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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Frankfurt: Peter Lang, Schmid Keeling, R In: Johanek, P ; Lampen, A. Adventus : Studien zum herrscherlichen Einzug in die Stadt. Taavitsainen, Irma ; Jucker, Andreas H Speech Acts in the History of English. Badilatti, V M Annalas da la Societad Retorumantscha, Labarthe, P Versants, 55 1 In: Gloy, Karen. Kollektiv- und Individualbewusstsein.

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Occupational Medicine Oxford, England , 58 4 Mary serves in the materi- Anna Costance Johansen makes a point of the important role the al in question as a portal for humans to experience divinity them- Dominicans in Bergen had in translating miracles from Latin to Old selves. I most known for their sincere Marian devotion, preaching monks as find that the cult around Mary functioned in Norway and Iceland Dominicans and Franciscans were dedicated to the mediation of in a manner similar to that found elsewhere in Europe, where Mary her manifold position.

The liturgical calendar, including the feast in tion of the Arnafjord frontal. The change of composition in the Arnafjord either Trondheim or Bergen. Regardless of monastic pose a laicisation of religious culture, as also Margrethe Stang sug- affiliation, the panel could represent the spiritual awareness of the gests regarding the change in the composition of the Arnafjord innerlife by a monk, or another religiously engaged person.

We do Vanylven frontal. However, such a clear dichotomy is untenable, not now who ordered the Maria Lactans motif, and we do not since it construes a difference between the North and the rest of know who ordered the change. That the altar frontal was intended Europe that is not borne out from a comparative perspective.

Rath- to present an even more intimate Marian motif suggests that there er, a more nuanced analysis, based on situational and cultural has been a certain struggle over how Mary was supposed to be pre- context, is required. When the sources are viewed through this sented. The unknowns will remain many, but I hope at Conclusions: Conceptions of Mary in the least to have shown that the hypothesis that Old Norse beliefs were Old Norse Cultural Context superficial is too simplistic. The legend and the original drawing of the altar frontal may of course be evidence of shifting styles.

A consciousness of the medi- eval fourfold strategy of interpretation helps to explain how Marian devotion could appear profound and sincere at the same time as it expressed more dogmatic ideas around the theology of her nature. The examples from the altar frontals and the legends, point toward 32 Stang , pp. It is interesting to note that, in its modern incarnation, the boy initially approaches God for the favour whereas in the later Middle Ages Mary was usually the first to be invoked. That compassion of time. He soon realised, however, that he might not have the for- was considered to have grown out of her own lived experience of titude to fulfil this promise and, as the length of time pledged be- life and loss.

Therefore, were she to forget what that maternal bond came shorter each night, he tried a different approach. Spotting a felt like, her supplicant would very soon remind her, even if that statue of the Virgin Mary on the mantelpiece, he took it down, entailed resorting to some drastic measures.

Catholic sermons for decades. Yet, like many such stories, it has a However, first of all, a brief survey of the evidence for veneration long history. A variation on this tale appears in the Liber Exemplo- of the Virgin in the medieval Irish parish is warranted. The thir- number of wall paintings survive. Furthermore, a Franciscan manuscript dating from inal location in any numbers. This might before the same shrine. We know, for instance, of Marian devotion from sources generated by the regular clergy that Margaret Fitzgibbon d.

Their religious ceased not asking for him till by her entreaties she conceived Him in poems, composed from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centu- her bosom. The poet may well be a friar, for he ship with her at the Annunciation and thus became incarnate. McKenna , p.

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See Ryan It is important to note, though, than her Son. He gave over his rights to the maid. In many instances they transferred this lan- account of His own law, the fourth commandment. For example, when describing the ban- ment also featured in the works of sixteenth-century Irish poets. For fuller discussion of this, see Ryan As Mother of Christ, she could assert her maternal in other ways. Glorious the sight of thy sun-bright hair! God spent breast and lay sleeping in her lap. Vase Rupert of Deutz d.

Fair goblet of sweet wine! Tell of thy shedding thy blood-red tears and of thy fin- gers red being wrung with grief for thy baby boy. The figural representation of the Arma Virginis may have par- 43 Ibid. Richard of St Laurent d. The Body, Mary, and or lorica breastplate style. While the Reformation ultimately failed to take root in Ireland, the endur- ance of the figure of Mary and her perceived powers of interces- sion cannot simply be attributed to this fact alone. This article has two main axes.

First, I would like to illuminate Marian Themes in Late Medieval the limitations of the common theoretical approach of transmission in various studies of the rosary, arguing that an important question Sweden has been overlooked and that an analysis bias reinforces this. Sec- ond, I will present the tools of cognitive anthropology that can be Camille Bataille effectively used in order to overcome those issues.

I shall test these tools in practical situations in order to give some examples of their uses. This article examines some perspectives and issues occasioned by the use of tools recently developed by the cognitive sciences. I A Limitation in the Analysis of the Success choose to focus on the question of transmission of Marian themes, of the Rosary a topic which I believe could greatly benefit from a multidiscipli- The devotion to the rosary is a para-liturgical form of devotion that nary approach. The domains in which the study of cultural phenom- experienced extraordinary growth in the last centuries of the ena by the cognitive sciences bring significantly new perspectives Middle Ages.

I would like to examine why it was so. In order to present a case study of the application of examines the developments of the Swedish brotherhoods of the some tools to medieval history, I will focus on a specific devotional rosary. Two questions occurred to rosary. Yet, as early as the diffusion of confraternities is based on the supposedly inherent , Thomas Lawson outlined basics theories about religion developed by Cog- qualities of the rosary. No significant historical work using those tools had been published prior to the publication of Theory of 2 See Pernler , passim.

After this, 3 Ibid. It is this attrac- brotherhood of the rosary. She quotes Johannes von Lambsheym: tiveness that has, in previous studies, been presupposed, but never Hec fraternitas omnes recipit excludit neminem. It was Further in the article, Anne Winston suggests the attractiveness translated into Danish in , shortly before the Swedish print of of the rosary is due to a formal transformation of devotion, which Mariefred in Jean-Claude Schmitt, when lin is more concerned with the action of important men, such as the examining the brotherhood of Colmar, gives four causes for the archbishop Jacob Ulvsson.

In her book on the 10 See Collijn , p. See Winston , p. See ibid. His main support is the supposed attribution of Cod. A 2 to Clemens Martini. I believe that those biases can be corrected by a different psalerii to characterize the type of devotion to the rosary that approach.

Clemens Martini might have had. Dated from , this document is addressed to a monas- to come from Clemens Martini. Clemens also writes that in order to facilitate the ideal. These texts are included in the edition. This manuscript has been edited by 21 Uppsala, UB C The list of the members of the rosary brotherhood is edited Geete — And why was he devout?

It is a Swedish book texts, so obviously he was. As we can see, the reasoning is biased. Sven-Erik Pernler and I restate, I took his study as The addition of life-of-Christ meditations to a psalter distinguishes representative of a general trend introduces us to an individual the rosary from older forms of prayer recitation. However, there who is not an agent, in the sense that what Clemens Martini only are several formal characteristics of a rosary. There is space only for the illustration of what Jean Bazin ter. Michael Francisci is one of the champions of the rosary in there is the possibility of a deeper cause Schmitt, Winston.

He insists on the communicatio orationum,28 the necessity 2. The inscription on the roll of the brotherhood is not bility of answering the question. There must be a performance, too.


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  6. I would add two more formal characteristics of the rosary. The Applying Cognitive Sciences as a Solution to third is that the actions composing the recitation of the rosary do This Limitation not explicitly relate to the professed goal of its performers. How How can we solve those questions? A formal examination of the can repeating a discourse in a rigid order and meditating on the practice of the rosary may help.

    Anne Winston has shown that a life of an agent help to preserve the reciter from danger? Perform- cepts] but on the constructed and purely relational [characteris- ers cannot pray two rosaries at the same time. Those four formal characteristics: Redundancy, Obligation of The cognitive study of religion has much interest in the rituals, performance, Disjunction between the actions and the professed and especially, in the manner in which the religious rituals are goal, and Rigidity are constitutive of a ritual, according to the char- transmitted.

    According to Robert N. McCauley and E. Their effects are not permanent. They must be re-enacted. Their effects lack a reversing ritual practice of the rosary for methodological reasons is too restrictive. Their Indeed, the medieval producers of the rosary documents did not emotional stimulus is generally weak. Their effects lack a reversing ritual and can be held concurrently. The psalter cannot be considered See Buc , passim. Buc suggested that only a certain type of sources seems to have affinities with a given social theory of ritual, and not a certain type of as a ritual, because although it shares most of the characteristics ritual.

    Bypassing this limitation means using a definition of ritual that over- of the rosary, it has no obligation of performance to be effective. It also 31 See Morsel A rosary is a set of prayers per- of the Catholic Church39 formed in a specific way, in which the semantic content matters Secondly, another important development in cognitive science has less than the material form of its utterance to make it efficient.

    Pascal Boyer has built a central theory, which states seen as an evolution from prayer towards a ritual. The ritualisation that the best transmitted representations are those that violate of the devotion starts in the thirteenth century, according to Anne our intuitive expectations. Boyer and Nevertheless, we can see two other reasons in the process of some other scholars, such as Justin Barrett, argue that the most ritualisation of the rosary that explain the success and the attrac- efficiently transmitted representations are those that are minimally tiveness of this practice. First, Harvey Whitehouse, as well as Law- counter-intuitive, that is, those that violate our expectations only son and McCauley, have shown that some ideas are better trans- slightly.

    Since the funda- such as a previously unknown human being, will infer some char- mental goal of the promotion of the rosary is to nourish the piety acteristics just by labeling this object as human: it is self-propelled, of the laity, as Anne Winston explains, the ritualisation expresses needs to eat, does not fall apart, has desires and its actions are a will for a more efficient transmission.

    A new object like the Virgin Mary is counter- enactment technique i. The concept of a virgin mother has community of the living confratres and the deceased. Performance therefore more chances to be transmitted. In this regard, ritualisation I must confess: I could not find any counter-intuitive elements occurs because it pertains to the process of actualisation of a com- in the text of the Ave Maria, which might suggest that no cogni- munity, drawn on the model of the whole Ecclesia: tive advantage explains the attractiveness of the rosary.

    However, Third, it is by the way of this communication that the confraternity the meditations on the life-of-Christ attached to the repetitions of exceeds all the brothers I already mentioned daily communication of certain benefits between the brothers See Scheeben , p. Alanus de Rupe has also revealed another way to at least one is strongly counter-intuitive, according to the encoding include meditations. It is the body of a virgin mother first To each word of the Ave Maria is set a meditation: Ave helps to violation , which moves towards the sky second violation , and keep out sin; Maria makes the performer spiritually aware; Plena becomes invisible third violation but also omnipresent breach of underlines the desire of the one praying to be full of good things, this violation.

    Each of these propositions starts with wi skulom ffaa. In the happened in order to overcome the failure of the transmission volume 36 of Analecta Hymnica, the Psalter of the Virgin number potential. The analysis propositions are counter-intuitive: a tree whose leaves do not fall bias, or the impossibility to determine the choice of agents, was violates our intuitive biology, and a virgin cannot normally be a caused by a traditional use of the sources.

    We can suggest new mother. Another example taken from the same volume of AH is the potential answers by using the tools I have discussed in the second rosary number 6. They are built on evolved cognitive capacities, and thus, have without fault conceived from a breath. They can, therefore, be applied without violates our intuition.

    Henceforth, we see that the meditations ethnocentrism or anachronism to the agents of the Middle Ages. I then argue that adding to the form devotee to Mary, but only choices made by individual agents. Those ritualisation , the counter-intuitive content the meditations con- choices are partly due to cognitive processes that are universal and tributes to make the transmission of the rosary more efficient. And not conscious. Previous- in contact with ideas that are particularly attractive by themselves.

    I can answer. Conversely, the most counter-intuitive ideas are less likely 45 See Barrett , passim. That is, a human being that does not fulfill our expectations in terms of intuitive biology, of 42 See the edition by Geete —, pp. See Analecta Hymnica , II. See Ibid. This ritualisation is facilitated by appending medita- tions with counter-intuitive content that make the rosary more Virginia Langum attractive, that is, more prone to being transmitted and uncon- sciously fostering the attention of those praying. Cross: The attraction of the devotion is strengthened.

    This does not My beloved child, what have you done, that the Jews have killed you mean that other causes, traditionally explaining the success of the on the cross? What has become of that joy that I had, when I rocked rosary are obsolete; it just means that some arguments for these you in your cradle, when I fed you with my breasts, cuddled you on traditional causes contain a bias that needs to be corrected. The my knee and kissed your lips and your mouth as a natural mother biased use of the sources prevents us from answering the question [kinde modur] should?

    All this is gone and I am left alone as a woeful woman and a forsaken mother. The identification of a universal Here Mary, in her sadness, recalls her joy performing earlier mater- and unconscious process can provide a new insight on choices that nal acts — rocking, feeding, cradling, kissing — as a kinde modur. As this example of the devotion This essay examines what it means to be a kinde modur in the con- to the rosary at the end of the Middle Ages hopefully shows, the text of late medieval England and the implications of kinde mater- cognitive study of religion offers useful tools for historians.

    Kinde is a polysemous word and complex concept in Middle English as work on Piers Plowman, Gower and Chaucer has underlined. Three Middle English Sermons , p. In what follows, I will briefly suffered in labour, arguing that it is miraculous that either baby or develop what it means to be a kinde modur according to medieval mother survived. In the ex- most unnatural by affective and medical norms.

    For example, in the late medieval a popular confessional manual, and several sermons. There are at and Matter plays upon the medieval association of matter with least seven known manuscripts of this cycle in medieval England; in the intro- mater or the mother. On the Properties of Things — , I, p. The Latin by mother and child as intrinsic to maternity and childbirth. Reli- encyclopaedia was extremely popular in manuscript and early printed book form. Translated into several vernacular languages, the text was rendered into 4 Isidore of Seville , There are at least eight manuscripts extant of from the Middle Ages.

    Furthermore, Etymologies was also incorporated into this translation. Edwards , p. See Isidore of Seville , 24— He does not distinguish the newborn, emphasizing that the conditions of the womb should those who hire wet nurses because they do not wish to do it them- be recreated as closely as possible, in a dark and warm room, to selves as any less sinful than those who willfully starve their make a less traumatic birth.

    As Bart- Beyond the pains of birth, maternity is also deeply connected to holomaeus writes, the act of breastfeeding. Bartholomaeus identifies the mother as the one who breastfeeds. In the womb, the child was thought to have if he weeps and kisses him if he is quiet. As the child suffers affectively, so the mother Church authorities also recognized the significance of breast- suffers affectively. Furthermore, physical suffering expands the feeding for the physical and emotional life of the child. More than manuscripts survive of Demaitre , pp. The Trotula is found in both this text as well as at least two printed editions from the s.

    Does it mean that she who suffered no pain counts, particularly those found in cycle drama, choose to focus in labour, loved her child the less? And does it mean that she who on events that occur parallel to the birth. This is both childbirth, midwives are superfluous. There are two independent translations of this 20 Bates , p. The midwives He seeks midwives for her comfort in labour yet also acknowledges express the need to touch and feel for themselves and they per- that she is a clean maiden and that her comfort will be in the Trin- form a host of examinations that range in the level of their inva- ity.

    She refers to her knowledge of mid- While sympathetic, this speech demonstrates his incomprehension. This punishment provides an opportunity for evan- greeted by a bright light, signifying the birth has happened in their gelism and, paradoxically, physical proof of what cannot be physi- absence.

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    The N-Town Play , N-Town Play , Although Mary does not explicitly state that she has medicine do not typically mention gynaecological examinations as not been in pain, the midwife infers it from her reaction to Joseph. She comments on the cleanliness of the wives. Owing to the presumed absence of pain, Zelomye doubts birth, for example. She references the cleanliness in terms of her own less, she proceeds to ask to examine Mary on the grounds that she responsibilities as midwife.

    The child might need medicine: Needs no washing as others do He is completely clean and pure Let me now touch and feel with my hand Without spot or any pollution, Whether you need medicine His mother not deprived of virginity! Bridget of Sweden even goes so far as to Such manual physical examinations were, of course, part of stand- describe the cleanliness of the placenta. She Touch with your hand and investigate. As seen in the previous section, infants were thought their skill and renown is emphasized.

    Vernacular in her article on the role of midwives in medieval legal culture, a writers present the infant Jesus as no different in this regard. In good reputation was crucial to the professional standing of mid- the Coventry Pagaent of the Shearman and Taylors, for example, wives as they often served as witnesses in trials, for example those Mary worries that her child grows cold and they have no fire to related to adultery. An example of the former is found in a late or at least less explicit tests.

    However, the physical pain is soon replaced by emotional are full of milk. Cycle , VI. A 42 Ibid. Albans, Hugh Legat. This Aristotelian physiology of love is tional labour of her maternity. But this blessed lady had both delayed until the Crucifixion play. Mary and her son occupy this singular status as What pain they who bear children suffer both natural and above nature. Most sermons are in Latin, but four are in Although you are a virgin. Three of these have been edited but one cannot be deciphered. Although Hugh was a monk and many of the Latin sermons appear to have been intended for clerical and monastic occa- sions, others seem deliberately intended for a lay or mixed audience.

    In addition 51 ich am a dedliche man, seithe Salamon. Wenzel , pp. She is the universal mother who suffers and loves her child the more for the intensity The Prickynge of Love of that suffering, as we saw in the medical writing, just as a kinde modur schulde. Katie L. For the scholarly debate around the authorship, see West- Ibid. This lengthy expositions of the Ave Maria and the Salve regina appended is, in some ways, an unexpected representation of Mary, since it is to the treatise provide by far its most sustained focus on Mary.

    For arguments about the efforts to limit lay origin. See Eisermann , pp. On the Prickynge-trans- p. That mood, but the meditations on Our Lady are even more abundant in lyrical referred to by Eisermann , in his thorough examination of the Stimulus outpourings of love and devotion. See also, pp. What I will is its central practice? And where does Mary figure in this? They do so through the lens of the complicated casting out of the abject by the Christian and an em- mother-child relationship and of Mary as mother in particular.

    See also Rubin , p. See also the bibliography she gives p. Thus, if the Prickynge makes the mother-child relationship. Most strikingly, in the tradition still best out- of the child. Thus the work of salvation, just as that of Ibid. Thus, the Prickynge speculates that if the meditant would cessor. The Stimulus one chapter from the Prickynge, the exposition of the Salve regina.

    In the Stimulus, discrete, stand-alone piece might indicate broader reading practices in relation Mary approaches Jesus with the meditant to ask for forgiveness; in the Prickynge, to these appended texts in particular. Downside Abbey MS also removes explicit passage is on f. See Bryan , p. For the variants, see p. See Kristeva , pp. Recent , f.

    On smell, see Allen , e. Wherein this differ- particular development by the Middle English redactor. The exposition of the Ave Maria in the Peltier edition occurs in pp. See, for example, the comments of Morrison 41 Kane ed. On the valuation of the 44 Ibid. Referring to Francis of Assisi and Angela of form abjection to jouissance, but remains on the material, mun- Foligna — those expert practitioners of abject embraces and of the dane level of the condition of being human.

    In other words, before the mother there is no shame or disgust — nor even unbearable joy — at the diseased body, only love. The category of the maternal disrupts the circuits of meaning and affects evoked by the abject. Seeing Christ in the place of a sick man — where in fact a sick man is — is a process of double vision, reversing the linings of inner and outer, overcoding filth with beauty. In contrast, seeing a man who is marred by the excrement of sin and sickness as a mother sees her child is simply being in the presence of a sick man and loving him.

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    The affective ripples and circuits elicited by the incon- tinent child before the mother running through the Prickynge therefore offer us means of finding more compassionate readings 46 Kristeva , pp. On the affective pulls of devotional kissing of lepers in particular, see Julie Orlemanski Cf Bryan , p. One day his business caused him to pass through a wood. Aware of this, some thieves planned to rob him. The thieves approached and asked him who the mysterious woman was and he replied that he There have been significant changes in the historiography of the was only reciting his Aves, whereupon they all realised that she was English Reformation in recent decades.

    The teleological narrative the Virgin. Revisionist scholarship has presented these events as more fifteenth century with the rise of confraternities dedicated to the process than progress; Christopher Haigh, for example, persuasively Psalter of Our Lady. These confraternies have been posts for orientation, not least of all the Bible. Bridget Heal texts. An examination of the short-lived genre of English vernacu- has reminded us that in this, rosary confraternities were the same lar rosary primers suggests some insight into the processes shaping as other brotherhoods founded by the clergy.

    There was an attempt to rein- fraternities cost nothing to join, had no required meetings and ac- force spiritual integrity in lay piety, which represented late medie- cepted both men and women; features which largely distinguished val concerns as much as those of burgeoning English evangelicalism. By the fifteenth century the rosary devotion was being fashioned around a foundation legend concerning the Virgin Mary herself.

    Winston-Allen , pp. They would with devotional authenticity. However, the Psalter propitiated his mother with a set form of flattery. These primers were available in Latin from , but in 9 13 Winston-Allen , p. Winston-Allen , p. Other confraternities quickly spawned at Lisbon , Schleswig , Ulm 15 Oakley , p. Latin rosary texts con- the Ave, and on the Virgin while praying the Pater noster. Devotees could legitimately offer the Virgin dulia, mediation that pious laity were likely to regard as superfluous. The a form of veneration fitting for creatures, as distinct from their books gave devotees direction in the place of a priest and empower- Creator.

    They had to avoid idolatry idol latria , however, a specific ed them to take responsibility for their own spiritual authenticity. It is not unreasonable to construe this as an His arrest and degradation; the fourth His crucifixion and death; attempt to engage unlettered devotees of the Lady Psalter. How- and the last set encompassed His Resurrection and Ascension, ever, given the contemplative and imaginative context in which Pentecost and the Last Judgement. The Assumption and Corona- these books were used, the images had obvious value to the literate tion of the Virgin were included, however, and each Our Father was in helping them picture the Biblical scene.

    The close relationship of essentially a panegyric of the Mother of God: text and image offered a multimedia route toward a more intense spiritual experience and clearly drew on the tradition established moost deuoyt mayden and moder of our sauyour doughter of the eternall fader and preelect spouse of the holy goost; the well of by illustrated Books of Hours.

    What it does has suggested. The mystik sweet rosary of the tion. Although the Mystik sweet Rosary claimed to focus on house at Syon Abbey. Whether it was the seven daily Aves of although the woodcut of Pentecost gave Mary centre stage, and there was an image of her Coronation, unaccompanied by text, on 23 Duffy , pp.

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    It may have been an exercise in producing experience for those in prayer. As with the Rosary of our sauyour a smaller or more economical edition; it seems unlikely that the Jesu, the Mystik sweet Rosary directed its prayers to Christ, or cause was religious. Anne relation to statues and relics. An injunction drafted in the summer of of Purgatory were abuses. Instead it became a reformed theology, preachers directed their congregations to pray tome representative of Elizabethan recusancy. William Carter and to the Son rather than the Mother. Marian piety all but went down John Lyon set up a clandestine Catholic press in London and pro- with the monasteries.

    There was, however, something else in Subsequently convicted of treason, Carter was hung, drawn at work here and it is deeply revealing of the motivations at work and quartered in At the end of editions of his Societie of the Rosary in the s. At least every three months, parish priests were to have in the Gunpowder plot and executed in May Elizabeth Tingle It is even possible that the authorities were concerned that users of rosary books considered them imbibed with apotropaic power and that the primers themselves had become amulets, though there is no direct evidence for this.

    Almost inevitably, the English author- By , the Virgin Mary had long been the most important saintly ities considered the vernacular rosary book, which I have argued intercessor for Christian souls, living, dying, and departed. The was intended to promote spiritual authenticity in saying the Lady prayers and anthems of the Ave, Salve Regina, and Stabat Mater, Psalter, a failed experiment.

    Traditional Marian piety was irrecov- implored her aid in this life and the next. The depiction of Mary of erable as a practice and destabilised theologically by official hos- Mercy with souls protected by her mantle was widespread in paint- tility to Purgatory and the saints.

    Marian devotions were eliminated from Protes- tant liturgies and her spiritual capital diminished. But the resur- gent Catholic reform movement from the mid-sixteenth century restored Mary to her position as pre-eminent intercessor, for the living and the dead. Historians of the Counter Reformation have argued that the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were marked by changes in religious practice, from an emphasis on collective actions 1 See for example Oakes ; Boss Also, there was a change in attitudes to was confirmed.

    After, in the Tridentine Profession of Faith promul- dying, from an emphasis on the deathbed as the fundamental site gated by Pius IV in , Mary and departed souls were specifical- of salvation to a belief in the primacy of lifetime actions in soteri- ly linked in the article which defined Purgatory, intercession, saints, ology. Firstly, in many places, Mary displaced other saints from accommodated collective as well as personal religiosity. The role of the hierarchy of intercession, while secondly, her invocations became Mary in beliefs and customs related to Purgatory — both communal increasingly varied.

    While the attraction of some local saints waned, the ternity membership, and the acquisition and use of indulgences. Philip Hoffman shows that in the diocese of Lyon in the seventeenth century, new altars erected in parish churches sometimes displaced old cults. For example, in the north- The Blessed Virgin Mary in the Counter east of the Lyonnais, the most popular patron of new altars and Reformation in Europe: Change and Continuity chapels was Mary through the rosary while altars to Saints Anthony, in Marian Devotions Blaise, Sebastian and Catherine, tended to be abandoned or to dis- The relationship of the Virgin Mary to the souls of the departed was appear.

    Of primal importance was the rein- saintly patrons venerated at this time had been dropped by Further, when sixteenth century, against Protestant criticism. As David to the life stories and miracles surrounding the figure of Mary. Above all, the rosary was popular- and affection than by flesh, and portrayed her as silent, distant and ised and spread through confraternities of that name.

    In Grenoble obedient. Her intercession, it was be- held in the sixteenth century, but was relegated to a secondary lieved, caused the Venetian fleet to win the battle of Lepanto position. Trevor Johnson maintains recited that day. At the highest political levels, Mary was the that patroness and protector of the Austrian Hapsburgs in their wars against Protestants and her intercession was held responsible for 7 Croix , II, p. In , Louis 8 Luria , p. IV of Portugal followed suit in , pledging his realm to the 11 Ibid. Mary was Her significance grew ural settings within the localities, tainted with paganism.

    The new alongside Christological devotions but while the Mass remained the Marian devotions expressed a standardised, sober and orthodox most efficacious means of aiding souls living and dead, it is argued piety adapted to Tridentine Christology with less emphasis on her here that the most important intercessor and mediator for souls was curative and consoling powers.

    Further, the means of accessing that inter- The result of these changes is that Marian devotions evolved cession changed over time, from private to more clerically-con- across the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in their relation- trolled forms. As exemplars of this development, three French case ship with departed souls. It has been argued by historians such as studies of post-mortem devotional forms will be discussed, across John Bossy that piety in the Counter Reformation moved away the later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Further, Mary as intercessor Writers and preachers of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth for the souls in Purgatory was simultaneously muted as the Holy centuries were clear that the Virgin played a vital role for departed Sacrament grew even more important across the period. Jean Delu- souls. This work, however, shows the relationships between images, texts, and the historical circumstances of the manuscript, and thus arrives at a sound interpretation of the images as an allegory of good government.

    Hanna Sofia Hayduk, Su Ouyang, Die Kunstgeschichtsforschung liefert sowohl eine Explizierung als auch eine Definition der Ikonografie und Ikonologie. Falk Blask, Thomas Friedrich, Daher bringt uns die Suche nach Panofsky ist ganz wesentlich durch Ralf Bohnsack,