At this point, several images are deployed and overlapped in convulsive lines:. Let us consider ll. In my opinion, however, the Folio reading is substantially correct:. The meaning is thus somehow clarified, but also belittled. An editorial and critical line Steevens, Malone, etc. Another critical line, which goes from Capell to Kermode, reads Affection as the passion of jealousy which is beginning to shake Leontes. But can one be sure that affection here means passion or even lust? It is a feeling, though, which the narrator ambiguously brings the reader to suspect as concealing something more than affection in her relationship with Egistus-Polixenes.
Leontes, therefore, seems to be upset both by the recipient, his friend Polixenes, to whom Hermione is addressing her affection , and by the apparent intensity of its manifestation. It was there even before finding the recipient on whom it now discharges itself; it lay in her dreams, in what is unreal. If her passion has always been there, hidden in her most secret fantasies, it can very well co-joine another hapax with something real — Polixenes at the moment — and thus being coactive , once it has found its target, it knows no limits: it goes beyond Commission , another strange word in the context, which seems to mean beyond any lawful authorization of her conscience.
Jealousy is the realm of the imaginaire. An endogenous obsessive feeling in Leontes, in Othello it is whipped up by Iago into the mind of the Moor.
Who Was Rumi?
The great scenes of his temptation are a triumph of indirectness over directness, of simulacra over signs, of the imaginaire over the real. As is well known, his weapons are those of reticence, litotes, negation, hypothesis, equivoque, and suspension. He says things while pretending that he is not saying anything. Pretty early in the first long scene iii. I prithee speak to me as to thy thinkings, As thou dost ruminate, and give thy worst of thoughts The worst of words.
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Anybody includes himself, but at the same time, through an indirect suggestion, hints at Desdemona, whose pure breast may not be what it claims to be:. Good my lord, pardon me; Though I am bound to every act of duty I am not bound to that all slaves are free to — Utter my thoughts? Why, say they are vile and false? Who has a breast so pure But some uncleanly apprehensions Keep leets and law-days and in session sit With meditations lawful? The verb to intrude suggests the creeping of repellent animals into cellars or dungeons.
A second, court of law, image follows to show the inner trial which takes place in any breast, even the supposedly pure, when the unclean apprehension clashes with the lawful meditation. Why is he taking the risk of exposing himself? His intention is clearly that of putting the stress on foul , unclean , and abuse , the words for the vices of which Desdemona must be found guilty, and to name for the first time in a displaced sense that of zeal, the puritan attitude that denounced any kind of abuse the key word jealousy , which Othello is called to elaborate on.
And this is what Iago soon arranges. He pretends to go away and thus leaves the Moor to think on his own. And to the same effect other images worked out by Iago have contributed, as can be seen in the following lines:.
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But there where I have garnered up my heart, Where either I must live, or bear no life, The fountain from the which my current runs Or else dries up — to be discarded thence! Or keep it as a cistern for foul toads To knot and gender in! Far from even keeping a corner in it, he now regards it as a place only fit for toads , Desdemona and her lover knotting in the dark water. To his mind the sublime Desdemona has become a thing , a dungeon , a cistern , all of them metaphors for the vagina, caught as he is in a hectic crowd of sexual images.
To reach this point, he has had to undergo an utter fragmentation of his conscience.
A passion for poetry and its purpose
Iago has insisted that he should think : l. Iago soon provides him with the object of thinking: he must think of kisses, of Cassio and Desdemona naked in bed but meaning no harm, of what Cassio has disclosed to Iago. What has Cassio said? As usual, Iago works on reticence. Othello, of course, knows that Lie has a double meaning — to couch and to tell lies — and tries for a moment to disentangle the sense.
But he soon suffers from a hallucination which forbids his discourse to flow any longer and, before swooning, he disintegrates his usually hyperbolic verse into a broken prose:.
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Lie with her? We say lie on her when they belie her! First to be hanged, and then to confess: I tremble at it. Nature would not invest herself in such shadowing passion without some instruction.
It is not words that shakes me thus. Noses, ears, and lips. O devil!
But which passion is he speaking of? Possibly both within his distraught mind. Pramila and I have shared similar concerns and hopes for SA poets. The festival grew from that shared vision erected on a shoestring budget propelled by enthusiasm and faith in Certainly joie de vivre, friendship and a sense of community have become the hallmark of the festival, which seeks to establish a paradigm based not on hierarchies but on solidarity; readings, youth readings, papers and panels are its stuffing.
In , the festival was sponsored by the South Asian community and the mainstream alike. The Turkish Dialog Institute hosted a reading with impeccable hospitality as an outstanding gesture of peace building. A bevy of friends, restaurants, aunties and uncles in the South Asian community offered homes to stay, meals, marketing materials and made fiscal donations. Our venue in Austin was Casa de Luz with its Zen-like ambience and organic restaurant — so healthy and leaving us in want of spice. The gastronomically tame food was more than compensated by the poetic spread from ten poets, some celebrated, some upcoming, each introduced by a pair of witty youth MCs with limericks, as in:.
Barely had a bite! But Hey! She brought in Keki Daruwalla. Saleem Peeradina presented a paper on the Mumbai poets—a pivotal chapter in Indian English Writing that marked the modernist evolution of the writing in the 70s.
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The cultural segment was an eclectic mix of a young violin virtuoso, Kai Cole, the Indian classical dance school, Natyalaya, improvisational poet, Thom the world poet a sobriquet self-bestowed , guitarist Darrell Mayers, photographer Rama Tiru, and the Syrian multilingual vocalist, Julie Slim. Blue the wide seas which others cross to be in a circle where you chose to be, and to create something new as breath, old as song.
Gathering is an ancient ceremony. Listening the first prayer. We came from distant states of mind, Packing our life-stories In carry-on bags To spill our guts To unheard, unmet Strangers on a sacred quest At the altar of poetry. We made our offerings Of blood, sweat, and tears And joined the chants of fellow pilgrims Drunk on words. Food, drink, song, dance, And laughter — It was a feast like no other. Free spirits, we soared, Our hearts filled to bursting.
We launched the signature Matwaala mug in Austin as a laurel for the poet-of- honor. It carries the logo and poetry lines by the poet. Of the award poet-of-honor Ralph Nazareth wittily observed: only truly feminist Hindu women could have selected three male Indian poets as poets of honor at the poetry festival they founded. They leapt across the religious spectrum, choosing a Parsi, a Muslim and Catholic in succession!
Talk about being genuinely inclusive! She was the poet laureate of Suffolk county from We felt the centrality of New York City would garner more interest and provide interactive opportunities with the various academic institutions. The political climate in may well have been the prod that attracted 16 poets from difference cities; Pulitzer winning Vijay Seshadri and lauded poet Meena Alexander, plus younger rising stars like Rohan Chhetri, attended.
In and , when we had the festival in NY, I had the opportunity to see my ideas manifesting. My vision for Matwaala is to highlight the contributions of South Asian diaspora poets in American literature. There are not merely a handful of SA poets in the diaspora, but several in each city.
My vision is to show the numbers which can fill a few volumes, but to also show to the world the rich literary heritage that SA poets bring to American literature. We see the brilliant intersections of South Asian and American traditions, and the startling and unpredictable creativity with language and form that ensues from these intersections and jugalbandhi conversation, to use a musical term. A vision I share with Usha is to bring more and more of the younger generation into the Matwaala fold and mentor them so they publish and transmit their knowledge to others.
There were poets who look and spoke like them!! How cool!