. Dove e Luigi? Dove e mio tiglio? I fanciulli sono dal maestro?

Di che cosa what parli speakest tu? Dove abita tuo cugino? Vostra cugina e in iscnola? Chi b andato in chiesa? E in casa vostro fratello? La serva e in cucina o in giardino? Avevate voi veduto le linitre ducks nel cortile? Con chi with ichom siete andati? Egli ii nel cortile dello zio. Egli e in giardino. No, essi giuocano play da- vanti la casa. Ilo parlo dei cavalli. Abita dalla zia. Xo, ella e in chiesa.

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E nel giardino del vicino. Noi avevamo veduto le anitre e lo oche. Noi siamo andati con nostro padre. Fifth Lesson. On the genitive partitive. In English the word sonw or any often precedes a substantive when taken in an indefinite sense, no parti- cular kind, measure or quality being meant, as: some wine, some bread, any ink etc. In Italian this relation is expressed in quite a pe- culiar way. Thus tlie wine, the beer, the oil means: il vino, la birra, Tolio; but some wine, soms beer, some oil means: del vino, della birra, delV olio. The pupil is advised to compare the following ex- amples: lo vcdo le a nitre, I see the ducks.

Egli vende del tobacco, he sells tobacco and other ar- ticles. Egli vende tobacco, he is a tobacco-merchant. In negative sentences the partitive sense is only ex- pressed by the omission of the article. Thus: We have no flowers.

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Non abbianio fiori not dei f. You have neither money nor friends. Non avete ne dannro ne amici. La farina, the flour, meal. I'dro, the gold. Vargento, the silver. Volio, the oil. I'aceto, the vinegar. CJic, what?