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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Moreover, the Web application used for data collection is inherently capable of collecting word norms in any language and is going to be released for public use as well.


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To explore the nature of specific interactions between concurrent perception and action, participants were asked to move one of their hands in a certain direction while simultaneously observing an independent stimulus motion of a dis similar direction. Specifically, the endpoints of horizontal movements were lower when having watched an upward as opposed to a downward motion. However, when participants moved under higher speed constraints and were not presented with the stimulus motion prior to initiating their movements, the CE was preceded by an assimilation effect, i. These findings extend those of related studies by showing that CEs of this type actually correspond to the second phase of a bi-phasic pattern of specific perception—action interference.

Two experiments investigated dimension-based attentional processing in a complex singleton conjunction search task. In Experiment 1, observers had to discern the presence of a singleton target defined by a conjunction of size fixed primary dimension with either color or motion direction secondary dimension. Similar to findings in singleton feature search, changes vs. In Experiment 2, the coding of search-critical, dimensional saliency signals was investigated by additionally presenting targets redundantly defined in both secondary dimensions, with redundant-target signals being either spatially coincident or separate i.

These findings suggest that the coding and combining of signals from different visual dimensions operates in parallel. Increased change costs in singleton conjunction search are likely to reflect a reduced amount of weight available for processing the secondary target-defining dimensions, due to a large amount of weight being bound by the primary dimension. Growing evidence indicates that syntax and semantics are the basic aspects of music. After the onset of a chord, initial music-syntactic processing can be observed at about — ms and processing of musical semantics at about — ms.

Processing of musical syntax activates inferior frontolateral cortex, ventrolateral premotor cortex and presumably the anterior part of the superior temporal gyrus. These brain structures have been implicated in sequencing of complex auditory information, identification of structural relationships, and serial prediction. Processing of musical semantics appears to activate posterior temporal regions. The processes and brain structures involved in the perception of syntax and semantics in music have considerable overlap with those involved in language perception, underlining intimate links between music and language in the human brain.

In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird diese Vorgehensweise im Kontext eines Unternehmens als Fallbeispiel dargestellt — Rahmenbedingung, Voraussetzung und Dramaturgieelemente sowie sich daraus ergebende Erkenntnisse werden beschrieben. Human actions are often classified as either internally generated, or externally specified in response to environmental cues.

These two modes of action selection have distinct neural bases, but few studies investigated how the mode of action selection affects the subjective experience of action. Participants performed either a left or a right key press, either in response to a specific cue, or as they freely chose. Moreover, the time of each keypress could either be explicitly cued to occur in one of two designated time intervals, or participants freely chose in which interval to act. Each action was followed by a specific tone.

Participants judged the time of their actions or the time of the tone. Temporal binding was found for both internally generated and for stimulus-based actions. However, the amount of binding depended on whether or not both the choice and the timing of action were selected in the same way. Stronger binding was observed when both action choice and action timing were internally generated or externally specified, compared to conditions where the two parameters were selected by different routes. Our result suggests that temporal action—effect binding depends on how actions are selected.

Binding is strongest when actions result from a single mode of selection. Zehn Jahre nach Inkrafttreten des Psychotherapeutengesetzes PsychThG sollten im Rahmen des Forschungsgutachtens unter anderem mit einer Absolventenbefragung die Situation in der Ausbildung beschrieben und wichtige Problembereiche identifiziert werden. Weitere Detailergebnisse werden vorgestellt und diskutiert. In this study we analyzed the etiology of the relationship between personality traits and retrospectively recalled family environment. The data of identical and fraternal twin pairs reared together from the Jena twin study of social attitudes were available.

Personality traits were measured using the self- and peer report versions of the German NEO-personality inventory-revised. A German version of Blocks Environmental Questionnaire was applied to measure two broad dimensions of the family environment retrospectively: support and organization.

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We could replicate earlier findings that retrospective reports of these family environment dimensions were in part genetically influenced. Environmental mediations were negligible. This indicates that the relationship between personality and retrospectively recalled family environment is largely genetically mediated. A passive oddball experiment was used in which stimuli were emotional exclamations differing in their affective tone.

In both electroencephalography EEG and magnetoencephalography MEG , deviants elicited an N component, sometimes accompanied by a slow wave. Both components had a symmetrical distribution, but the former was more posterior than the latter. The same responses to prosodic stimuli were significant in 6 of 27 patients with severe disorders of consciousness persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state and in all 3 of the examined locked-in patients, indicating that the procedure can be applied for testing neurological patients.

The occurrence of significant responses depended on the presence or absence of a lesion to the right temporal lobe. Obviously, the N depends on the activity of the right temporal cortex but does not originate there. We suggest that the component is related not to the recognition of affective prosody as such, but to the following detection of affective mismatch due to violations of emotional context of stimulation.

The goal of the present habituation—dishabituation study was to explore sensitivity to subjective contours and neon color spreading patterns in infants. The first experiment was a replication of earlier investigations that showed evidence that even young infants are capable of perceiving subjective contours. Participants 4 months of age were habituated to a subjective Kanizsa square and were tested afterward for their ability to differentiate between the subjective square and a nonsubjective pattern that was constructed by rotating some of the inducing elements.

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Data analysis indicated a significant preference for the nonsubjective pattern. A control condition ensured that this result was not generated by the difference in figural symmetry or by the local differences between the test displays. In the second experiment, infant perception of a neon color spreading display was analyzed. Again, 4-month-old infants could discriminate between the illusory figure and a nonillusory pattern. Furthermore, infants in a control group did not respond to the difference in symmetry and the local differences between two nonillusory targets.

Overall, the results show that young infants respond to illusory figures that are generated by either implicit T-junctions Experiment 1 or implicit X-junctions Experiment 2. The findings are interpreted against the background of the neurophysiological model proposed by Grossberg and Mingolla Two experiments are presented that test the predictions of two associative learning models of Artificial Grammar Learning. The two experiments investigate acquisition of different types of knowledge in this task: knowledge of frequency and novelty of stimulus fragments Experiment 1 and knowledge of letter positions, of small fragments, and of large fragments up to entire strings Experiment 2.

The results show that participants acquired all types of knowledge. Simulation studies demonstrate that the CC model explains the acquisition of all types of fragment knowledge but fails to account for the acquisition of positional knowledge. The SRN model, by contrast, accounts for the entire pattern of results found in the two experiments. This chapter develops a theoretical framework that is capable of integrating the biological foundations of emotions with their cultural and semantic formation. It starts by investigating two leading scientific theories about emotions: one that is dominant in biology and a second one that is dominant in psychology.

In biology, we consider the theory of basic emotions that focuses on innate biological emotional mechanisms. Using this approach, we can take physiological states into account. In psychology, we take a closer look at theories focusing on appraisals—the so-called appraisal theories—because these can be brought in to explain the cultural and semantic modification of biological emotional processes. Our examination of the major factors and elements of appraisal processes, which is also an examination of the internal processing of an emotional episode, discriminates unconscious from conscious processes and mental from nonmental processes.

The next step is to integrate the two theories—the theory of basic emotions and appraisal theory—to couple emotional sensations with emotional concepts semanticization. We clarify how basic innate emotional processes and complex learned ones are related to each other. We assume that cognition, feeling, and consciousness gradually become more differentiated in single species and organisms phylogeny.

Correspondingly, one possible hypothesis is that this differentiation process runs parallel on all levels, meaning that these domains can be assumed to be closely linked or even interdependent. The present study investigated the conditions for attentional amplification in the processing of relevant objects and for attentional inhibition in the processing of irrelevant objects. Participants reported the color of one of two superimposed objects that was specified by occlusion. Irrelevant color words were presented as part of the relevant object, as part of the irrelevant object, or in the background; the words were either congruent or incongruent with the color of the relevant object.

The size of the congruency effects provided a measure of the relative strength of the processing of the objects and the background. Finally, the two objects had the same shape in one session and different shapes in another session. In both sessions, results showed larger Stroop effects from words belonging to the relevant object than from words in the background, indicating attentional amplification of the relevant object that was unaffected by object similarity. In contrast, smaller Stroop effects from words belonging to the irrelevant object than from words in the background occurred only when the two objects differed in shape.

The latter result suggests that a shape difference is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for inhibiting the processing of an irrelevant visual object. Analyzing the ancient Greek point of view concerning anger, shame, and justice and a very modern one, one can see that anger has a regulative function, but shame does as well. Anger puts the other in his place, thereby regulating hierarchies.

Shame regulates the social relations of recognition. Both emotions also have an evaluative function because anger evaluates a situation with regard to a humiliation and shame with regard to a misdemeanor. In addition, attention must be paid to the correct molding of these emotions and the correct ways of using them during rearing one to be good or just i.

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Am Es starben 3. Three experiments investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying the restart cost and mixing cost in task switching. To this aim, the predictability of task order was varied unpredictable in Experiment 1 and predictable in Experiments 2 and 3 across experiments, which employed a multiple-trial paradigm. Verbal cues for color and shape matching tasks were presented before a run of four trials. Focusing on task-repetition runs only, we measured restart cost as the difference in performance between trials 1 and 2 and mixing cost as the difference in performance on the non-cued trials under mixed-tasks conditions Experiments 1 and 2 and single-task conditions Experiment 3.

The restart cost was observed under mixed-tasks conditions with both unpredictable and predictable task orders but not under the single-task condition. In contrast, the mixing cost was observed under the mixed-tasks condition with unpredictable task order only Experiment 1. This finding implies that the optimal task execution on repetition trials depends on how predictable the identity of the approaching task is.

Therefore, we suggest that mixing cost arises from limited preparation on repetition trials when task order is unpredictable, while restart cost arises from processes involved in cue-based task activation that is needed to resolve task interference. Together, these data suggest that restart cost and mixing cost are based on dissociable mechanisms. Two experiments compared reaction times RTs in visual search for singleton feature targets defined, variably across trials, in either the color or the orientation dimension.

Experiment 1 required observers to simply discern target presence versus absence simple-detection task ; Experiment 2 required them to respond to a detection-irrelevant form attribute of the target compound-search task. Traditionally, in attempts to define what comprises being human, philosophers have referred to features such as rationality, language, culture, free will, creativity, or political structures to distinguish humans from other living beings.

In the long run, these attempts to separate humans sharply from the animal kingdom have all failed. Emotions have been largely ignored on the grounds that humans share them with many other animals. As a result of this neglect, it has been overlooked how essential emotions are for what it means to be human.

For some decades, failures to find extinction of inhibition through unpaired presentations of the inhibitor were taken as evidence against conceptualizing inhibition as the symmetrical counterpart of excitation. Recently, however, our group has demonstrated successful extinction of inhibition in human causal learning. In two experiments, we replicated and strengthened this finding by using an outcome continuum that could take on negative, neutral, or positive values.

In contrast, the use of a dichotomous outcome continuum either neutral or positive resulted in the well-known nonoccurrence of extinction. Die phylogenetische Herleitung aus der Submission einerseits und dem Spiel andererseits wird aufgezeigt. Die empirisch nachgewiesene Freudlosigkeit aller seelischen Erkrankungen kann durch spezielle Lachtherapien nicht behandelt werden.

Conflict and context slow-down have been proposed as indicators of a conflict-monitoring system that initiates cognitive control to resolve conflicts in information processing. We investigated individual differences in conflict-monitoring and their associations with working memory WM and impulsivity. A total of adults completed a Simon and an Eriksen flanker task, together with measures of WM and impulsivity.

On both tasks, responses were slower and less accurate on incompatible than on compatible trials conflict effect , and the conflict effect was larger when the preceding trial was compatible than when it was incompatible context effect. Stimulus repetition did not explain the context effect. Individual differences could be attributed to three separable factors for each task: general speeded performance, conflict effect, and context effect.

Evidence for across-task generality of these factors was sparse. Associations of these factors with impulsivity were weak at best. WM was correlated with general speed, and also with some but not all factors reflecting conflict-related processes. Experiencing emotions, the ability to identify emotions in others, and the capacity to express emotions are dependent on the functional integrity of a set of neural systems, with the limbic system and the amygdala being the most prominent key structures.

Damage to the amygdala and its interconnected cortical and subcortical regions leads to severe impairment of emotional processing. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been related to a range of behavioral and neuropsychiatric problems, with the orbitofrontal cortex being the focus of recent research interest. Whether distinct neural systems specialize in the processing of distinct emotions e. The emotional content of stimuli influences cognitive performance. In two experiments, we investigated the time course and mechanisms of emotional influences on visual word processing in various tasks by recording event-related brain potentials ERPs.

The stimuli were verbs of positive, negative, and neutral valence. In Experiment 1, where lexical decisions had to be performed on single verbs, both positive and negative verbs were processed more quickly than neutral verbs and elicited a distinct ERP component, starting around msec. In Experiment 2, the verbs were embedded in a semantic context provided by single nouns.

Likewise, structural, lexical, and semantic decisions for positive verbs were accelerated, and an ERP effect with a scalp distribution comparable to that in Experiment 1 now started about msec earlier. These effects may signal an automatic allocation of attentional resources to emotionally arousing words, since they were not modulated by different task demands. In contrast, a later ERP effect of emotion was restricted to lexical and semantic decisions and, thus, appears to indicate more elaborated, task-dependent processing of emotional words.

Ausgehend von den berufspolitischen Rahmenbedingungen in der Schweiz beschreiben sie die einzelnen Schritte, die zur Erreichung der Anerkennung notwendig waren. Die Befragung richtete sich u. Aus einer zielorientierten Perspektive stellt dies aber keine zufriedenstellende Vorgehensweise dar. Erforderlich ist vielmehr eine systematische Vorgehensweise bei der Auswahl, welche sich an den nutzbaren Kompetenzen eines Coachs orientiert und eine konzeptionelle Fundierung aufweist.

Durch eine multiparadigmatische Literaturanalyse und eine explorative Studie werden sieben Basiskompetenzen von Coaches identifiziert, an denen sich die Auswahl eines Coachs ausrichten sollte. Most animal models of AD consist of transgenic mice that are usually housed singly or in unisexual groups in small barren cages. Such restricted environments, however, prevent the mice from showing a variety of speciesspecific behaviors and consequently may constrain comprehensive behavioral phenotyping. On the other hand, allowing the animals to freely organize their lives in a spacious physically and socially enriched environment makes behavioral phenotyping laborious and time consuming.

Radio frequency identification RFID using a network of antennae and small glass-coated transponders labeling each individual allows for gathering spatiotemporal information about a large number of individuals in parallel. The aim of this project was to use the RFID technique to facilitate the characterization of mice carrying a genetic disposition to develop AD-like pathology and of their wild-type conspecifics in a spacious seminaturalistic environment.

Participants provided information about their childhood by rating their confidence about whether they had experienced various events e. On some trials, participants unscrambled a key word from the event phrase e. The act of unscrambling led participants to increase their confidence that the event occurred in their childhood, but only when the confidence rating immediately followed the act of unscrambling. In the present article, we analyzed our data using a new signal detection mixture distribution model that does not require the researcher to know the veracity of memory judgments a priori.

Our analysis reveals that unscrambling a key word or an unrelated word affects response bias and discriminability in autobiographical memory tests in ways that are very similar to those that have been previously found for word recognition tasks. Two experiments investigated the effect of visuospatial attention on redundancy gain in simple reaction time tasks. In each trial participants were given a central arrow cue indicating where a stimulus would most likely be presented i. Then, a single stimulus or two redundant stimuli could be presented in either expected or unexpected locations.

Replicating previous findings, responses were faster when stimuli appeared in expected rather than unexpected locations, and they were also faster when two redundant stimuli were presented than when only one was. Critically, redundancy gain was statistically equivalent for stimuli in expected and unexpected locations, suggesting that the effect of redundancy gain arises after the perceptual processes influenced by the allocation of visuospatial attention. Oliver ; Hecht, Heiko. Although distance estimation has been extensively studied in the laboratory, our ability to judge large distances in the field is not well researched.

We challenge the notion that large distances are uniformly underestimated. We presented different targets to observers at distances ranging from 25 to m to obtain egocentric distance judgments in natural environments. Three experiments showed that observers tend to underestimate distances below 75 m in a large open field, whereas they overestimate farther distances. Both the eye height of the observer and the size of the target also influenced distance estimation. We conclude that the notion of a uniform vista space has to be reconceived.

Maternal behavior around parturition is important to piglet survival. An extreme form of failure of maternal behavior, also called maternal infanticide, often occurs in some sows. It leads to considerable economic losses to the pig industry and severe problems in pig welfare. In the F 2 population All F 2 sows were genotyped for microsatellite markers spanning the whole pig genome. A whole genome linkage analysis was performed using the non-parametric linkage test by SimWalk2 software. Show all 7. Event-related potentials were measured to investigate the role of visual spatial attention mechanisms in conflict processing.

We suggested that a more difficult target selection leads to stronger attentional top-down control, thereby reducing the effects of arising conflicts. This hypothesis was tested by varying the selection difficulty in a location negative priming NP paradigm. The difficult task resulted in prolonged responses as compared to the easy task.

A behavioral NP effect was only evident in the easy task. Psychophysiologically the easy task was associated with reduced parietal N1, enhanced frontocentral N2 and N2pc components and a prolonged P3 latency for the conflict as compared to the control condition. The N2pc effect was also obvious in the difficult task. Additionally frontocentral N2 amplitudes increased and latencies of N2pc and P3 were delayed compared to the easy task. The differences at frontocentral and parietal electrodes are consistent with previous studies ascribing activity in the prefrontal and parietal cortex as the source of top-down attentional control.


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  5. Thus, we propose that stronger cognitive control is involved in the difficult task, resulting in a reduced behavioral NP conflict. Die spezifischen musiktherapeutischen Interventionen und die postulierten, spezifischen Wirkfaktoren werden dargelegt. Das Erleben eines Notfalls, eines schweren Unfalls, einer Naturkatastrophe, einer Gewalttat oder eines Anschlags ist immer mit einer psychischen Belastung und einer Anpassungsreaktion verbunden. Die Gruppen werden von geschulten Erziehern geleitet.

    In an auditory four-alternative forced choice localization task, participants had to localize one of two simultaneously presented sounds while ignoring the location of the second sound. Negative priming—that is, sloweddown responses to a location that had to be ignored in the previous trial—was found only when the sound at the repeated location changed between prime and probe.

    There was also no increase in prime response errors to the probes of ignored repetition trials. These findings allow for the conclusion that auditory location priming is caused by feature mismatch only and that other mechanisms, such as inhibition of ignored locations or episodic retrieval of transfer-inappropriate prime information, do not play a role. The thesis of this contribution is: the body with its diseases can be experienced in a new way by listening. In the natural sciences we are used to getting into contact with natural phenomena via visual perception.

    But there is no a priori reason that this has to be like that necessarily. Scientific explanation, modeling and forming of a theory, is supposed to be independent from the modality of the individual perception. There is no reason to assume that a congenitally blind person cannot be as good a scientist as a deaf person. However, there is no guarantee that an exclusively visual and an exclusively auditory perception of phenomena will lead to the same models and theories. On the contrary, it is probable that the evaluation of perceptions by the visual and the auditory sense stresses different aspects and thereby will lead, for example, to complementary conclusions, particularly when complex phenomena are involved.

    Should this thought turn out to be correct, it would provide an important motivation to test how the modality of listening can be exploited systematically in the natural sciences and in medicine. Thus, by splitting or merging categories, subjective frequencies increase or decrease, respectively. We offer an account of this phenomenon that is based on the statistical principle of regression.

    Because empirical information is never noise-free, high frequencies are underestimated, and low frequencies are overestimated. As might be expected, the greatest influenc eon profitability comes from the electricity proceeds, the price of fuel and capital costs. Ein entscheidendes Planungsinstrument stellen hierbei geordnete Jahresdauerlinien fuer Strom und Waerme dar.

    Mit Hilfe eines PC-Programms kann anhand weniger Eckdaten festgestellt werden, ob eine Detailbetrachtung zu einer wirtschaftlichen Loesung fuehren koennte. Zusaetzlich wird eine Primaerenergie- und Emissionsbilanz erstellt, die die umweltrelevanten Vorteile der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung verdeutlicht. Eine Sensitivitaetsanalyse zeigt Haupteinflussfaktoren auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Gasturbinenprojektes. Die Stromgutschrift, der Brennstoffpreis und die Investitionskosten ueben erwartungsgemaess den groessten Einfluss auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit aus. Abschliessend werden.

    Integrative quantification and balancing of contaminant fluxes in urban groundwater, case study Darmstadt; Integrative Quantifizierung und Bilanzierung von Stofffluessen in urbanem Grundwasser am Beispiel Darmstadts. Beier, M. The qualitative and quantitative impact of a city on groundwater is presented in the case study of Darmstadt. The impact of land use on groundwater quality in Darmstadt is higher than the impact of background geological processes.

    An integrative, spatially differentiating quantification of mass fluxes shows that e. Cl and B are introduced from urban sources such as leaking sewers and road salting. A decrease of concentrations downstream from the city can be ascribed to diving plumes. Die Landnutzung hat in Darmstadt einen staerkeren Einfluss auf die Grundwasserqualitaet als die Geologie.

    Eine integrative, raeumlich differenzierende Quantifizierung der Massenfluesse zeigt, dass z. Cl und B aus urbanen Quellen wie Abwasserexfiltration und Streusalz eingetragen werden. Modern completion and start-up techniques for petroleum wells on Mittelplate: Mittelplate A 3a and 8b; Moderne Komplettierung und Inproduktionssetzung von Erdoelbohrungen auf Mittelplate am Beispiel Mittelplate A 3a und 8b. The Mittelplate offshore platform is located 7 km offshore Schleswig-Holstein in the Wattenmeer national park.

    The contribution describes the completion and start-up operations. Sie liegt 7 km vor der Nordseekueste Schleswig-Holsteins im Nationalpark Wattenmeer an der Position von einer der drei vorausgegangenen Erkundungsbohrungen. Auf der mit Spundwaenden eingefassten kuenstlichen Insel befinden sich die notwendigen Foerder-, Aufbereitungs- und Zwischenlagereinrichtungen fuer Erdoel, als auch die Energieversorgungs-, Prozesssteuer- und Wohnbereiche.

    Ein in die Insel integrierter Hafen nimmt zum Abtransport des Reinoels eine der drei Oeltransport-Bargen auf, mit denen das Reinoel zum Anlanden nach Brunsbuettel gebracht wird. Am Beispiel der beiden in komplettierten Bohrungen Mittelplate A 3a und 8b soll im Folgenden ueber die Komplettierung und Inproduktionssetzung von Bohrungen auf Mittelplate berichtet werden.

    Es werden die Anforderungen an die Komplettierungstechnik vorgestellt und im Hinblick darauf die Beispielbohrungen erlaeutert. Abschliessend soll ein Blick in die Praxis der Komplettierungsarbeiten und der Inproduktionssetzung geworfen werden. At present much emphasis is placed on adapting the existing plants to modern environmental requirements. Die vielerorts eingeleitete Erneuerung und Modernisierung der Fernwaermeanlagen wird am Beispiel der Stadt Bruenn dargestellt.

    Die Anpassung der Waermeproduktionsanlagen an die Erfordernisse des Umweltschutzes entsprechend dem Stand der Technik macht betraechtliche Investitionen noetig, wobei in Bruenn der Ersatz alter Kohlekessel durch Gaskessel und Gas-Kombianlagen im Vordergrund steht. Simulation of thermal radiation, illustrated by the Bridgman casting process for directional solidification of turbine blades; Simulation von Waermestrahlung am Beispiel des Bridgman-Verfahrens zur gerichteten Erstarrung von Turbinenschaufeln.

    Directionally solidified turbine blades for high-temperature applications today are commonly produced by the Bridgman casting process. The production of a newly constructed turbine blade requires a number of costly and time-consuming casting experiments. The author develops a numerical simulation model based on the finite element method and net radiation method for low-cost and short-term simulation and optimisation of the casting experiments. Several different numerical methods for calculating thermal radiation are compared radiosity, ray tracing and the finite difference method , and the simulation results are presented for several exemplry turbine blades.

    Further, an optimisation strategy for improving the quality of the turbine blade casting process is presented. Die Herstellung einer neu konstruierten Turbinenschaufel verlangt eine Reihe von kosten- und zeitaufwendigen Giessexperimenten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein numerisches Simulationsmodell auf Basis der Finiten Elemente Methode und Net Radiation Methode entwickelt, mit dem sich kostenguenstig und in kurzen Zeitraeumen die Giessversuche simulieren und optimieren lassen. Die Arbeit vergleicht verschiedene numerische Loesungsverfahren fuer die Waermestrahlung Radiosity, Ray Tracing und Finite Differenzen Verfahren und stellt am Beispiel einiger Turbinenschaufeln die Simulationsergebnisse dar.

    Weiterhin wird eine Optimierungsstrategie fuer Verbesserung der Gussqualitaet von Turbinenschaufeln vorgestellt. Metatheoriebildung in der dialogischen Konfliktbearbeitung — ein konzeptioneller Vorschlag am Beispiel der Konflikttransformation nach Galtung und des Konfliktmanagements nach Glasl und des Integralen Ansatzes nach Wilber. Skizze eines Integrationsmodells: a. Quadranten: Gewaltart etc. Sectoral clusters as new trajectories of great promise.

    Business networks and regional innovation systems: The German rail vehicle industry for example; Hoffnungstraeger Wirtschaftscluster. Unternehmensnetzwerke und regionale Innovationssysteme: Das Beispiel der deutschen Schienenfahrzeugindustrie. Und welche Wechselwirkungen gibt es zwischen dem raeumlichen Kontext der Region und dem Beziehungsnetz der Wirtschaft und des Wissenssystems? Am Beispiel der Systemtechnologie Schienenfahrzeugbau wird der Zusammenhang zwischen den materiellen Verflechtungsstrukturen und den Netzen des Wissensaustausches behandelt sowie empirisch fuer die Region Berlin-Brandenburg vertieft.

    Die Untersuchung demonstriert die Grenzen der bislang vorliegenden theoretischen Ansaetze zur regionalen Clusterbildung und weist der Theorieentwicklung neue Wege. Technology assessment with regard to the environment. Assessment of the consequences of legislation for environment protection shown for the example of the Law on Chemicals. Final report; Technikfolgenabschaetzung - Umwelt. Gesetzesfolgenabschaetzung im Umweltschutz. Untersuchung am Beispiel des Chemikaliengesetzes.

    Pdf Interaktive Großgruppen: Change Prozesse In Organisationen Gestalten

    In this project the Law on Protection from Harzardous Substances Law on Chemicals was used to exemplify the procedure of assessing the consequences of legislation in the area of environmental law. The project proposal distinguished three project phases. In the first an exemplary ex post analysis was to be carried out on a significant legal regulation the Law on Chemicals concerning a specific branch of industry generally considered innovative the chemical industry.

    In this way it was intended to collect empirical knowledge on how regulations affect innovation processes in the individual company. In the second phase the planned amendment of the Law on Chemicals was to serve as a case example for an assessment of the consequences of legislation. In the third project phase the methodology employed in the former was to be extended for the purpose of developing an instrumentarium for the ex ante assessment of legislation. Such an instrument could permit both the corporate innovator and the innovation promoter to assess the effets of environmental legislation at the corporate level and thus develop an anticipatory conflict management.

    Der Projektvorschlag sah dabei vor, zunaechst in einer. Iliofemoral and iliocaval interventions in deep venous thrombosis; Iliofemorale und iliocavale Interventionen bei tiefer Venenthrombose. Haage, P. Significant spontaneous thrombus disintegration in deep venous thrombosis DVT occurs very infrequently. On the contrary, these thrombi are prone to appositional growth and migration into the pulmonary arteries.

    The development of chronic venous insufficiency due to postthrombotic syndrome is a frequent consequence of DVT. Therapeutic options in DVT include anticoagulation and recanalising procedures such as thrombolysis and thrombectomy. After appropriate indication assessment, the interventional radiologist can offer an efficacy-proven minimally-invasive vessel restitution approach by performing locoregional thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical therapy or, particularly in iliocaval thrombosis, mechanical thrombectomy.

    These methods not only serve to restitute of vessel patency, but also allow preserving venous valve function. In DVT with recurrent pulmonary embolism, retrievable filters with extended implantation duration can be deployed. In chronic proximal venous flow obstruction or in case of significant residual stenosis after thrombolysis, balloon angioplasty with stent implantation is the treatment modality of choice.

    Consequently, the radiologist can adopt an important role in the treatment of extensive venous disease. In this article, the treatment modalities concerning iliofemoral and iliocaval thrombosis are demonstrated and illustrated. CT-guided interventions in children; Computertomografisch gesteuerte Interventionen bei Kindern. Honnef, D.

    Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik. In pediatric CT-guided interventions specific features have to be taken into account. Due to a lack of cooperation or limited ability to cooperate, procedures are often performed using analgosedation or general anesthesia.

    To provide radiation protection, justified indication for CT-guided intervention is necessary and sonography and MRI are to be preferred whenever possible. CT examinations also need to be dose-adapted with sequential scanning and a tube voltage and tube current reduction compared to pediatric diagnostic CT studies must be ensured. Gonad shields are recommended for male patients. Biopsy device selection depends on the assumed tumor entity since histology and also immunohistochemical, molecular pathological and cytogenetical analysis are necessary to differentiate pediatric tumors small, round, blue cell tumors.

    In addition to diagnostic procedures, therapeutic interventions drainage, injection therapies, neurolysis, and radiofrequency ablation can also be used in children and can provide an alternative to surgery in selected cases. With justified indications and precise performance, CT-guided interventions can be successful in pediatric patients with limited risks. BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world.

    Managers, key players and scientists are allowed to choose wherever they want to work in the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly - the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Therefore, a lot of expats are moving around with their families. Many times, the lack of integration at the current place, country or city, is the critical success factor for staying or leaving. Furthermore, if the family does not feel happy in the current location, then the manager or scientist will move away or return home and the investment will be lost.

    Moreover, many students have received a good education in a state university, however afterwards they have not secured a satisfactory job in the country where they have studied, therefore they are moving away to utilise their know-how. Measures to retain the know-how include a common placement and a welcome-culture in the country, and also exchanges on an international level. Die Visualisierung von Quellennetzwerken am Beispiel Plutarchs. Full Text Available This paper focuses on the research on visualizations that support close and distant reading of textual data in the digital classics.

    The visualization and analysis of textual relationships will be thematised suggesting a taxonomy of classical textual sources as well as the surplus of potentially beneficial visualization approaches for research using graphs to analyze the textual relationship. Heterotopie aus Fakt und Fiktion. Beispiel Venedig. Full Text Available Heterotopia are spatial challenges to social order. They are energized not only by real spatial conditions but also by established ascriptions.

    The example of Venice displays the entanglement and efficacy of the interplay between a specific spatial order and venerable images. Full Text Available BrainGain is a common trend within the last ten years in Europe and all-over the world. As there is a lack of qualified individuals for companies and universities, BrainGain has become a necessity, and mostly — the higher educated individuals are moving away according to a better offer elsewhere in the world. Seismologische Karten - ein Beispiel thematischer Kartographie. The example of refrigeration technology for air conditioning plants.

    Practice-oriented advanced training at Technische Akademie Esslingen training centre. Beispiel : Kaeltetechnik in Klimaanlagen. The training lasts several days and comprises a total of 12 courses on the subjects: ventilation and air-conditioning, stages A-D; refrigeration, stage A; refrigeration in air conditioning glants; energy concepts for buildings and industry, stages A and B; heating in old and new buildings; sanitation, stages A and B; and, sanitation in old and new buildings.

    In the present article the structure of the training is illustrated for the example of refrigeration in air conditioning plants. The article also discusses questions concerning the assessment of the training and its benefit to the participants. Am Beispiel des Themenbereiches Kaeltetechnik in Klimaanlagen wird die Lehrgangsausrichtung dargestellt. Ferner werden Fragen der Lehrgangsbewertung und der Nutzen fuer die Teilnehmer diskutiert.

    Ex-ante Evaluation von Investitionsalternativen. Developing a model system for simulation of changes induced by more effective circular flow concepts in industry and energy management. Systems technology and economic modelling aspects shown with the example of the materials flow in the paper industry; Entwicklung eines Modellsystems zur Simulation der energiewirtschaftlichen und strukturellen Veraenderungen einer verstaerkten Kreislaufwirtschaft. Systemtechnische und oekonomische Modellierung am Beispiel des Stoffstroms 'Papier'.

    The impacts of a long-term change from our present industrial society to an economy based on circular flow concepts approaching the characteristics of the concept of sustainable development have to be taken into account in macroeconomic modelling as well, or else there is no appropriate basis for examination and assessment of the effects of various resource management policy options on the economy.

    One possible methodological approach is to link single, process-oriented models of sectors of the industry with input-output models and macroeconomic models. This study presents an approach using as an example the pulp and paper industry of Germany, covering the period from until The results are found to improve the methodological perspective between the process models and the MIS model of the family of IKARUS models and also offer an additional advantage in that they may serve as a data source for other input-output models and macroeconomic modelling.

    Ein methodischer Weg zu dieser Aufgabe ist die Verknuepfung einzelner prozessorientierter Branchenmodelle mit Input-Output-Modellen und makrooekonomischen Modellen. Der vorliegende Bericht will hierzu einen Baustein am Beispiel der Zellstoff- und Papierindustrie fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Zeitperiode beitragen. To present a patient care evaluation program exemplified by a rehabilitation clinic for complementary and alternative medicine CAM with focus on aspects of structure quality, steps of quality assurance and interventions administered.

    Methods: Assessment of previously defined criteria of structure general characteristics of the facility, staff, medical equipment and constructional features, medical concept, continuing care, internal communication and measures of qua For almost twenty years now, museums of old masters invite contemporary artists to intervene in their rooms.

    This paper traces the development of these interventions since ca. The period in question can be divided in two phases. Until the s, contemporary movements such as institutional or museum critique, activism and artistic research shaped the intervention Biotest-directed identification of toxic organic compounds in sediments - a contribution to risk assessment of complex contaminations using the small river Spittelwasser as an example; Biotestorientierte Identifikation toxischer organischer Sedimentinhaltsstoffe - ein Beitrag zur Risikoanalyse komplexer Kontaminationen am Beispiel des Spittelwassers.

    Brack, W. Eintrittswahrscheinlichkeit der betreffenden Wirkung abzuschaetzen. Umweltkompartimente wie Sedimente sind in der Regel nicht durch eine definierte Chemikalie belastet, sondern durch komplexe Mischungen unbekannter Zusammensetzung aus natuerlichen und anthropogenen Substanzen. Eine Risikoanalyse komplexer Umweltkontaminationen erfordert daher einen zusaetzlichen vorgeschalteten Schritt, die Identifikation potenziell wirksamer Schadstoffe.

    Hierbei hat sich der Einsatz sequenzieller Teststrategien bewaehrt. Sie kombinieren biologischen Wirkungstests, physikalisch-chemische Fraktionierung und chemsiche Analytik wirksamer Fraktionen mit dem Ziel einer schrittweisen Eingrenzung wirksamer Stoffgruppen und letztendlich einer Identifikation von fuer messbare Wirkungen verantwortlichen Schadstoffen. Research into these texts reveals that the Germans constructed an Facetten der Reurbanisierung.

    In the light of an increasing importance of the discussion on reurbanization, the article analyses the current socioeconomical and structural development of the city of Moenchengladbach. City development processes are marked by a high degree of dynamic individualization - an increasing number of cities have achieved a stage of reurbanization, whereas others have not completeley reached that stage of urban renewal. An analysis of Moenchengladbach indicates that quantative aspects of reurbanization are fulfilled, whereas qualitative reurbanisation processes as an increasing attractiveness, urban revaluation, and gentrification of innercity areas remain a future potential.

    Google is supposed to be the dominant player in most search markets around the world. But what is a search market? And is this relevant? Search engines do not charge users for their services, they earn money exclusively with advertisement. Hence, may Components - methods - examples. Komponenten - Methoden - Beispiele. Heimann, B. Mechatronics combines the main disciplines electrical- and mechanical engineering and informatics. Its increasing importance occurs in all kind of on-line control systems, process control, sensor guided robots, magnetic bearings, automobile engineering etc.

    This book addresses students in all this fields. The main topics are: actuators, sensors, signal processing, data processing, simulation of multibody systems, planning of trajectories, control of mechatronic systems and as an attachment mathematical fundamentals. Ihre wachsende Bedeutung findet sich wieder in der gesamten Leittechnik, Verfahrenstechnik, sensorgefuehrte Roboter, Magnetlager, Fahrzeugtechnik usw.

    Dieses Buch spricht Studenten in all diesen Fachgebieten an. Inhaltliche Hauptkapitel sind: Aktoren, Sensoren, Signalverarbeitung, Prozessdatenverarbeitung, Modellbildung von Mehrkoerpersystemen, Trajektorplanung, Regelung mechatronischer Systeme mit ausfuehrlichen Beispielen und schliesslich ein Anhang mit mathematischen Grundlagen.

    Frauen haben bedeutsame Rechtspositionen erlangt, die national, inter- und transnational Geltung haben und zumindest theoretisch Anerkennung gefunden haben. Sie wirken mit als Beteiligte staatlicher Delegationen, als Mitglieder von Kontrollgremien und internationalen Organisationen, und Frauen sind wesentlich beteiligt in Nichtregierungsorganisationen.

    Augmented Reality als Vergleichswerkzeug am Beispiel der Automobilindustrie. In dieser Phase sind wesentliche Arbeiten die Ver- und Abgleiche realer Bauteile mit ihren computergenerierten Konstruktionsvorgaben. Tartu, Sergej A. Esenins Gedichtzyklus Ljubov' chuligana Beispiel einer Strukturanalyse. Side-effects and complications of intra-arterial tumour therapy - experience gained from interventions; Nebenwirkungen und Komplikationen der intraarteriellen Tumortherapie - Erfahrungen aus Interventionen. Goerich, J. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Kunze, V.

    The treatments were carried out for pelvic, hepatic, renal and mammary tumours, for bone metastization, pulmonary carcinomas as well as tumours of the gastrointestinal tract or the extremities. Except for cases, all patients had previously been subjected to surgery or radiotherapy to cure the disease now treated by the intra-arterial method. The cytostatic and embolization drugs used varied according to tumour histology and vascularization. They were observed to be two times more frequent for tumour embolization 1. An invariable use of refined methods like intraarterial computerized angiotomography to monitor perfusion and a choice of cytostatic drugs also based on anatomic determinants may further diminish the number of serious complications during perfusion therapy.

    In Abhaengigkeit von der Tumorhistologie und -vaskularisation wurden unterschiedliche Zytostatika verwendet. Verbesserte, konsequent eingesetzte Methoden zur Perfusionskontrolle wie das intraarterielle Angio-CT sowie eine Zytostatikawahl, die unter anderem auch an den anatomischen Gegebenheiten orientiert ist, koennten helfen, die Haeufigkeit von schweren Komplikationen zu senken.

    Rogits, B. Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Kropf, S. Purpose: Assessment of radiologist's hand dose in CT-guided interventions and determination of influencing factors. Materials and Methods: The following CT-guided interventions were included: Core biopsy, drainage, periradicular therapy, and celiac plexus neurolysis.

    The default parameters for CT fluoroscopy were kV, 90 mA and a 4 mm slice thickness. The tumor size, degree of difficulty 1 - 3 , level of experience and device parameters mAs, dose-length product, scan time were documented. The lesion size was 4 - mm median: 23 mm. The fluoroscopy time per intervention was 4.

    The measured hand dose ranged from 0. Conclusion: The median hand dose for different CT-guided interventions was 0. Therefore, the annual hand dose limit would normally only be reached with about interventions. Evaluation of a novel Seldinger-needle for computed tomography guided interventions: initial experiences; Evaluierung einer neuen Seldinger-Nadel fuer computertomografisch gesteuerte Interventionen : Erste Erfahrungen.

    Plumhans, C. To evaluate a new Seldinger puncture device for computed tomography-guided interventions under difficult conditions, to analyze applicability, and to investigate assets and drawbacks. This novel needle serves as a guide for many different interventional devices due to a guide wire welded on the proximal needle end.

    It allows continuous application of anesthesia via four tiny holes at the distal needle end until the region of interest is reached. Each intervention was subject to difficult interventional conditions. Handling, success, advantages, drawbacks, complications and patient tolerance were noted after each procedure. A pain scale from 1 - 10 was used to grade the pain level during the intervention. All interventions were performed successfully and no severe complications were observed. Regions with dangerous and difficult access were successfully reached with the new Seldinger needle in 15 of 16 cases by dilatation of the puncture tract and continuous administration of local anesthesia via the system.

    Furthermore, different devices such as Trucut systems and a drainage catheter were able to be inserted without complication via the needle. With a proximal removable luer-lock connection, liquid material was able to be aspirated in six cases. Under difficult interventional conditions, the use of a Seldinger needle as a reliable technique for CT-guided interventions can provide a safe and successful procedure.

    Economic evaluation of angiographic interventions including a whole-radiology in- and outpatient care; Wirtschaftliche Evaluation angiographischer Interventionen einschliesslich einer radiologischen stationaeren und ambulanten Patientenbetreuung. Nolte-Ernsting, C. Purpose: To determine the economic efficiency of a whole-radiology in- and outpatient treatment with angiographic interventions performed as the main or sole therapy. Materials and Methods: The calculations represent the data of a university radiology department, including the following angiographic interventions neuroradiology not considered : Vascular intervention PTA, stent implantation of kidneys and extremities, recanalization of hemodialysis access, chemoembolization, diagnostic arterioportal liver CT, port implantation, varicocele embolization, PTCD, percutaneous implantation of biliary stent.

    First, the different angiographic interventions are categorized with reference to the German DRG system Considering the example of a university hospital, the individual cost of each intervention is calculated and correlated with reimbursements by G-DRG and so-called ''ambulant operation'' EBMplus. With these data, profits and losses are calculated for both in- and outpatient care. Results: Radiologic interventions of inpatients yield a profit in the majority of cases.

    The data of outpatient radiological interventions average between Euro up to Euro lower than compared with profits obtained from in patient care. Person oder Situation? Conservation-psychological interventions to change individual behavior. Such an approach provides a basis for deciding whether psychological interventions such as environmental education, attitude change, and. Further development of the methodology for the realization of safety analyses concerning the controllability of operational malfunctions and accidents.

    Report on the working package 1. Review and development of safety-related assessment for final repositories for wastes with negligible heat generation and the provision of the necessary set of tools using the example of the final repository Konrad; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik fuer die Durchfuehrung von Sicherheitsanalysen zur Beherrschung von Betriebsstoerungen und Stoerfaellen.

    Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 1. Untersuchung und Entwicklung von sicherheitstechnischen Bewertungen fuer Endlager fuer Abfaelle mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung und Bereitstellung des notwendigen Instrumentariums am Beispiel des Endlagers Konrad. In the research project on the ''Review and development of safety-related assessments of disposal facilities with negligible heat generation; development and provision of the necessary set of tools, using the example of the Konrad disposal facility'' Untersuchung und Entwicklung von sicherheitstechnischen Bewertungen fuer Endlager fuer Abfaelle mit vernachlaessigbarer Waermeentwicklung; Entwicklung und Bereitstellung des notwendigen Instrumentariums am Beispiel des Endlagers Konrad - Forschungsvorhaben R , the state of the art in science and technology of the safety-related assessments and sets of tools for building a safety case was examined.

    The reports pertaining to the two work packages described the further development of the methodology for accident analyses WP 1 and of building a safety case WP 2 ; also, comparisons were drawn on a national and international scale with the methods applied in the licensing procedure of the Konrad disposal facility. As part of the project, the report of Work Package 1 depicts the methodology of the operating safety analysis in order to control malfunctions and incidents accident analysis using the example of the Konrad mine accident analysis.

    Set of criteria in this connection is the state-of-the-art international and national comprehensive body of legislation identifying the incident requirements. In extracts complementary safety analysis procedures of other countries are presented where applicable. It becomes apparent, that the majority of the investigated countries use a deterministic accident analyses to identify incidents.


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    Here, common international practice is to com-plement the deterministic accident analysis by a probabilistic analysis. This procedure acts on the IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency terms of reference using both deterministic and probabilistic methods for the determination of facility hazard potentials.

    Based on the Konrad mine method, aspects of incident. Has the audio cassette been the medium so far to distribute the musical productions of a homerording musician who is constantly suffering from the low-budget syndrome, he will now be able to stand up to popular standard owing to a new device, installed into his computer.

    With the help of a CD-recorder now every creative musician will be in the lucky position to offer his works suitable to the media in the widespread format of the compact disk. This is not the case only for the indivudual who Moreover, the safe operation of the wastewater treatment plant can be guaranteed by simple means without significantly increasing stormwater overflow discharges. In the catchment area of the Wilhelmshaven wastewater treatment plant, an integrated, fuzzy-based control system has been in place for more than a year now.

    Formen und Vertragliche Vereinbarungen als Instrument der Wirtschaftspolitik am Beispiel des Altschuldenkompromisses in der ostdeutschen Wohnungswirtschaft. Relational contracts when employed as a tool of economic policy create mutual dependency between State and enterprises. However, transaction cost theory points to potential transaction cost savings, hence efficiency improving features of relational contracting. The paper analyses the Performance of relational contracting b Mathematics of quantum mechanics.

    Foundations, examples, problems, solutions; Mathematik der Quantenmechanik. Grundlagen, Beispiele , Aufgaben, Loesungen. This book mediates the fundamental terms and methods, which are necessary for an understanding of quantum mechanics. It shows, how mathematics can contribute to the understanding of quantum mechanics.

    The presented quantum-mechanical problems aim at the illustration and exercise of the most important mathematical methods. Because of the clear and understandable presentation and the numerous completely calculated examples and problems this book is suited for the self-study, for the accompanying of courses on quantum physics, for the accomplishment of exercise problems, and for the preparation on examinations. It is a well-known fact that many students of German have difficulties reading and thereby understanding LSP texts written in German.

    This is the kind of question that is normally answered within a cognitive framework. In this article, however, the point of departure will be syntactic Ecological reconstruction of older buildings. Munich, Pariser Str. Oekologische Sanierung. Beispiel : Muenchen, Pariser Str. In response to an initiative of the Ernst Friedrich Schumacher Gesellschaft fuer politische Oekologie e. Apart from the energy conservation effect, practical experience was to be gained on the ecological and energy efficient application of different measures.

    The project is to serve as a model for future sanitation projects. Am Beispiel Westfalen-Lippes zwischen — Production-integrated emission reduction: Examples from power plant engineering; Produktionsintegrierte Emissionsminderung - Beispiele aus der Kraftwirtschaft. The contribution presents examples of how environmental protection can be integrated in the production process: 1. Low-NOx coal furnaces; 2. Flue gas desulphurisation; 3. Mercury in sludge from flue gas desulphurisation systems, 4.

    Production of acid aerosols in the power plant process; 5. Semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation. Apart from generating power, modern coal power stations also produce recycleable materials like gypsum, filter ash, granulates etc. Avoidance of residues is the main goal; if this is not possible, recycling is given priority over dumping.

    The parameters concerned, i. Solutions range form high-grade fuels and product requiring high investments e. High investments and high-quality products are economically efficient only if there is an infrastructure for product sales and distribution. Coal power plants therefore must be optimised for the conditions of a given site. Rauchgasentschwefelung REA ; 3. Quecksilber in REA-Schlamm; 4. Sauere Aerosole und ihre Entstehung im Kraftwerksprozess; 5. Halbtrockene Rauchgasreinigung.

    Es wird resumiert, dass ein Kohlekraftwerk heute mehreren 'Meistern' gehorchen muss. Der Grundsatz 'Vermeiden vor Verwerten vor Beseitigen' wird dabei nachdruecklich verfolgt. Darueber hinaus hat eine Nichtverwertbarkeit der Reststoffe gravierende Auswirkungen fuer die Wirtschaftlichkeit. Die Parameter Brennstoffe, Feuerungstechnik, Rauchgasreinigungstechnik, Produktverwertung sind je nach Standort individuell zu bewerten. Das Spannungsfeld liegt zwischen hochwertigen Brennstoffen und Produkten, fuer die in der Anlagentechnik auch entsprechende Investitionen erforderlich sind z.

    Staubfeuerung mit Kalkstein- oder Ammoniakalischer Waesche oder einfacheren Verfahren mit zum Teil geringeren Investitionskosten z. Rauchgasreinigung mittels Trocken- oder Halbtrockenverfahren. Es ist nicht wirtschaftlichm in eine Anlage zu investieren und hochwertige Produkte zu erzeugen, wenn fuer deren Abnahme keine Infrastruktur existiert. Kohlekraftwerke sind unter Nutzung der technischen Moeglickeiten fuer den jeweiligen Standort zu optimieren.

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    Problembasiertes kollaboratives Lernen mit virtuellen Patienten in der Kinderheilkunde: ein Beispiel aus der Ausbildungspraxis. Produkt- und Innovationsmanagement an Bibliotheken: Prozessfindung am Beispiel wissenschaftlicher Bibliotheken im deutschsprachigen Raum. Die kognitiv-metaphorische Motiviertheit beim Erlernen von Idiomen am Beispiel eines Aufgabenblattes. Full Text Available The cognitive metaphorical motivation of idioms is one of the most treated subjects in English-language articles about teaching of idioms.

    In German-language phraseodidactic literature it is a rather rare phenomenon. The metaphorical motivation of several idiomatic expressions is undoubted. In this article we argue for their cognitive metaphorical motivation. It is hypothesized that the joint representation of several typical context examples, with idioms of the same conceptual metaphor, not only promotes the recognition and understanding of idioms but also the detection of cognitive metaphorical motivation of idioms.

    Context-sensitive tasks make a significant contribution to uncovering and learning the metaphorical idioms for learners of German as a foreign language. The learning-enhancing role of this method for the acquisition of idioms and their meanings are to be illustrated with the example of the conceptual metaphor life is a journey, the metaphorical idioms based on this conceptual metaphor, and an example worksheet. Papierformen der Frageb Geometrische und stochastische Modelle zur Verarbeitung von 3D-Kameradaten am Beispiel menschlicher Bewegungsanalysen. Der Einsatz der sozialen Medien im Place Branding.

    This article focuses on the opportunities and risks of using social media in place branding. Where local authorities provide their content in the context of a place branding via social media, the users gain attributes of a prosumer, most important of which is the high potential for participating in the actual branding process. This active participation causes a variety of changes compared to a branding process without social media.

    Thus, a qualitative, a quantitative, as well as a temporal and spatial increase of contact with the brand can be determined, though, by virtue of the anonymity provided by the Internet, it is quite possible that this all takes place covertly. A permanent monitoring of the branding process on the part of the operators has become necessary in order to react quickly to changes.

    As the title of her book professes, Beate Rudolf wishes to point to the obvious changes in this relationship. Women are not only possible victims and thus the object of international legal protection in political conflicts or areas of contention. Women also have achieved significant legal positions that have national, international, and transnational validity and therefore have, at least theoretically, received recognition. Women actively change international law. They participate in national delegations, they are members in advisory committees and international organizations, and they are significantly involved in non-governmental organizations.

    The volume, however, also points to the dangers inherent in these new positions. Batteries for energy storage. Examples, strategies, solutions; Batterien als Energiespeicher. Beispiele , Strategien, Loesungen. This book presents the variety of battery technologies and describes their mobile and stationary applications and uses.

    The major social project of the energy transition requires a holistic approach that takes into account especially the issues of energy saving and efficiency in addition to the power generation and distribution from renewable resources. In addition, the book provides an outlook on the further development possibilities of battery technology and battery applications. Improved battery technology is an important factor to help electromobility and stationary applications of batteries as distributed energy storage breakthrough.

    Not least, the importance and the need for the recycling of batteries and the variety of battery technologies are presented that have the greatest importance in terms of resource conservation and resource security. Das gesellschaftliche Grossprojekt der Energiewende bedarf einer ganzheitlichen Betrachtung, die neben der Energiegewinnung und -verteilung aus Erneuerbaren Ressourcen besonders Fragen der Energiespeicherung und -effizienz beruecksichtigt. Daneben bietet das Buch einen Ausblick auf die weiteren Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten der Batterietechnologien und Batterieanwendungen.

    Eine verbesserte Batterietechnik ist ein wichtiger Faktor, um der Elektromobilitaet und der stationaeren Anwendung von Batterien als dezentrale Energiespeicher zum Durchbruch zu verhelfen. Nicht zuletzt werden die Bedeutung und die Notwendigkeit des Recyclings von Batterien und der Vielfalt von Batterietechnologien dargestellt, die im Hinblick auf die Ressourcenschonung und die Ressourcensicherheit groesste Bedeutung haben. Progression und Regression produktiver und rezeptiver Lernersprachenbereiche am Beispiel mehrsprachiger SpanischlernerInnen.

    Full Text Available The present paper will discuss results in the progression and regression of language production and language reception in school context in a multilingual group of Spanish learners. The learners were provided with a twelve-hour-a-week intensive course for twice a period of two weeks respectively: intensive course 1 took place at the beginning of the semester, intensive course 2 two months later.

    The break of eight weeks in between was due to a pragmatic-organisational decision and depended on school-internal reasons. The two months without any input in the target language together with the two intensive instruction periods allow an analysis of learner language production and target language comprehension in order to get to know whether the development of production and reception follows the same pathway. Data were drawn at the beginning and at the end of both intensive courses. Data referring to morphosyntactical Pienemann and pragmatic aspects House , Wurnig in learner language production were elicited by oral dialogues between the learners followed by an interview with the researcher.

    Data concerning the receptive skills of listening and reading were elicited by standardised tests which lead to the certificate examination D. Results will be discussed in the framework of language acquisition and language attrition research. Secondary maritime climate protection. The example of ocean fertilization; Sekundaerer maritimer Klimaschutz. Das Beispiel der Ozeanduengung.

    In the focus of the current debate on the handling of climate change are strategies to prevent greenhouse gas emissions and the adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The author of the book under consideration deals with the climate engineering. Using the example of ocean fertilization, the standards of international public law are analyzed with respect to their applicability and suitability for the evaluation of the concept. The first part of this book describes the scientific background of the ocean fertilization.

    The second part is devoted to the existing law and recent developments in the field of ocean fertilization. The third part of this book proposes a reading of the international environmentally legal concept of the provision. The intention is to meet the target conflicts due to the different approaches and regulations according to international law.

    Blended Learning in der Musiklehrerbildung. Erfahrungen und Perspektiven am Beispiel eines Praxisprojekts. In der Lehrerbildung zu Beginn des Das Beispiel Educational Media. Nach einer Bedarfs- und Zielgruppenanalyse wurde ein Curriculum entwickelt, das hier vorgestellt wird. Im Laufe des Besonders fielen die Wanderungsverluste der er Jah Untersuchung strategischer Marketingkonzeptionen deutscher Handelsunternehmen in Russland am Beispiel der Einzelhandelsbranche.

    Erfahrungen und Lernpotenziale am Beispiel Schleswig-Holstein. It has become more and more complicated for the customers to make their food shopping in local environments because smaller shops close down and the distances to supermarkets and discount stores have increased, especially in rural areas. The paper will discuss which alternatives of food retailing exist outside the supermarket world and analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of shop formats on the micro level.

    The statements are based on a conscious selection of different shop formats and expert interviews in rural areas of the province of Schleswig-Holstein. Verhaltenstherapie bei Enkopresis am Beispiel einer Patientin mit chronischem "Toiletten-Verweigerungssyndrom". Nachfeldbesetzung und diskursive Strategien der Hervorhebung. Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von nationalsozialistischen Politikerreden. Full Text Available Post-field syntax and focalization strategies in National Socialist political speech.

    This paper deals with a syntactic feature of spoken German, i. This paper aims at pointing out the communicative pragmatic function of right dislocation in the NS political speech on the basis of some collected examples. Research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Forschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Beispiele , Kritik, Vorschlaege. This book is about research and, consequently, researchers. It shows the kinds of questions they ask themselves, how they solve them and how they use the results. A great deal of discussion is going on about research in the Federal Republic of Germany: the aims, the promotion measures, the quality of research by international standards and the yield in proportion to the expenditure.

    Are we doing enough research. What inner and outer conditions will best ensure the prosperity of research. This book is a plausible attempt to provide the discussion with a solid basis: in it scientists report their experiences, presenting, in a manner of speaking, a piece of their scientific autobiography, because that is most likely to throw a light on the multifariousness, complexity and, often enough, unpredictability of events, influences, thoughts and motives which finally bring about their scientific achievement in the form of results and effects.

    This book has the merit of giving a voice to men of the arts and of the sciences and to the engineering community as well. Successful research, today, always carries an aspect of associating diverging scientific domains. Yet it does not try to give a comprehensive view of research in the Federal Republic of Germany, but limits itself instead to examples. Each of them is illustrative in a particular way. In their totality, they convey a unique picture of the scientific culture of the present. Das Beispiel Sotschi. The study focuses on Sochi: This Black Sea resort, of little importance before the revolution, became the preferred object of Stalinist development plans in the.

    The example of the Saarland: Activities and public relations. Beispiel Saarland: Aktivitaeten und Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit. With its innovative projects the Saarland often finds itself at the centre of public attention and energy-political discussions. Whether it is time-variable electricity rates, the foundation of an energy agency or an extraordinarily high payment for solar power supplied to the mains: The Saarland often picks up topical subjects, comes up with a new approach and thereby challenges Sclerotic rules of the Federal Government.

    Exposition of the operator's eye lens and efficacy of radiation shielding in fluoroscopically guided interventions; Exposition der Augenlinse des Untersuchers und Effizienz der Strahlenschutzmittel bei fluoroskopischen Interventionen. Galster, M. Radiologisches Inst. Purpose: Efficacy of radiation protection tools for the eye lens dose of the radiologist in fluoroscopic interventions. Materials and Methods: A patient phantom was exposed using a fluoroscopic system. Dose measurements were made at the eye location of the radiologist using an ionization chamber.

    The setting followed typical fluoroscopic interventions. The reduction of scattered radiation by the equipment-mounted shielding undercouch drapes and overcouch top was evaluated. The ceiling-suspended lead acrylic glass screen was tested in scattered radiation generated by a slab phantom. The protective properties of different lead glass goggles and lead acrylic visors were evaluated by thermoluminescence measurements on a head phantom in the primary beam.

    Applying the top in addition to the drapes reduces the lens dose by a factor of 2 for PA projections. In 25 LAO the dose is reduced by a factor between 1. The highest doses were measured for AP angulations furthermore the efficacy of the equipment-mounted shielding is minimal. The ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced scatter by a factor of about The lead glass goggles and visors reduced the lens dose up to a factor of 8 to Depending on the specific design, the tested models are less effective especially for radiation from lateral with cranial angulation of the beam.

    Occasionally the visors even caused an increase of dose. Conclusion: The exposition of the eye lens can be kept below the new occupational limit recommended by the ICRP if the radiation shielding equipment is used consistently. Comparison of two navigation systems for CT-guided interventions under special consideration of the ergonomic properties of the used systems; Vergleich zweier Navigationshilfen fuer CT-gesteuerte Interventionen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Nutzungseigenschaften der verwendeten Systeme.

    Purpose: investigation of the influence of CT-based navigation systems on the success of an intervention, assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the utilized systems, and evaluation of the ergonomic system properties. Materials and method: a simple guiding system PatPos Invent trademark and the computer-based navigation system PinPoint trademark were employed on two CT systems.

    In order to investigate the influence of the navigation aids on the success of the interventions, 96 prospective, randomized, and standardized punctures were performed on a specifically developed, rigid phantom. Results: irrespective of the experience of the examiner, both navigation systems guided the target with an equal degree of certainty. PinPoint significantly reduced the length of the examination time 12 - 25 min as compared to PatPos Invent 20 - 40 min.

    The expectation conformity and comprehensibility of PatPos Invent were assessed significantly more positively than PinPoint with regard to the general handling of the system. In contrast, the assessment of the usability during preoperative setup favored PinPoint. The type of navigation system has no influence on the precision of the implementation of a puncture procedure.

    Full Text Available [english] Despite critical voices lectures are still an important teaching format in current medical curricula. With the curricular reform at Hamburg Medical Faculty in the year , all subject specific lectures were replaced by cardinal symptom oriented lectures LSV in the new clinical curriculum. LSVs are taught throughout all six thematic blocks in years three to five. Since regular student evaluations after each thematic block seemed to demand improvement of the LSVs, this study was carried out using evaluations of individual LSVs by the participating students and by trained auditors final year students and academic staff.