Tell your doctor if you take aspirin or other medications containing aspirin. Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease, ulcer, infection in your heart, stroke, or a bleeding disorder. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you miss a dose of Lovenox and remember it when it is time for the next dose, you should not take a double dose. Increasing the dosage of Lovenox can cause complications such as bleeding that is difficult to stop.
You should not double the Lovenox dose if you miss a dosage of Lovenox.
The Syringe Lovenox usually comes pre-filled in syringes that have the exact amount prescribed for you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to verify if you are to use a full syringe. When you receive your Lovenox syringes, check the medication name and the dosage. You should also check the expiration date. Do not use the syringe if it has expired. Look at the syringe before using it for cracks or leaks. Check that the color is clear. Do not use the syringe if the Lovenox solution is discolored or if it contains particles. To store your syringes, you may wish to keep the original container in a clear store bag or plastic container so they do not get wet, lost, or damaged.
Keep out of the reach of children and pets. Lovenox is injected directly in the blood. Lovenox is injected into the fatty tissue below the skin. Lovenox is injected in the fat below the skin. That is why you will be asked to inject it in areas of your body with a layer of fat, such as the fatty tissue of your belly between your belly button and your hips. Injection Procedures Your health care provider will teach you how to give yourself the shot. This section reviews how to inject yourself with Lovenox in the stomach area.
Select a room to give yourself the shot. Pick a clean, uncluttered room with good lighting. Get the Lovenox syringe, an alcohol prep pad, a cotton ball, and a Biohazardous Waste Sharps Container to put the syringe in. You must use a different site of the stomach each time you give the shot. Wash your hands. Handwashing is the most basic thing you can do to prevent an infection. Wash your hands before and after the injection. Wet hands and wrists under warm running water.
Apply liquid soap and lather well. If you use bar soap, keep it separate for your own use. Rinse the bar soap before and after you use it to remove the lather. Scrub hands and wrists for at least 15 seconds. Pay special attention to fingers, fingernails and the back of your hands. Rinse hands well with your hands up.
This keeps the dirty water running away from your hands. Dry your hands using a clean paper towel, starting with the hands and working down towards the elbows. Use the paper towel to turn off the faucet. Remember, you turned it on with dirty hands. If you had total hip replacement surgery, your healthcare provider will ask you to administer Lovenox lying down.
Select an area on the right or left side of your abdomen, away from your belly button and out towards the sides of your hips. Clean the area you have selected for your injection with the alcohol prep pad. Allow the area to dry. Lovenox se inyecta debajo de la piel. Estos medicamentos se llaman anticoagulantes o disolventes de la sangre. Lovenox es un tipo de estos medicamentos. Presione verdadero o falso.
Lovenox es un anticoagulante. El medicamento se administra en el tejido graso debajo de la piel. Esto es la dosis. No se salte dosis. La heparina es una sustancia similar al medicamento que contiene Lovenox. Si a usted se le olvida administrarse una dosis de Lovenox y recuerda cuando es la hora para la siguiente dosis, usted no debe doblar la dosis. Presione verdadero o falso Correcto. Usted no debe doblar la dosis de Lovenox si se le olvida administrarse la dosis anterior. La jeringa Lovenox generalmente viene ya preparado en jeringas con la cantidad exacta que a usted le han indicado.
Cuando usted reciba sus jeringas de Lovenox, verifique el nombre y la dosis del medicamento. Usted debe verificar la fecha de caducidad. Almacene las jeringas preparadas con Lovenox a una temperatura ambiental entre 59 y 77 grados F. Lovenox se inyecta directamente en la sangre. Lovenox se inyecta en el tejido graso debajo de la piel Correcto.
Lovenox se inyecta en el tejido graso debajo de la piel. Lavado de manos Los pasos siguientes le recuerdan como lavarse las manos: 1. Esto previene que el agua sucia corra por sus manos. Empiece con las manos y siga hasta los codos. Use la toalla desechable para cerrar el grifo. This is particularly true if you are having surgery. This module presents several things you can do to help prevent infections from developing in the hospital. Wash your hands carefully after handling any type of soiled material. This is especially important after you have gone to the bathroom. Be sure that everyone with whom you have contact washes their hands before and after working with you.
They will appreciate your concern! No tema recordar a enfermeros y doctores que lo hagan. Suelen estar ocupados y a veces se olvidan. None of the changes were of clinical importance. Circulation time For the open trial, mean values of the circulation time interval between appearance of good contrast medium filling in the carotid siphon and contrast appearance in the sinus rectus were 5.
For the comparative trial, mean values on the left side of the head were 6. No difference in circulation time was seen between the sides of the head injected, each product considered separately. A small difference appears however between the two contrast media; iodixanol having a somewhat longer circulation time. The influence of the age of the patient on the circulation time has been evaluated in both trials 16, Patients older than 40 years have a somewhat longer circulation time compared to younger patients. These findings might be of clinical interest.
Page of Efficacy Overall optimal diagnostic information was obtained for all patients both on the left and right sides of the head, for both iodixanol and comparative media 16, 17, 18 , except for one patient in a comparative trial receiving iodixanol injection who had a suboptimal overall evaluation, due to technical reasons Concerning the diagnostic information of different areas of evaluation, these were of optimal quality in most cases and suboptimal for some few, due to low density in all cases. No evaluation was graded as not diagnostic.
Ninety-nine 99 patients were given iodixanol, and 82 patients were given comparative media. Regarding the overall frequency of patients with adverse events, no significant difference between iodixanol and the comparative media were found, but pain in connection with the injection tended to occur less frequently in one trial.
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Dizziness was the adverse event most frequently reported. Approximately half of the adverse events were classified as being due to the procedure, about one fifth were judged as being contrast medium related, and about one third was of uncertain relationship. No statistically significant difference between iodixanol and comparative media were seen, in the proportion of patients reporting discomfort. No change in ECG of clinical importance appeared following contrast injection. Page of No change of clinical importance appeared in heart rate as a consequence of contrast medium injection.
No clinically important changes was observed in the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure or in mean arterial pressure. A few patients had changes of some magnitude, but none of the changes were regarded to be of clinical importance. The overall evaluation of the diagnostic information was graded as optimal for all patients for both iodixanol and comparative media, except for one patient in a comparative trial receiving iodixanol, who had an overall suboptimal evaluation due to technical reasons.
Iodixanol was found to be safe, well tolerated and effective and thus well suited for cerebral angiography. Noventa y nueve 99 pacientes fueron administrados con iodixanol y 82 pacientes con medios comparados. Colourless or yellowish clear or weakly opalescent sticky liquid. Miscible with water. Thickness 2. Several drops are mixed with 2 ml of water R and basic lead acetate RS; after several minutes a white precipitate forms acacia gum. To 2 ml, 0. Chromatograms obtained in the Parabens test see Purity Tests. The chromatogram of the test solution has two stains, the position and size of one of them corresponds to the stain on the chromatogram of reference solution a and the second stain's position and size on the chromatogram of reference solution b.
To 2 ml of this mixture we add 0. To another 2 ml of this mixture we add 0.
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Thin layer chromatography 2. Test solution. The connected ether layers are evaporated on a water bath till dry, the remainder is dissolved in acetone R and is dilted by it to 10 ml. Reference solution a. Reference solution b. Reference solution c. Stationary phase. Plate with a layer of octadecylsilyl silica gel F R. Mobile phase. A 1 30 70 mixture by volume of glacial acetic acid R, water R and methanol R. Along a 15 cm track. Air drying. Is observed under nm UV radiation. Conformance test. The chromatogram for reference solution c has two clearly separated stains. The reference solution chromatograph has two stains; the methylparaben stain is no larger and its extinguishment no more intense than the stain on the chromatogram of reference solution a , and the propylparaben stain is no larger and its extinguishment no more intense than the stain on the chromatogram of reference solution b.
No other stains are present. Chromatograms are used for identity test C. The solution is cooled, topped up with sterilised cleaned water to A clear colourless liquid. Upon ignition, this solution burns with a flame that is green, particularly at its edges boric acid. The chloroform layer will turn a yellow-brown colour Hg compound. The tested product is clear 2. Sterility 2.
Passes sterility test. Protected from light.
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The package label shall state the name of the antimicrobial agent used. A separately supplied applicator passes the sterility test see article Ocularia , paragraph Sterility. Prescription provisions. If a physician prescribes Solution acidi borici or Asidum boricum solutum and from the product's instruction for use it is obvious that the product is intended for application onto the eye, Acidi borici oculoguttae is dispensed.
De ser necesario, se filtra, se distribuye en botellas en cantidades no mayores de ml, y se esteriliza durante 15 min. Miscible con agua. Viscosidad 2. Cromatogramas obtenidos en la prueba de Parabens ver Pruebas de Pureza. Se mezcla 1 ml con 4 ml de agua R. A 2 ml de esta mezcla agregamos 0,05 ml de rojo de metilo RS; la mezcla se torna roja.
A otros 2 ml de esta mezcla agregamos 0,05 de azul de bromofenol RS; la mezcla se torna verde o roja. Se mezclan 3 ml con 7 ml de agua R y se agrega 1 ml de acetato de plomo RS; no se forma turbiedad luego de agitarla. Se disuelve 10 mg de metilparabeno CRL en acetona R y se diluye a 10 ml. Se disuelve 5 mg de propilparabeno CRL en acetona R y se diluye a 10 ml. Fase estacionaria. Por una pista de 15 cm. Secado con aire. Prueba de conformidad. No hay otras manchas presentes. Los cromatogramas se usan para la prueba de identidad C.
El producto evaluado es claro 2. Valor pH 2. Esterilidad 2. Pasa la prueba de esterilidad. Protegido de la luz. Suministro de recetas. Note that a specific fault may belong to one of the preceding fault types, or may have symptoms of several fault types. When a fault occurs, specify the fault causes based on fault symptoms and refer to the corresponding sections to handle the fault. Therefore, efficient collection of fault information is the key to solving problems. You must also collect details through other means, to locate faults accurately and quickly.
That is, at a particular point of time, only one factor can cause a fault. Therefore, with the available information, you can locate a fault quickly by using an effective method. Gather the information about faults as much as you can. Diagnosing a Fault After fault information is gathered, you must categorize the fault.
You must decide how and where to start the analysis to determine the scope of faults. The scope of faults refers to where the fault occurs, usually a functional module of the UMG due to the module design. When you analyze and categorize the faults of the UMG, it is recommended to consider the service processes and functional modules of the UMG For details, see the relevant contents in this manual.
For common troubleshooting recommendations, see Troubleshooting Guide and Troubleshooting Methods. Locating a Fault There are several causes that lead to faults to the UMG, but a certain fault is rarely the result of several causes. During fault location, all the possible causes to a fault are analyzed first.
The most relevant causes are then identified to arrive at the actual cause of the fault. Locating the faults efficiently helps to clear the faults on time, and avoids accidents caused by misoperation on the system. Fault location describes the commonly adopted methods in classifying and locating faults. Clearing a Fault After locating the cause of the fault, you can perform the troubleshooting.
To resume normal system operation immediately, relevant measures must be taken to clear the faults, for example, checking the lines, replacing the boards, modifying data configuration, performing switchover, and resetting boards. Figure shows the guide to troubleshooting. Figure Troubleshooting guide Collecting Fault Information When a customer reports a fault, especially a service fault, try to collect complete information. This helps to locate the fault based on original fault and alarm information. Classifying a Fault For details on the service fault, see Troubleshooting Methods.
For contact information, see Obtaining Huawei Technical Assistance. Primary Information Analysis Primary information includes fault complaints from users, fault notifications from other offices, and abnormalities generated during maintenance, and other information collected by maintenance personnel through various channels at the early stage of a fault. The primary information is important for determining and analyzing the fault.
Analyzing the primary information is helpful for determining the fault scope and fault type and locating the fault at the early stage of the fault. Experienced maintenance engineers can locate faults by analyzing primary information. Primary information analysis helps to process user service faults as well as other faults, especially trunk faults. Collecting primary information is important for locating trunk faults because of the interconnection between the UMG and the transmission system and the signaling cooperation.
The information to be collected includes running status of the transmission system, data modifications at the peer office, and configurations of certain signaling parameters. Alarm Information Analysis Alarm information refers to the information, which is given through sound, light, and screen output, from the UMG alarm system. The information from the alarm management subsystem in the local maintenance terminal LMT contains fault or abnormality description, possible causes, and fault clearance suggestions, of faults about hardware, links, trunks, and central processing unit CPU load of the UMG This information facilitates fault analysis and location.
Alarm information analysis, as a major fault analysis method, helps to locate faults or determine causes. The abundant and complete alarm information displayed can be used to determine the cause of a fault directly or with other methods. The UMG alarm system can locate faults in high precision. When a trunk circuit alarm occurs, you can locate which circuit fails.
If an alarm is generated, double-click the alarm and choose More Info to view detailed information of the alarm. For details on how to locate and clear faults, refer to the alarm handling methods. If multiple alarms are generated, clear the fault alarms with severity levels in descending order. Certain boards even have function indicators. This is important for fault analysis and location. Indicator status analysis is mainly used to locate faulty components or fault causes quickly and helps you to determine further operations. Indicator status and alarm information are often analyzed together to locate faults.
Therefore, most of the faults related to the UMG may directly or indirectly affect the calls of subscribers. Dialing test is a simple and effective way to verify the call processing function of the UMG Dialing test is often used in routine maintenance. Together with continuous dynamic tracing, dialing test is widely applied in verifying functions, such as call processing and caller number display, of a switch.
Instrument and Meter Instruments and meters are often used for fault analysis and location in troubleshooting. The measurable and specific data obtained in the analysis directly indicates the nature of faults. Thus, instruments and meters can be widely used in signaling analysis and bit error test. Performance Measurement Call completion rate is a major technical item of the UMG and one of the key factors of carrier core competence, which directly affects the interests of carriers and customer satisfaction.
Therefore, improving the call completion rate and reducing call loss are concerns of carriers. Many complicated and unpredictable causes may affect the call completion rate. Therefore, to improve the call completion rate, you must identify the major factors that lead to call loss and take effective measures to prevent them. Performance measurement is designed for this purpose. Performance measurement analysis is often used with other methods such as signaling tracing and signaling analysis. It plays an important role in locating abnormal inter-UMG signaling cooperation and trunk parameter setting errors.
Maintenance personnel must know how to use this method. Signaling Tracing Signaling tracing is performed to analyze the causes of call connection failure and inter-office signaling cooperation. The causes of call failure can be obtained from the tracing results to facilitate the subsequent analysis. The UMG provides various signaling tracing methods, including signaling tracing, interface tracing, trunk tracing, and number tracing. Test and Loopback Tests function with instruments, meters, and software test tools to measure relevant technical parameters to discover faults that may be located in subscriber lines, transmission channels, and trunk devices.
You can determine whether a device is faulty or to fail based on the measurement result. The UMG software can specify a trunk circuit and a resource channel for a certain call. In this case, the call does not attempt to occupy another trunk circuit or resource channel, thus preventing other trunk circuits or resources channels from being blocked.
This method is applied to locating the faults occurring on trunk circuits and resource channels. For example, it can locate the trunk where one-way audio occurs. Loopbacks are generally used with tests for locating transmission-related faults. Para obtener mayores detalles, consulte los contenidos relevantes en este manual. Ubicar las fallas con eficiencia permite borrar las fallas a tiempo y evita accidentes provocados por un funcionamiento inadecuado en el sistema. Diversas causas impredecibles y complejas pueden afectar el porcentaje de llamadas conectadas.
El software del UMG puede especificar un circuito troncal y un canal de recursos para una llamada determinada. En este caso, la llamada no intenta ocupar otro circuito troncal o canal de recursos y de este modo evita que se bloqueen otros circuitos troncales o canales de recursos. In his companion volume, Lorca's Late Poetry , Anderson has given us the first book-length study of Lorca's poetic output between works published or revised and works written during these years. The latter concern him here.
A translation of the poems discussed here and a bibliography complete this study. An introductory chapter briefly reviews existing critical studies of this aspect of Lorca's opus. In all but the last two chapters introductory material precedes the close reading of each poem which forms part of the larger work. Given the paucity of critical attention allotted to this poetry, Anderson has concentrated on a necessary elucidation of it. In the process he not only celebrates the achievements of Lorca's mature verse, but also takes note of its shortcomings.
This is a meticulously researched, carefully wrought assessment of Lorca's later poetry elaborated upon the background of the literary and cultural activities which concerned Lorca during these years. One may not necessarily agree with some of the author's conclusions. Nonetheless, one cannot deny that this volume, together with the preceding one, ably fills a gap in Lorcan scholarship. It is a valuable chronicle of the life and thought of a man who participated in and was a sometime leader of both the vanguardist and fascist movements in Spain.
While Spanish activists and writers on the left have received ample scholarly attention, very little has been paid to those on the right. Foard divides his study into six chapters and the epilogue mentioned above. But, as we move into the actual intellectual biography in Chapters 2 through 6, the information has for the most part withstood the test of time.
The one exception is Foard's comments on modernism, which he does not capitalize and thus must considered to be a direct translation of modernismo. Since Foard is a historian, not a literary scholar, it is perhaps unfair to ask him to be familiar with the recent debates in Hispanic circles about the meaning and relative merits of the terms modernismo and Modernism or to recognize that employing the term post-modernism to mean after modernismo sounds peculiar.
Morns 74 and treat Foard's study as an invitation to further penetrate the origins of an ideology and movement that, however unpalatable, did dominate Spanish political and cultural history for an extended portion of the twentieth century. The critical portion of the book begins with a chronological outline of major historical, cultural, and literary events.
The inclusion of many events of global import permits the accomplishments of Spanish postwar writers to be viewed within an international milieu. The cultural and literary events, on the other hand, are exclusively Spanish and highlight the lives and works of postwar poets writers who published their most important works after the end of the Civil War. In this regard, readers who seek an understanding of Spanish trends within a broader, Western context, may wish for more balance.
It would be helpful, for example, to see the names and works of Spanish poets placed side by side with those of their contemporaries in other European countries, Latin America, and the United States. Also to his credit, his evaluations of the various trends are impartial. Such statements aside, the introductory essay is, in general, unbiased and insightful. Equally useful are the footnotes, bibliography, critical excerpts, and the author's suggestions for studying the poems.
Perhaps for this and other reasons teachers of contemporary Spanish poetry may wish to examine this volume. The book's only significant short-coming is the absence of poetry by women. It is regrettable that an anthology containing poems by thirty-eight writers excludes the important women poets of the postwar era. Even better-known women poets, such as Gloria Fuertes, are missing from the table of contents and are never once mentioned in the introduction. The Premio de Literatura Miguel de Cervantes acknowledged the intellectual and literary achievements of critic, writer, and historian Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, but this deserved recognition came late in his career.
Because of this, the commemorative volume of Critical Studies on Gonzalo Torrente Ballester is an important addition to the corpus of critical work. The studies cover both creative and critical writing and include articles on individual works, wider-ranging thematic and technical studies, analyses of the writer's literary theory, and a lengthy interview.
The majority of articles, however, are devoted to Torrente's later writings -known for their lucid aspects, self-reflective and metafictional techniques, the use of demythification and parody- and very sophisticated concept of literature, which place him squarely within the contemporary intellectual scene. A unique benefit of studying living authors is the opportunity for writers to comment on their own work. Several studies make use of interviews with Torrente Blackwell, Overesch-Maister ; his comments add an invaluable personal dimension to the facts.
Francisca and Stephen Miller provide a lengthy interview which focuses on the writer's pre literary and political interests. A valuable introduction and a chronological bibliography of Torrente's critical and creative works through round out the collection. The informative contents of this volume offer excellent reading for specialists and for those interested in the contemporary Spanish literary scene. Por esto, la novela se plantea como un hacerse a medida que se proyecta el discurso del narrador y el presunto autor ficticio.
The goal is to point out everything that inspires fear in these novels and how such fear functions thematically. The book begins with the statement that because feelings of fear characterize the man Delibes, fear is an essential underpinning of his fiction. However, what fascinates in this analysis is how el miedo takes so many forms, and how much weight would seem to lie on this single emotion. After La hoja roja fear of death disappears as a preoccupation to give way to el desamor , and this lack of human solidarity also takes many forms in the author's novels: a preoccupation with violence, cruelty, indifference, loneliness, selfishness, and competition.
Delibes's view of life as a dog-eat-dog struggle for survival makes him fear for the weak and marginal in society, and this fear led Delibes to search for the origins of a social system where the strong exploit the weak. Such a delineation of the development of a thematic complex includes many if not all of the basic elements of Delibes's primary fictional concerns, but some readers may take issue with the use of the word fear to describe it all. A clear and stable definition of terms or a grounding in some philosophical or psychological theory, rather than the easy assumption that everyone knows what fear is, would help this analysis to persuade that Delibes's attitude toward death, human cruelty, and the destructiveness of modern progress is indeed fear, and not anger, despair, fascination, nostalgia, frustration, or something else.
The most serious question to be raised about this study is its incompleteness. Too many novels, both pre and post, are not discussed even though a case can be made that fear, as loosely defined here, has a significant thematic role in them. The bibliographical material consulted stops effectively at with the exception of Gonzalo Sobejano's introduction to the reedition of La mortaja , and Rodriguez's own unpublished interviews with Delibes in and As it is, this gracefully-phrased book misses making a significant new contribution to the scholarship on Miguel Delibes. Y Andrew P.
Debicki ha venido, con este libro, a llenar cumplidamente tal ausencia. Debicki en este libro.
In the Feminine Mode is a Festschrift in honor of Marina Romero, a superlative teacher and poet, who inspired Professors Valis and Maier when they were undergraduates at Douglas College. Thirteen essays by other contributors comprise the remainder of the book. The essays, which are loosely related, are organized into three titled sections. The essays in this collection demonstrate that the same assertion applies to feminist criticism. These essays address obscure texts or extract new meaning from those that are well-known, with varying degrees of success. In the final chapter in this section, Debra A.
These essays are most enlightening when they adopt a scholarly stance, and less so when they impose protracted descriptions of personal reactions. Hausman documents the relationship between Victoria Ocampo and Virginia Woolf. Harriet S. The great range of these essays -spanning continents, genres, levels of artistic merit, and also levels of scholarly attainment- makes it difficult to generalize about the book as a whole. Some of the writers analyzed here are securely ensconced in the canon, while others are scarcely known even to specialists.
Yet because of this diversity, a sequential reading of these chapters sheds great light on the complex issue of gender for Hispanic women writers. Without exception, these writers must come to terms with their gender on every front: in their own minds, in their art, and in their responses to societal expectations in various parts of the Hispanic world. These findings will interest a broad audience, and among the book's readers will be scholars who do not know Spanish. The volume is thoroughly accessible to English speakers, although some may be confused by certain omissions, such as the failure to specify published English translations or to mention that several authors write in Catalan.
Translations into English range from workmanlike to superb. In the Feminine Mode is a pioneering contribution to the genre of the Festschrift in Hispanic letters. This public tribute has traditionally been offered to male mentors by their successful scholarly progeny, who also usually are male. Here, scholars who are women pay homage to female professors who inspired them not only to study Hispanic literature, but to pursue a new field of inquiry. A historia da literatura no texto. A historia social no texto. Su perspectiva es, pues, hasta cierto punto, defensiva: la urgencia de cambiar o sucumbir.
Indeed, the very denotation of the subject presents challenges and opportunities. As Almeida himself indicates in the introductory note, almost all of the essays collected in this volume have appeared somewhere before However, this fact does not take away from the masterful argument that the author makes for a definition of Azorian-people, places, literature, culture. Well versed in current literary theory, but also well aware of its absence from much of the literary dialogue of his culture, Almeida presents his readers with a McLuhanesque collage -one that informs as well as challenges the readers.
Readers -as did this one- will find themselves as spectators in a point-counter-point match. The tone of the narrative is at times angry. At other times it is apologetic. A cultural space is only such if one sees it as different from something else. Almeida establishes for Azorians a cultural space in terms of what it is not. For readers who are currently involved in a redefinition of culture through literary theory, Almeida's collection of essays is an example as well as a product of the contemporary dialogue.
In the appendix, Almeida collects five pieces letters, short notes, and a critical review of one of his own books written under a pseudonym. In so doing, one realizes that it is a response in a never ending dialogue. Yet, scholars of all literatures expressed in the Portuguese language will find this volume stimulating. The supplement by Viera et al. In addition, several addenda appear at the end of each section of the bibliography.
The editors are to be commended for the care with which they have researched the topic and presented the information in a usable fashion. Berlin: Mouton, In addition to bibliographical information on the published sources, the editors of this volume have been careful to indicate the location of unpublished materials, for example, Emmanuel M. Pages 99 to provide an alphabetical index that includes authors, titles of newspapers and other periodicals, as well as state agencies that may provide additional information.
This bibliography is an indispensable tool for scholars who are interested in the Portuguese presence in the United States and Canada. Along with Leo Pap's original bibliography, it will save hours of preliminary bibliographical work on the part of researchers. This text fulfills several needs that long have existed for Hispanic American colonial literature scholars.
In the first instance it presents a modern edition of a work that, although standard fare for instructional purposes, has often been difficult to obtain. The editor's notes and explanations are followed by a complete and modernized version of Infortunios This contribution is of particular note and value because it uses so-called high tech tools to evaluate and cast new light on an Hispanic American classic.
In addition to the obvious, such as promoting a revision of Puerto Rican and Mexican literary histories or a new look at the stylistic propensities of the better known of the two writers, this study should be a model for those humanists eager to experience firsthand the ways in which computerized textual analyses can be of significant practical value in literary studies. Whereas the study is merely descriptive of the steps taken for example, no attempt is made to explain the significance of Chi Square in such evaluations , the several pages of charts and statistical data are easy to follow and will undoubtedly be of interest to students of colonial literature in general.
Of special note is Professor Irizarry's decision to leave to the reader any conclusions concerning the extent to which each author intervened in the text. In this respect, the editor's purpose is merely to present the data; she lets the statistics speak for themselves. Her plea is directed to those who would, for the sake of progress in Brazil, heed her call for educational reform, especially for women. Self-taught, Floresta still relies heavily on biblical and classical allusion, a rhetorical style which makes for slow reading at first; however, style lightens considerably as she speaks of various issues facing Brazilian society.
In many ways her themes are typical of the nationalism of the Brazilian Romantics, in that she rejects Portugal and celebrates the character of the Brazilian Indian. As Peggy Sharpe-Valadares points out, as an abolitionist, a republican, an Indianist and a feminist, Horesta was a highly criticized and controversial figure in her day xxviii. On the other hand, her observations about the danger of a two-class society rich and poor in Brazil, the possibility of authoritarian rule in an under-educated society are, in fact, quite relevant today.
Sharpe-Valadares's introduction puts the work into historical context, while the footnotes help the reader with obscure references and offer translations of long quotations in French. Sharpe-Valadares also provides the positivist background of Floresta's doctrines, and points out how Auguste Comte's concept of female moral superiority influenced her idea that religion and moral values should remain the cornerstone of women's education xxiv. In this sense Floresta retains a traditional view of female virtue. Yet as a woman, Floresta avoided the trap of biological determinism, because she did not believe that race or sex hindered intellectual ability.
This edition of Nisia Floresta's work fills in the gap of the missing female voice of the nineteenth century, and will be of interest to feminists and to all those interested in remedying this absence in the intellectual history of Brazil. Paul B. Dixon's study of Machado de Assis's Don Casmurro relies on the tension between the distinct discourses of realism and myth used in the novel. Dixon explores the underlying mythic themes, tropes and structures which furnish the work's non-ironic base. The study demonstrates how the narrator's mythic sensibility contrasts with the actual events of his life which provides the ultimate irony and ambiguity of the text.
Bento Santiago, as a lawyer, personifies the patriarchal insistence on fidelity, obedience, hierarchy and honor. According to the study, this impasse reached by the characters is that of conflicting world views, deliberately set in opposition to question the basis of our judgments and knowledge, and perhaps even to question the patriarchal suppositions of authority and authorship. Dixon takes the issue of paternity which lies at the center of the novel, and applies it to a metaliterary interpretation of the text and questions the traditional authority vested in the patriarchal hierarchy of author-reader to the matriarchal non-hierarchical text-reader.
Dixon's study sheds new light on the underlying myths which contribute to the novel's irony and its universality. Dixon deliberately avoids the discussion of Capitu's guilt or innocence which would close down the epistemological problem of the novel whose ultimate concern lies in the lack of grounding of our beliefs and the insufficiency of any real sense of knowledge. The introduction presents an overview of the poem, discussing the poetic legacy of the Nobel Prize winning Chilean poet, the poetic form of seventy-seven romances , the motif of the journey, the characters of the epic, the poetic influences on the author, and biographical information contained in the poem.
Chapter 1 provides an in-depth analysis of the narrative and poetic structure of Poema de Chile. Mistral, the author asserts, would write almost identical lines into the drafts of poems delaying the decision of which line to use. Chapter 2 traces origin and inspiration and the plan for organizing the poem. By way of background, Chapter 3 reviews Mistral's uses of the anecdote of the journey along with some of her actual journeys which are juxtaposed to the imaginary journey presented in Poema de Chile.
The psychological dichotomy between the poet's decision to remain in exile and her preoccupation with and patriotic ties to the homeland are elucidated. Chapter 5 provides a detailed analysis of Mistral's choice of companions for the imaginary journey through Chile. The symbols of Indian child and deer, according to the author, merge. In the final chapter, the critic focuses on the narrator of the poem.
One possible defect of the book, that of repetition, seems unavoidable and is offset by the depth of the study. The author relates Mistral's work habits to the content of the poem and illuminates the ideas contained therein. Symbols that appear in this poem that coincide with symbols constant in other works of Mistral are identified, analyzed and discussed in depth. For Mistral scholars the book provides a useful point of departure for understanding and analyzing this poem and earlier poems as well.
This biography, a useful attempt to illuminate corners of the life of the Mexican poet, is perhaps only a beginning of an effort to unravel the enigma of her life, and death. Bonifaz accepts too uncritically the official version of her accident in Tel Aviv. A lingering suspicion of that version is hard to erase. Some day, perhaps, there will be an objective effort to discover what exactly happened in the Mexican Embassy on August 7, No doubt, as current critical theory tells us, all biographies and autobiographies are fiction, or, at best, partial truths.
The author selects certain facts at will, embellishes them, and suppresses others. No historical life, in all its complexity, can be squeezed within the covers of a book. As reader, I have acquired a sharpened realization of the depth of suffering and solitude that Rosario experienced from her childhood on. Bonifaz was a close childhood friend of Rosario's, and what he writes, we may assume, has the quality of testimony.
Her younger brother Benjamin's death devastated her parents, and this loss made her more precious in their eyes.
Later both parents died, within weeks of each other, leaving Rosario both alone and free. Some years later came marriage to Ricardo Guerra, the birth of Gabriel, and the divorce papers, which she received in Tel Aviv. Orphaned and divorced, she said of herself. And she compared herself to an oyster, enclosed in its shell, no more or less. And yet we have that other Rosario that her friends gave witness to: the sparkling wit and splendid conversationalist, the concern for others, and endless love for life in all its forms. I can't leave something for awhile and then come back to it.
Perhaps the translator was trying to be too literal, hewing to the at times florid prose of the biographer. This reader is grateful for the moving photographs of Rosario, from her childhood to her departure for Israel why are there none of her parents? In short, this work has its strengths and weaknesses; as witness to many facets of her life, it should be made available to all students of Castellanos. The edition offers a good and helpful overview of the thinking on race that prevailed in Latin America at the turn of the century.
The three studies attempt to cover a representative sample of different Latin American countries and how creole elites imported and adapted Eurocentric racist ideas in order to justify their privileged status. Important in Skidmore's study is his critique of the Brazilian myth of a successful and happy miscegenation -that prevails to this day- but which his analysis of immigration policies and census records undermines: the darker the poorer. Aline Heig's analysis of the reception, transformation, and application of these ideas in two very differently constituted countries, Cuba and Argentina, points out how little the elite's ideology in each country had to do with the social and racial reality of those countries.
In the case of Argentina, Sarmiento, Bunge, and Ingenieros continued to espouse Anglo Saxon superiority and Indian and blacks inferiority at a time when Indians and black constituted a rapidly disappearing group. Heig's comparison between Argentina and Cuba further brings out the fact that, regardless of racial composition, the elites of both countries reached surprisingly similar conclusions on race and therefore had more in common with one another and their European models than with their own country's reality.
Disappointingly however, she focuses on the latter's studies in criminology and their similarity with Italian models, while overlooking his very important theorization of the processes of transculturation at work in Cuban culture since the Conquest. Alan Knight's study of Mexico during and after the Revolution would serve as a critique of the two previous chapters since he greatly complicates the notion of race to include the all-important question of the construction of race by culture.
He shows how, in many cases, the perception of racial characteristics has more to do with the perception of ethnicity, religion, language, culture, and class rather than with race itself. The present work, culmination of nearly a decade of research, consists of preface, abbreviations and symbols, introduction, a corpus divided into Spanish American and Brazilian Portuguese terms, references i. As Stephens states early on, it is a broad-based work, geared specifically to speakers of English; and whose entries incorporate historical, literary, political, sociological, anthropological, linguistic and colloquial information.
More precisely, he goes on, such entries tend to refer to phenotype; ethnic, national, regional or geographic origin; social class; religion; and combinations thereof. Further commentary, set in brackets, may conclude the entry, offering some or all of the following information: etymological observations; the part of speech or type of phrase in which the entry generally appears; derivatives; variants; synonyms; antonyms; and cross-references to entries of similar usage or meaning in both Spanish and Portuguese.
Of particular value are the parallels drawn with English-language terminology. Regarding the corpus of the dictionary, there is the pervasive, legitimate and, for the investigator, complex realization that, in the naming process, social factors impact heavily on racial ones, thus making for unavoidable ambiguities in classification. Indeed, one result, found in both of the work's main sections, is what appears to be an over-zealous inclusion of regionalisms, particularly around peasant life, many of which lack appreciable ethnic or racial connotations.
In addition, entries which seem to lack a significant, if not the significant definition, sometimes arise. In point of fact, it is used more to denote underprivileged, short-term farm laborers, and not necessarily from the Northeast, either. Such limited shortcomings, however, are more than outweighed by the advantages of having under one cover a well-organized and thorough reference tool on Latin America's racial and ethnic terminology, up to and including relevant border parlance. This is especially evident in the detail with which Stephens catalogs and cross-references spelling variations, as well as in his more extensive entries, dealing mostly with race.
His work, thus, fills a vacuum, promising to facilitate future research for readers in many of the convergent fields associated with Latin American studies. Este libro consiste en un estudio concienzudo, sagaz, ameno, de un tema importante. Experiencia y conciencia Pero los estudios que se incluyen en este libro son desiguales. Bibliographies of bibliographies perform an extremely useful function in the scholarly world and this one is a welcome addition to such works on the areas and countries of the Western Hemisphere. Its author is a librarian at the Ponce campus of the University of Puerto Rico and is the compiler of several other bibliographies that deal with Puerto Rico.
Pages are a classified annotated bibliography of bibliographies that have dealt in any way with Puerto Rican topics. To some extent, they reflect the importance of the item or its complexity. Pages provide Author, Title and Subject Indexes. Certain sections might interest the readers of Hispania more than others. The coverage is remarkably thorough and comprehensive as it includes books, bibliographies that appear in journals or as part of ERIC, M.
The annotations are most useful and the volume is extremely up to date. It was published early in and includes material published as recently as Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, , ix, pp. For its comprehensiveness and excellent annotations this bibliography should remain for a long time the standard work in its field and anyone interested in Puerto Rico and its culture will find themselves indebted to the perseverance and scholarship of Fay Fowlie-Flores.
Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. One of the reasons Latin American modernism in the European sense of the word was so successful is that it corresponded to an economic heyday of continental culture. Not only were many prominent Latin American writers able to hobnob in New York, London, Paris, Berlin, and Rome with the cultural leaders of the day and, in the process, become known from the recognition that the latter bestowed on them , but centers like Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Santiago, and Havana enjoyed a level of economic prosperity that made the nourishment of a Creole Bohemia and modernist set viable.
Certainly, Spanish American vanguardismo and Brazilian modernismo are eloquent demonstrations of the close ties between economic conditions and the level of artistic production. One is struck by the fact that, given the enormous productivity of Latin American modernism, a bibliography such as this one has not previously been compiled. But, then, poetry, outside of work on a handful of prominent figures like Paz, Neruda, Vallejo and Borges by derivation from his prose , continues to be the understudied genre of Latin American literature, with even work on drama and the theater overshadowing it.
The organization of their project is simple and straightforward: provide coverage of general works and then provide coverage for the individual countries in alphabetical order. Within each section there is a listing of Reference Works, followed by Sources from the Period especially useful, since the economic prosperity allowed for a huge output of literary reviews, manifestoes, and early critical studies, in addition to the works themselves , Individual Works i.
The latter is a single alphabetical listing by critic as opposed to perhaps a more arguably chronological listing. Although the entries as a whole are accompanied by descriptive annotations, the latter are particularly useful for the critical studies, indicating scope, points of contention, conclusion, critical approaches, and relations to other critical studies. Although annotated bibliographies often only mean repeating in English as an annotation the descriptive content of the title, Forster-Jackson provide useful coverage.
What is more, and again because of the proliferation of material during the period, some of the references are not easily available in any but the most extensive research collection, and in this scene the annotations play an important discriminating function. It should, however, be noted that it is the user who will be doing the discriminating, since the annotations do not in any event assess the cultural and intellectual importance of the references -i.
Historically, this term only makes sense in Spanish and only refers to the Spanish American poets. Brazilian literary history speaks of modernismo , never vanguardismo , and there is some discomfort in making Brazil toe the taxonomic line along with Spanish America, and then moreover in English. Perhaps using the English modernism or simply a chronological designation would have avoided the ever-touchy problem of how to interface Spanish American and Brazilian literature without implying that Brazil merely fits in between Argentina and Chile, with language and, therefore, sociocultural differences being of minor consequence.
This sort of caviling aside, one is pleased to see Brazil represented, since Brazilian literature usually gets ignored by Latin Americanists. Since that country had one of the most spectacular modernist productions in all of the continent, the decision to incorporate Brazil in the listing is particularly important.
The bibliography, which enjoyed the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities and fine computer resources, is superbly prepared. Accuracy is exemplary. Vanguardism in Latin American Literature constitutes a fine bibliographic standard and will be a widely consulted reference work.
This well-written volume of critical commentary on the work of Adolfo Bioy Casares takes its place on the narrow shelf of book-length studies devoted to the close friend of Jorge Luis Borges and the husband of Silvina Ocampo. In the second chapter the critic explores his detective fiction, a genre he cultivated with Borges with remarkable success. Guirnalda con amores , a book often overlooked by critics, is the subject of chapter 3. Bioy's interest in humor and dictionaries, an interest he likewise shared with Borges, is studied in chapter 4. The last two chapters are summaries of the themes and techniques found in the first five chapters.
The sixth deals with the author's predilection for island settings in his early works and his later preference for settings either in the city of Buenos Aires or in the province surrounding the city. The volume contains an extensive bibliography of primary works and critical studies as well as an onomastic index. Camurati clearly recognizes the signal importance of these two works, but she successfully makes a case for renewed critical attention to his later novels and short stories. His use of humor, for example, is not evident in the first two works.
The idea that Bioy Casares primarily uses island settings is another result of critical emphasis on his first two novels. It contains examples of his use of humor and dreams, the latter either a foretaste of life after death or a nightmarish vision of earthly existence. In the final pages of the novel the dedication of the photographer, the book's protagonist mentioned in the title, to artistic endeavors triumphs over his feelings of love and desire. Implicit in Camurati's conclusion is that Bioy Casares throughout his career has shown equal dedication to the task of producing fine literature.
There can be no doubt that Camurati is a well-informed critic of the prose fiction of Bioy Casares. Her study is carefully organized, carefully documented, and free from any technical errors; the ones that do occur are primarily in the first two chapters. I think Peavler has chosen a felicitous classification; he arranges the stories in a kind of continuum that goes from those works containing a maximum of fantasy and unreality to those based on reality. The key to the classification is verisimilitude in terms of character depiction, ambience, and the narration of the events in the work.
Whether Peavler's comments cover one page or are limited to fifteen lines, he manages to strike at the core of each narration as regards theme, meaning, or technical aspects. Peavler handles well the ambiguities, uncertainties, and temporal-spatial displacements that give these stories their particular Cortazarian dimension and aesthetic appeal. When necessary, Peavler reviews the opinions of other critics concerning particular texts, and then either corroborates or refutes these interpretations. In some cases, Peavler interprets the stories he discusses here as involving real events, whereas many previous critics have considered these same events as imaginary or hallucinatory.
Peavler presents a good analysis of El examen , but correctly dismisses it as unimportant artistically. Rayuela, modelo para armar , and El libro de Manuel are analyzed very soundly, but I feel that Peavler should have given more of his critical attention to these novels than he has elected to do. Peavler is to be congratulated for writing this very useful, informative, and critically sensitive book.
I recommend it with much enthusiasm. Jaramillo, unveils historical realities embedded in the work, and the second, by the author himself, highlights its historical underpinnings and salient motifs. But the liveliest exchange of ideas informs the section focusing on Colombian sociologist Orlando Fals Borda's four-volume work, Historia doble de la Costa. The first piece, by Raymond Souza, presents a balanced, coherent introduction to Fals' study, emphasizing both its factual and literary contents. While undoubtedly based on sound academic principles, Bergquist's lengthy critique may nevertheless strike some readers as pedantic, especially in light of Fals's forceful, point-by-point rebuttal.
Ricardo Feierstein Argentina, has earned attention for a series of novels, each developing the concerns of its predecessors. His first work won sporadic notice, applying concepts from architecture Feierstein's profession to narrative. In the late s, Feierstein became a much more interesting writer by centering on a set of issues. He examines unexpected outcomes of Israeli statehood, such as the undiminished vigor of Jewish life in the Diaspora and the inevitably imperfect correspondence between Jewish and Israeli cultural identity.
Also explored are the effects on collective and individual self-image or shifting from vivid utopianism kibbutz or 60ss left to business as usual; the puzzle of Latin Americanness enters in. Middle-aged discontent grows more acute; the humdrum professional career confronting the hero of Escala is one of unemployment, and the character's response to crisis has escalated from unhappiness and anger to disorientation and memory loss.
While these factors start Mestizo on a cheerless note, a story of recovery quickly reveals itself. The background -newly recivilianized Argentina- suggests renewal, and Mestizo pays tribute to human understanding as friends and family help David search for memory and self. Even the police, who need David to recall a murder, wait patiently for him to heal himself by his own methods.
These include taking oral histories from immigrant Jewish Argentines quite absorbing material , recreating in conversation the days of heady activism and violent repression, and even such painless therapies as sharing the rapture of a great soccer triumph with a teenage son. David's amnesia is the symptom of an uneasy relation with the Jewish heritage and Argentine past, recent political history, and other troubling legacies.
As the title hints, healing comes through acceptance of the mixed and unspecifiable nature of one's cultural and social being. It is fair to say that readers have been more drawn to Feierstein for thematic than formal innovations. A new restraint also characterizes the use of dialogue. This is not to suggest that Feierstein has foresworn experiments with form one episode in Mestizo is narrated as a screenplay, another as a comic strip or weighty debate the hero once sits between a pro-Palestinian Arab and a Jew voicing anxiety over Israeli and Jewish survival.
But here he tactfully lets readers decide what to focus on. Mestizo 's afterword by Avellaneda skillfully summarizes where the novel stands in the author's oeuvre. Avellaneda justly presents Mestizo as an example of fiction with a documentary component, and sees its unmarked structure as artlessness suited to testimonial literature, with its field-notes effect. Mestizo appears in Mild's series Imaginaria, a thoughtful list of creative works elaborating Jewish thought and concerns.
Ocho Mundos is a text intended for use by beginning or early intermediate learners of Spanish. This new edition of Ocho Mundos differs from previous editions in that the primary focus of the text has shifted from the development of reading skills to the acquisition of vocabulary and the development of vocabulary skills. In this edition of Ocho Mundos , the readings are intended to be used primarily as a means of reinforcing vocabulary acquisition and secondarily as a means of acquiring and practicing reading skills.
The text is divided into eight chapters, each of which focuses on a different theme of cultural or social interest. Among the themes covered in the text are: the family, student life, holidays, refugees, life in the future, mysterious occurrences, travel, and communication. In addition to a specific thematic focus, each chapter also focuses on one of several verb tenses usually introduced during the first year of Spanish instruction. The tenses studied in order of presentation include: present, preterit, imperfect, future, conditional, perfect tenses, formal commands and subjunctive. Each chapter contains a vocabulary list which presents words and expressions related to the overall theme of the chapter, three reading selections also related to the overall theme of the chapter, and a variety of vocabulary and grammar exercises.
There are also communicative activities which allow learners an opportunity to express themselves in some manner or to interact with other learners in pairs or small groups. Finally, all reading selections in each chapter are accompanied by post-reading activities designed to test learners' comprehension of the passage and most are also accompanied by pre-reading activities designed to activate learners' previous knowledge of the topic.
With respect to the reading selections, the first is a pedagogical text, in most cases written by the author. The other two are adaptations of articles that appeared in Spanish language periodicals. Each reading selection in a particular chapter is intended to highlight both the vocabulary and the verb tense which correspond to that chapter. By correlating reading selections with the introduction of particular verb tenses. The reading selections deal with a variety of interesting topics which should appeal to a wide range of learners.
However, they seem somewhat contrived due to the fact that they have been manipulated to conform to the thematic and grammatical focus of the different chapters. By simplifying and glossing the reading selections while at the same time strictly controlling the vocabulary and grammar they contain, the author does not challenge the learners to go beyond what they already know.
This contradicts the empirically supported view that learners can indeed comprehend vocabulary and grammatical structures to which they have not been exposed. Regarding the vocabulary and grammar exercises included in the text, the majority are mechanical in nature. Learners are asked to fill in the blanks with words or verb conjugations, match words with their equivalent in the other language, and complete cloze passages. One exception to these types of exercises are the pair and group activities included in each chapter. These activities, which generally take the form of interviews or group discussions, provide good opportunities for interaction between learners.
Similarly, while most of the exercises and activities associated with the readings are traditional and mechanical e. These types of pre-reading activities have been shown to facilitate comprehension. In conclusion, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course; however there are several caveats to consider before adopting it. First, the vocabulary and grammar presented in Ocho Mundos are too limited for it to serve as the basic text in a first-year Spanish course; however, Ocho Mundos could be used to complement and reinforce the vocabulary and grammar presented in a standard basic text.
Secondly, with some exceptions, the activities and exercises included in Ocho Mundos are traditional and mechanical. Therefore, instructors must devise more interesting and less traditional activities to be used instead of or at least in conjunction with the activities and exercises found in Ocho Mundos. Finally, the reading selections strictly limit and control learners' experience with reading in Spanish.
Consequently, instructors using Ocho Mundos should also expose their learners to truly authentic texts in Spanish in order to broaden the learners' experience with reading in Spanish and challenge them to go beyond what they already know. For these reasons, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course, but only as a supplement to other materials and not as the basic text nor as the only source of activities or reading materials. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Readers of Hispania were recently treated to a thorough assessment and bibliography of studies dealing with Spanish historical linguistics see Thomas J. Hispania 73 , Several hundred copies were evidently offered as a Christmas gift to the clients of a particular banking institution. Hence, the lack of a bibliography and the usual critical apparatus. The text itself consists of eleven chapters designated and arranged as follows: 1. La Familia Indoeuropea; 2. As the above index shows, the author has managed to cover the salient topics pertaining to the subject.
These are presented, moreover, in a straightforward and at times delightfully humorous manner. Many readers will no doubt appreciate the author's ability to transform what is potentially a very dry and technical mass of material into a highly-readable and entertaining narrative.
It is somewhat difficult, of course, for a specialist in the area of Spanish philology to predict the reaction of a neophyte audience to Alatorre's presentation. The chapters on literary development seem extremely uneven and sketchy. One also wonders to what extent a non-specialist reader will be able to comprehend, much less appreciate, the synthesized explanations of sound change such as that afforded the development of the Old Spanish sibilant system in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the phonological differences between Castilian, Galician-Portuguese, Mozarabic, Leonese and Aragonese.
While the author had promised to avoid using the technical vocabulary of the specialist i.
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It is clear that Alatorre writes with expertise and affection about the language he remembers having been introduced to in written form at the age of four. The general reader who is curious enough to follow him in his journey throughout the centuries will no doubt find much along the way to stimulate the palate. The entries, relating to the Spanish-speaking world and Brazil, were taken from previous works of this nature, but the compilers, both law librarians, also contributed additional terms by gleaning the treatise reviews of the various U. They subsumed the legal abbreviations if the documents already contained a list; otherwise, they perused the materials in search of such abbreviations.
To be even more complete the compilers solicited contributions from colleagues in the field. The result is the present dictionary wherein each of the entries has the following annotation: 1 the acronym as it appeared in the original work, 2 the meaning of the phrase in Spanish or in Portuguese unfortunately written without accent marks , 3 the country or countries of origin of the term and finally, 4 the English translation.
The previous listings of legal abbreviations, brief though they may be, should have been noted either in the introduction or in a bibliography. Likewise, a cross section of the types of materials consulted for legal abbreviations as well as the U. Since so few bilingual reference books are extant on the fields of Spanish and Portuguese laws, a very brief bibliography of nine or ten titles would indicate not only the scope of the field but more importantly other valuable resources for the user: Louis A.
Eugene P. Sheehy's Guide to Reference Books lists six additional tools. Since the legal system of the Iberian world derives from sources different from those of the English-speaking world, it may be possible that the English translation is only an approximation due to the absence of a more precise term in English. Useful would be a glossary of deceptive cognates and other words difficult to convey to the English monolingual: amparo, asesorar, contestar, declarar, and demandar.
Hispania. Volume 74, Number 3, September 1991
Latin American Legal Abbreviations fills a need in legal reference; however, the disparateness of Roman and Anglo Saxon legal systems requires more scholarly accouterments for the user. This plus more attention to source of materials would have considerably enhanced the present work. This volume, dedicated to the memory of Joseph H.
Silverman , states that its principal objective is to offer a number of points of view on teaching Spanish Golden Age drama on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. By editorial de sign, the first essays are more applicable to undergraduate courses, while the rest are geared more for graduate teaching. In brief prefatory remarks, Hesse outlines some chronological stages in the development of approaches to the teaching of Golden Age plays, leading up to the great variety of modern approaches manifested in the eight essays which comprise this collection.
With the advent of New Criticism, scholars came to scrutinize with much greater care the texts themselves. Hesse cites the work of A. Parker in , and the reactions published in by James A. Parr as significant contributions to the development of a more modern and relevant approach to criticism which would come to examine the form, structure, imagery, irony, language, and human values found in a play.