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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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People migrate from their country of origin for a variety of reasons: to avoid conflicts or violence, or distressed environmental challenges; to escape poverty, to provide better opportunities for their children, to reunite with families, to obtain a better education and to find employment. They face tough and challenging decisions and take life-threating risks to make a move domestically or across the borders. Why do people migrate from their home country and what are the motivational factors that lead to such an unforeseeable journey?

How do they choose their destination? This paper applies motivational theory to this migration. I investigate the personal, social, economic, and cultural variables that are the critical basis of these motivations. Europe, with 78 million immigrants, holds the 2nd place in the world, and Germany, with the most immigrants, holds the 1st place among European countries. More than 1. I have employed motivation theory to immigrants in Germany in order to determine why people emigrate to other countries. I have used the typology of motivational theory developed by Tartakovsky and Schwarts, who validated their theory by applying it to a sample of potential Jewish emigrants from Russia to Israel.

They described preservation as the physical, social, and psychological security for them and their family. The psychological aspect of this theory is the motivation to protect the social identity of the self or family in the face of a threat. Preservation motivation expresses that when people fear that they no longer have appropriate security to protect their social identity in their home country, they are motivated to move somewhere else. Self-development motivation refers to the stimulation of personal growth, learning new skills, and acquiring new knowledge.

When people are faced with economic hardship, eager to advance their career or learn new skills, or want to obtain a higher level of education, they get motivated to move elsewhere to achieve their goals. Materialism motivation theory of emigration deals with financial wellbeing, wealth, and control over material resources. This value type emphasizes the pursuit of self-interest through attaining socially approved status, achievement, and control over resources.

People give great importance to more than one of the higher-order values expressed by motivation and may get induced by one of these motivations to emigrate. Additionally, millions of immigrants have arrived in Germany in search of a better life and to escape instability, insecurity, terrorism, poverty, and climate change in other European countries, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.

They risked their lives, and many spent their savings to reach the borders in Europe and then made their way to Germany. I have utilized motivational theory to determine the needs that drive people to migrate. According to a report by the BBC, more than a million emigrants and refugees have crossed European borders either by sea or by land in the last decade from different parts of the world.

I have collected data from immigrants from Syria and Afghanistan to test the theory. Their view is that migration takes place when there are discomforts, difficulties, restrictions, clashes, and, finally, violence and wars in the home country. More than , people have died from the conflict in Syria According to an article in The Washington Post, the Syrian government has launched numerous chemical weapon attacks against its citizens Loveluck The security condition remains fragilein Deir ez-Zor region held by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in Syria, and the lack of basic human needs has motivated people to flee.

Similarly, the conflict in Afghanistan has cost the lives of more than 32, people since according to the United Nations. Furthermore, was the deadliest year with civilians killed in suicide bombings, targeted killings, and other operations. I have collected data from several interviews with Afghan and Syrian refugees to validate the motivation for leaving their home countries. Of the refugees we spoke to, eight out of 10 fled Syria following an incident that made them fear for their safety.

Many described arbitrary arrests by Syrian forces, the death of family or friends and the deteriorating security conditions in their neighborhoods. There were so many explosions…so we had to leave Syria. What do I remember of Syria? I remember two things—our house being bombed and not having any bread.

Most of the houses were being hit. We had to stay in one room, all of us. The other rooms were being hit— …. The bombs were hitting constantly, I was very scared. There were 13 of us in total. We did not leave that room for two weeks. It was always so loud. I watched as my father was shot outside our home.


I started to cry; I was so sad. We were living a normal life. We had enough food, now we depend on others. They had a large house overlooking the city, where they lived with their two children, Fathi, 3, and Zeinah, 1. Farah was hoping to return to school to continue her education, which she had put on hold after having her first child, and Adnan, an Arabic teacher, was pursuing a law degree.

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Their large, tight-knit family—Adnan has 8 sisters and 5 brothers and Farah has a large family as well—all lived nearby. Then, their house was seized by fighters because of its location. Soon after,it was destroyed.

They were homeless, and the nearby cities were under attack as well. Before the bombings could start in their city, Farah and Adnan made the choice to leave their home in order to keep their children safe. Farah, Adnan, and their children stayed in Turkey for one year before making the short but treacherous journey to Kos, Greece. However, Rabin was motivated by more than the desire to put an end to the pain of war and bloodshed alone.

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Very sadly, for Israel and the world, Rabin was assassinated before he could carry out his plans. First, of course, is what would have happened had the extremist Israeli nationalists not murdered Rabin. I believe that there was a far better chance that the peace process would have followed on the foundation set by Oslo. As I noted, Rabin had a clear strategic program that included making a deal with the Palestinians. At the same time, he was highly respected by the Israeli public as one of the first-generation founders of the state, as a warrior and as a strategist so he had the confidence of the public behind him.

Very importantly, Arafat also respected him and thus, more than any other Israeli leader, he might have brought the parties together. Nothing could be more fatal than the habit of personal contact between statesmen of the world. Personal contact breeds, inevitably, personal acquaintance and that, in its turn, leads in many cases to friendliness.

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There is nothing more damaging to precision in international relations than friendliness between contracting parties. Diplomacy, if it is ever to be effective, should be disagreeable business. And one recorded in hard print. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles.

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View page in TimesMachine. Kissinger came to Washington as the principal security adviser in the White House in January of , President Nixon and Vice President Agnew have been forced out of office, and his principal ally in Congress, Chairman William Fulbright of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, was defeated at the polls. News World U.