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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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A wealthy rancher is proud of his foreman and says he cannot tell a lie. Another rancher makes a bet with him that he can get his forem…. In this story, Michael Jordan is a very active child. His family helps him to channel his energy into positive activities and eventuall…. But when an sh…. Justin is upset that …. In , year-old Kai travels alone by steamship from China to Gold Mountain United States to live with his father. When Kai arriv…. Katie, whose family i….

At a time when it was unusual for women to travel alone to Alaska, Kate Ryan leaves her home in Canada and travels to the Alaskan front…. This autobiographical piece tells what a neat, tidy rule-follower this author was in his youth. Once he was unfairly given a dete…. Manuel, a fifth grader, feels average and lacks confidence in himself. He has doubts about volunteering for the elementary school talen…. Mary Maloney's husband Patrick tells his wife that that he is leaving her, and shocked beyond reply, she grabs a large leg of lamb from…. One definition of a protagonist is a character that goes through change.

And part of the definition is that the antagonist is the…. This story takes place in the s in the Great Plains region of the United States devastated by a great drought. Leah had been given …. This selection is a narrative nonfiction story about supply and demand. It gives readers information about the basics of starting…. This narrative nonfic…. Includes: Primary source text on early American history Text-dependent questions Academic vocabulary list Writing prompt for writ…. WWII has started and Jimbo Kurasaki and his mother and brother have been confined to an internment camp because they are Japanese.

He i…. In this nonfiction story, readers learn how and why scientists brave the extreme conditions of both poles in order to do research that …. Life in the Grunt tribe changes when a baby dinosaur hatches from the huge egg that Little Grunt drags home for brunch. Houghton Miffl…. This research pack focuses on: Centers on a single topic i.

An adventurous mouse named Livingstone is faced with the task of finding a place to build his own nest. In the story, the mother leaves 3 children home alone as she goes to visit…. In this essay, Mandela explains his shifting understandings of freedom based on different stages in his life. Mandela explain how his p…. The story follows the lives of three new-born wolves over a ten and one half month period. It encompasses the various stages thro…. The students will lea….

In this story, a young girl shares what it is like to spend time with her grandmother at her home and at her job at the crab chong wher…. Throughout her life, …. Mahalia Jackson begins with the grandfather sharing the historical underpinnings of the blues, including a brief history of the African…. This literary text by Mary and Rich Chamberlin tells a tale of community, friendship and sharing.

As a mother and son go to the market …. With the help of her friends and family, Mariah plans a surprise party for her sister Lynn. After many close calls, the party is succes…. This play takes place in South Carolina in during the American Revolution, when a mother and her daughter are going about their da….

This award winning, beautifully illustrated picture book biography introduces children to the words of Martin Luther King, Jr. He grew …. To keep their only so…. This is an informational article about a woman named Maya Lin who has designed monuments around the country honoring historic events. In this tall tale, Jo…. Major medical discoveries are detailed over time. Diverse individuals, using scientific methods and innovation, determined causes for d…. Scientists Dr. Roger Payne and Dr. Katherine Payne have discovered that the use of infrasonic sounds is a method of communication used ….

It details her transformation from a novice t…. For as long as she co…. This expository nonfiction text is about how living things have adapted traits of mimicry or camouflage to either fool or attract prey …. This is a narrative depicting the journey of small seeds preparing to take root and begin their life cycle. The main character, Miss Ma…. Leslie and her family learn to adjust to life without their mother when she is away training her new dog guide, Ursula, after the passi….

This article examines what happens when a sugar planter tries to save his sugar crops by importing a few mongooses to eat the rats. When a sudden and inexplicable force causes everything to stop working on Maple Street, the people there begin to wonder who or what is…. In this literary text by David and Phillis Gershator, a rooster notices that the sky is dark and realizes there is no one to help it co…. In this informational text the author describes mountains in different parts of the world. He tells about the effects of erosion on mou….

This literary text by Richard and Florence Atwater tells the story of Mr. Popper, a seasonal house painter who is faced with making a d…. In Mrs. In this fantasy story…. This text describes and illustrates with labeled pictures the purpose and process for making mummies in Ancient Egypt. It begins with t…. Each : text set Centers on a single topic i. This personal narrative introduces the genre of a diary to the students. This story is based upon the life of Arizona Houston Hughes, a teacher who taught generations of children in a one-room schoolhouse tha….

More than one Maria in class causes Maria Isabel to worry for weeks about not being in the pageant, when the teacher confuses their nam…. Through d…. This is a story about Saruni, a young boy, and his family, who are both consumers and sellers in a market in Tanzania. There are many e…. Sam Gribley has been living alone in the woods all summer, but fall has arrived and the fear of winter has forced Sam to think of new w….

As a child, the narrator describes how his magnificent career as an artist was ended at an early age by adults who lacked imagination, …. In this legend, the author uses the struggles of a poverty stricken boy and his grandmother to show how even in their trials, the decis…. A young Bedouin girl has earned the nickname Nadia the Willful because of her quick temper. Her brother, Hamed, is the only one who can…. She describes her reactions to the mispronunci…. Detective Nate the Great searches San Francisco for a lost joke book. He discovers that the wrong place can be the best place to look f….

This informational text by Jonathan Alderfer includes pictures and information concerning birds and their habitats. To facilitate the …. This lesson was initially created through the Basal Alignment Project and was then further developed by the 4th grade team from Pleasan…. Puffins raise their y….

This is a beautifully illustrated story of a young bat, Chiro, who is sent out on his very first solo adventure into the dark night. The poem describes the victorious homecoming of a ship. The Captain responsible for the safe return of his ship and crew has died befor…. This excerpt describes how oceans work: the relationship between the phases of the moon and tides, and the dangers of deadly tidal wave…. This is a letter from President Barack Obama to his daughters, where he poses reflective questions regarding the character of his daugh…. Police Officer Buckle gives safety speeches that no one listens to until a police dog, Gloria, joins him.

Because Gloria acts out the s…. War is happening in Spain and the civilians are asked to leave the war zone. At the side of the road, the narrator, presumably a …. With Papa away on a cattle drive, fourteen-year-old Travis is in charge of looking after the family homestead on the Texas plains, mile…. Lorraine Hansberry uses elements of narrative, and persuasive and reflective essays to highlight memorable moments in her life where sh….

In this historical fi…. In summer, the grasshopper runs among the h…. This informational text by Gail Marilyn Singer displays the lives of local people and wildlife on the same day in March, from the Arcti…. A raja decrees that the villagers must give most of the rice they harvest to him. He promises to store it safely and distribute it in t…. This is a story of how changes happen in the world, one person, one family, one community at a time. The story takes place in Ghana, We….

In this speech, Rudolfo Anaya celebrates the purchase of the 1 millionth library volume by the University of New Mexico. He begin…. The main character, Mr. Johnson, embarks upon quite the opposite of an ordinary day. This day he spends as a do-gooder, wandering the s….

This story is a folkt…. This expository nonfiction text is about how an oak tree may become vulnerable to disease from its bark being damaged by a bear clawing…. Before language was written, people from all over the world have recorded their family histories orally.

They have used storytell…. They walk together to the drug store a…. This informational text by Seymour Simon discusses the composition and functions of the sun, along with its role in regulating life on …. Josie and her family return to their homeland of Sene…. While out on a so….

When the land surveyor, Gleb Smirnov, arrives in the Gnilushka train station, he hires a peasant to take him to the estate that he must…. A tsunami separates a young hippo from his mother. As he is rescued and taken to a wildlife sanctuary, he develops an interesting and u…. In this literary text by Jane Yolen, a girl and her father go owling for the first time. Along the way they encounter a great horned ow…. The story begins in the s with the ox-cart man and his family loading his cart with goods they produced over the year. He jou…. Harry used to visit the shop with his friends every day, but his priorities cha….

The family of a Japanese diplomat, Mr. Sugihara, living in Lithuania in , is confronted by Jewish refugees asking for Japanese visa…. On that night, Re…. In this nonfiction selection, an Emperor penguin lays an egg in the bitter cold of Antarctica. The penguin parents battle the harsh env…. This book contains basic facts about penguins including their habitats, their predators, and physical features. It also gives detailed …. Pepita stops speaking Spanish because she is tired of being the neighborhood translator. However, when a disaster nearly occurs, Pepita…. This excerpt from a b….

Lesson guides for Cat! Prentice Hall Literature, This lesson was created as par…. Prentice Hall Literature, This lesson was create…. Poppa buys himself some new pants that need hemming. The women of his family are too tired to hem the pants before church the following…. Most kids collect something. Prudy collects everything! Rocks, stamps, foil, worn-out toothbrushes, pretty paper napkins, tufts of hair….

All her life she was curious and determined to make a difference in the…. The young girl takes the dragon to Dragon Island, but returns to the farm with…. Ramona and Beezus, tw…. Babushka saved an injured goose and brought it back to good health. DiAngelo early that morn…. In this play, Red Writing Hood does not like the way her fairy tale ends, so she decides to change the events of her own fairy tale by …. The main character, Esperanza, desperately wants to eat in the lunchroom at school, with the other boys and girls who do not go home fo….

A mongoose, Rikki-tikki-tavi, comes to live with an English family in their bungalow in colonial India. Two cobras—Nag and Nagain…. A Rattlesnake proclaims that he is king of the road, and he terrorizes villagers and refuses to let them pass on the road. The villager…. This interest consumed the young boy as he collected them in all of his s…. This literary text by Carol Otis Hurst tells the story of her father's life and passion for collecting rocks. Although people continual…. Richard moves to a new town and has to make new friends and face the challenge of climbing the rope in gym class.

He makes a friend in …. Rosie is a Tibetan terrier whose friendly nature makes her a perfect visiting dog. After a lot of training, she brings comfort to peopl…. Ruby wants to fit in …. In this story, a boy has a dog named Rugby with whom he is great friends. One day a puppy named Rosie joins the family. Rugby does not …. The Saguaro Cactus is…. Like his Aleut ancestors, Alex continues the tradition of catching salmon, during their spawning at Kodiak Island in Alaska, to feed fa…. This is an historical fiction text that shares the daily life of one family in Plimoth Plantation.

Young Samuel Eaton lives with his fa…. Anna and Caleb Wittin…. He was inspire…. This nonfiction text discusses how a fourth grade class at Union Avenue School worked hard to protect the New Jersey shoreline by plant…. Organized by grade K-6 and topic. Ben goes to the beach and watches a seal being born. Over the next few seasons, Ben develops a special bond with this seal, a bond that…. The ability to see Earth from space helps scientists to understand both how the planet works and how human activities are affecting the….

The author describes the life of Jean-Francois Champollion. This selection uses text and graphics together as a vehicle to deepen the r…. In the beginning, Wal…. On the first day of seventh grade, Victor and his friend Michael try to hide their insecurities and impress the girls in their class. This story is an excerpt from a novel. It is about a boy named Marty who wants to save a runaway dog from being abused. He brings the d…. He hopes to become rich …. This poem describes the feelings of a girl whose best friend, Hanna, has moved away.

The little girl feels that nothing will be the sam…. Ephram loves to play the violin, and when he discovers that a blind neighbor was once a musician, but stopped playing the piano due to …. During a New Years cele…. Their actions in…. In this story, a family struggles on a prairie farm during a drought.

Books Set In Australia

They are forced to make a painful choice when their water soon ru…. This informational text by Franklyn M. Branley gives facts about snow and its formation, as well as the positive and negative effects o…. Two snow leopard cubs learn many lessons about survival from their mother as they prepare for life on their own. This literary text by Jean Craighead George gives a gripping account of the awesome wonder and potential peril of an avalanche. This biography details the life of Wilson Bentley, a self-taught scientist who photographed thousands of individual snowflakes in order….

In this informational text by Jacqueline Briggs Martin, two important truths about snowflakes are revealed. First, no two are alike and…. This informational text details traits and characteristics that different inventors throughout history have demonstrated and how those …. Organized by grade K-8 and lexile.

The informational text includes text features, such as photographs and captions, to give an overview of information about spiders and t…. This informational text by Gail Gibbons gives facts and examples of spiders and what they do to catch insects to eat.

To facilitate th…. Includes two texts and one video, thirteen text-dependent questions, including one constructed-response writing prompt, and explanatory…. Thomas and his Grandfather share a small house with, their cat and pet duck. In this literary text by Janell Cannon, a baby bat separated from her mother is raised by a mother bird, on the condition that she acts….

This folktale is about three monks who visit a village filled with unhappy people. The villagers do not welcome the monks, so the three…. Lacey and their daughter, Doris, are stranded at home following a severe winter storm. Doris notices an abandoned pu…. Suki's favorite possession is her blue cotton kimono. A gift from her obachan grandmother , it holds special memories of her grandmoth….

This article describes the out-of-control fires that took place during the summer of It focuses on the unpredictable fires of the…. In the summer of , fires raged out of control in Yellowstone National Park. Though it seemed like total devastation to outsiders, t…. Includes: Primary source text on the right to privacy Text-dependent questions Academic vocabulary list Writing prompt for writin….

A group of fifth grade students interview the first Hispanic American astronaut, Ellen Ochoa. The interview is a question and ans…. This informational selection introduces the reader to artists that express their feelings and experiences through painting murals in th…. In this short story by Langston Hughes, a teenage boy named Roger wants a pair of blue suede shoes. He tries to snatch Mrs. This play is about a group of boys and girls who are summertime campers at the National Sea Base camp in the Florida Keys. Their advent…. The Adventurers of Sojourner presents a third-person narrative account of the Mars Pathfinder mission, which included the deployment of….

This informational text describes how paleontologists continue to investigate unanswered questions about dinosaurs. In the book, The Art Lesson, Tommy wants to be an artist when he gets older. He practices his art all of the time and listens to the ad…. Gloria waits in a checkout line, tossing around the onion her mother had sent her to buy. This historical fiction story takes place in in the midst of the Great Depression in New York City.

Baseball was king and Babe Rut…. In this play, the neighborhood baker Manuel bakes delicious smelling pastries and puts them out for sale each morning, but his neighbor…. This literary text by Berta and Elmer Hader recounts how many different animals prepare for winter. The humpback whale is a massive, yet gentle creature - as John Archambault describes in The Birth of a Whale. The book uses lyric…. The story centers on a young Haitian-artist, Annie, and her reverence for her father, whom she believes was a Haitian political prisone….

The Boxcar Children is about four orphaned children living on their own. They set out to find a safe place to live and overcome challen…. In this book, two sisters, Maisie and Callie, are faced with a challenging situation. Callie gets hurt while their mother is away and M…. Sam and Cam own a detective agency. They are contacted by the Bear family, who is upset because their banana pancakes have been eaten a…. McDougal Littell Literature, T…. In this short story, Jose learns a valuable lesson about himself when he tries to impress Estella by challenging her to a game of racqu…. Panchito, a young migrant worker, lives life with his family on the circuit—a cycle of seasonal crop harvesting.

Each move on the…. This informational text by Tomie dePaola explores the types of clouds, the myths about certain shapes, and popular sayings inspired by …. After Bright Morning's tribe is commanded by the Long Knives the United States soldiers to leave the canyon that is their home, the t…. Country Mouse invites her friend, City Mouse to visit her in the country. City Mouse does not enjoy the country and convinces Country M…. Chester Cricket meets…. The students at Riverside Elementary School are excited about a visit from a real author. The class has been reading books by the autho….

Duncan is an artist who likes to draw and color, and his crayons have issues with the way they are used. To request access to this lesson, please click "Send Feedback". This story is set in a Tennessee peach orchard on the night before the Civil War battle of Shiloh. A young drummer briefly consid…. Djeow Seow is the sma…. The emperor loves new clothes, so two swindlers claim they can make beautiful clothes that are invisible to anyone stupid or unfit for ….

Beverly Cleary tells the story of a family on a rainy Sunday in a household full of bad moods. Despite his fear, Doug Grillo must cross a terrifying mountain ledge to find his missing brother. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Reading, 2…. This speech, presented as an address in to the mayor of Chicago, William Hale Thompson, sought to reform the stereotypical image o…. This is an excerpt from "Tomb Robbers. He had a great fear of his own death. There once was a poor fisherman and his wife who lived in a pigsty by the seaside.

The fisherman goes fishing one day and comes a…. Marisol watches her neighbors excited about making a vacant lot beautiful, so she hunts and hunts and finds her own little patch where …. Lydia Grade is sent to live with her Uncle Jim while her parents look for work. She happily settles in to her new home where she …. Two female cousins spend their life doing everything together.

One night they realize they are both in love with the Moon and wish to m…. It provides an enter…. This lesson includes: Text-dependent questions Printable copies of the text Student discussion activities Vocabulary and syntax t…. In this fantasy by Lynn Cherry, a man is trying to cut down a kapok tree in the Amazon rainforest. After a while of cutting the h…. A man walks into a lush rainforest and starts chopping down a huge kapok tree. Lulled by the heat, he sits down and soon falls asleep. This expository text selection outlines the efforts of the Chinese people to build the Great Wall to protect them from the Mongol invad….

In this nonfiction piece, the author shares what he learned about the way of life of grizzly bears after spending a full year in Alaska…. Gary Soto writes an autobiography about a time when he was eleven years old, wanting to be a gymnast like his cousin. He thinks i…. Tim is a s…. In this tale, a girl …. Before they ever met her, Rory and Derek made a pact not to speak to Bolivia, the new girl in town. After Bolivia orchestrates a …. This realistic fictional story is about Steven and his Aunt Carolyn. The two have always shared a special bond; each time Aunt Carolyn ….

This story is written from the perspective of Wong Ming-Chung, a young Chinese boy who traveled to America to join his uncle during the…. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Journe…. She creates a quilt that is passed on from generation to ge…. In this story, there are six generations of women descended from a woman who emigrated from Russia to America.

Throughout the story, ea…. Stockton is about a fairy tale king who edifies his subjects through public trials wi…. In this short story, a boy named Billy Weaver needs to find lodging in Bath, England. He goes to a boardinghouse. The landlady is an od…. A young boy, Peter, is hesitant to spend the summer with his great aunt in Chinatown. Peter finds an aging parade dragon in a store and…. Damon and Pythias are…. Two students hide in the bathroom in order to avoid taking the math test, eventually telling their teacher they were trapped yb a giant….

The Lost City of the Aztecs is about the demise of the Aztec Empire and how Montezuma, the last Aztec emperor, reacted to the arrival o…. This set includes an anchor text and five additional texts from various witnesses offering differing perspectives on Truman informing S…. Even though Lupe Medrano is the top student at her school, she is a failure at sports until she tries her hand at marbles, so she pract….

Revolutionary War hero Paul Revere warned the colonist of an advancing attack by the British army. Revere rode his horse through the ni…. This informational text by Niki Walker describes the characteristics of the moon and traces the history of man's exploration of Earth's…. This informational text by Gail Gibbons offers information on the moon and its relationship to the Earth and Sun.

To facilitate the us…. Ten-day series of sample lessons includes: Text dependent questions Student discussion activities Vocabulary and syntax tasks Wri…. With a clever …. In this illustrated text, the main character, Louis, receives a special tadpole from his uncle. Louis and his classmates observe the ta….

In this speech, Kennedy attempts to persuade the public that America should invest in space exploration in the name of progress an…. This is a story of th…. The Olympic Games have grown and changed since the first contests were held in Ancient Greece. However, one aspect of the games remains…. The text begins with a poor fisherman, Kino, his wife, Juana, their baby Coyotito, and the great pearl.

When Coyotito is stung by a sco…. Elizabeth was very de…. This informational, nonfiction text introduces the solar system and its many parts — the sun, the eight planets, the satellites o…. Nicky reluctantly spends the summer in the Wisconsin woods with his grandmother who is an artist. He is not thrilled with all of the ch…. Bill and Sam decide that the best way to finance their upcoming land swindle is to kidnap the child of a wealthy citizen and hold him f…. The cofounder of Microsoft Corporation makes predictions about the future as he chronicles communication innovations from the past and ….

The speaker reflects on the risks and responsibilities of making choices and deciding which road to take. Prentice Hall Timeless Voice…. A young boy, Brian, finds a salamander in the woods and wants to keep it as a pet. This story follows Brian as he uses his perseverance…. The text explores the conflicts between love and pride, and draws attention to the effects of familial and societal expectations and st…. The story…. A third grade girl named Beany creates a science fair project with her partner, Kevin.

Beany is not confident that their project is the…. Miguel went with his father and brothers on their annual sheep move in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, but some of the sheep got lost d…. A young boy, who has never seen the sea, asks his mother to describe it. As the poem progresses, the author uses descriptive words, sim….

This informational text by Kenneth Libbrecht explains how snowflakes grow and why each one has a unique shape. This fantasy takes place on the planet Pern, an imaginary world where dragons help protect the inhabitants from the dangerous Red Star,…. In this literary text by Ezra Jack Keats, a boy wakes up to a snow-covered city and experiences different emotions through the day.

This literary text by Mary Howitt tells the well-known story of a spider who tries to lure a fly into his web, promising interesting th…. Julian meets Gloria, a new girl in his neighborhood. Together they make a wish kite, with wishes fastened to its tail; both wish for la…. Pandora, a kindhearted cat, is a lighthouse keeper who lives a solitary life until she meets Seabold, a sailor dog during a bad storm. This is a tale of a compassionate, courageous …. This story uses a mix….

In this literary text by Chris Van Allsburg, a stranger recuperates at the Bailey farm after Farmer Bailey hits him with his truck. This is a Zuni play about an ant in the search to find out who is strongest of all. The ant talks with numerous characters to find out …. Tasha, a thirteen year old girl has to babysit her little 7 year old brother, Junior, because her mom is getting a job over the summer. Benny is nervous about the upcoming talent show. After a talk with her parents, Beany realizes that the most important thing is doing w….

Amber, her brother, and her parents visit Aunt Phoebe, a traveler, collector and storyteller. Aunt Phoebe shares a cloth with th…. Almost every culture has a traditional tale about character who is granted three wishes. Two are usually used unwisely, and then the th…. She was born in and now it is On the ….

This informational text by Gary Paulsen describes the life cycle of a corn seed as it goes from farm to table and nourishes the hands t…. She faces physi…. Wolf travels from house…. The story is presented through the eyes of the authors and goes back and forth between documenting for the reader the events of the mos…. The pilgrims from England traveled across the Atlantic Ocean in hopes of establishing a new colony in North America.

The separatists or…. A boy on a family backpacking adventure discovers an amazing waterfall and decides he wants to climb to the top. The boy becomes a lead…. The narrator of The White Umbrella is a Chinese American girl who struggles with feelings of embarrassment and longing to be like other…. A little girl, Dorothy, and her dog, Toto, are carried to a magical place called the Land of Oz by a cyclone. On her quest to find her …. This informational text by Alice and Martin Provensen describes farm animals and what happens during one year on a farm.

The Yellow Wallpaper is a story told from the perspective of a woman facing the tribulations of mental illness. Charlotte Perkins…. This classic Ray Bradbury Science Fiction story is set in the future after a nuclear Armageddon in which a fully automated house goes t…. This horror story begins when three lighthouse keepers realize that a derelict ship heading for their tiny island is filled with thousa…. This literary text by Shutta Crum tells the tale of a Midwest family seeking relief from a hot summer day. The mother begins to recogni….

This literary text by Patricia Polacco tells the story of how she conquered her childhood fear of thunderstorms with the assistance of …. Rose is a child with …. This informational text by Chana Stiefel discusses thunderstorms and information about the destruction that severe storms can create. In this article, Mr. Koffi Annan spoke to world leaders on the issue of protecting our environment.

He states that since the beginning …. Terrence Cheromcka and Martin Jacobs, two Time For Kids reporters, report on two very different organizations that involve children pla…. With the help of the …. The term is a specific use of ambit meaning 'extent, compass'. First recorded in the s. Mr Justice Powers to-day delivered judgment on the point. He said that the ambit of the dispute before the Court was confined to constructional work, but that the Court could and would deal with claims for maintenance work. An ambulance officer.

This is an abbreviation that follows a very common Australian pattern of word formation, with —o added to the abbreviated form. Other examples include: arvo afternoon , Salvo Salvation army officer , dermo dermatologist , and gyno gynaecologist. The -o form is often found at the ending of Australian nicknames, as in Johno, Jacko, and Robbo. Ambo was first recorded in the s. Something extremely impressive; the best of its kind.

Ant's pants is an Australian variant of the originally US forms bee's knees and cat's whiskers with the same meaning. The term is first recorded in the s. They're the Ant's Pants for Value. Parsons Return to Moondilla : 'Liz is busting to see you', Pat said. An Australian soldier. Anzac denotes the virtues of courage and determination displayed by the First World War Australian soldiers at Gallipoli in First recorded A sweet biscuit typically containing rolled oats and golden syrup.

While variations on this classic recipe exist, its simplicity is its hallmark. The association with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps goes back to when the recipe was first recorded. The biscuits are also known simply as Anzacs. The following quotations show the evolution of the recipe:. Beat butter and sugar to cream, add eggs well beaten, lastly flour, rice flour baking powder, cinnamon and spice. Mix to stiff paste, roll and cut into biscuits.

Bake a nice light brown in moderate oven. When cold jam together and ice. Two breakfast-cupfuls of John Bull oats, half a cupful sugar, one scant cupful plain flour, half a cupful melted butter. Mix one table-spoonful golden syrup, two table-spoonfuls boiling water, and one teaspoon-ful bicarbonate of soda, until they froth, then add the melted butter. Mix in dry ingredients and drop in spoonfuls on greased tray.

Bake in a slow oven.

Blinkist Explained: What Is Blinkist? (2019) Non-Fiction Book Summaries In 15 Minutes

Everything is fine, all is well. Australian English often uses the feminine pronoun she where standard English would use it. She's apples was originally rhyming slang - apple and spice or apple and rice for 'nice'. The phrase has now lost all connection with its rhyming slang origin. First recorded in the s the term can still be heard today. MacQuarrie We and Baby : 'She'll be apples! Afternoon, as in see you Saturday arvo. It is often used in the phrase this arvo , which is sometimes shortened to sarvo : meet you after the game, sarvo. Arvo is an example of a special feature of Australian English, the habit of adding -o to an abbreviated word.

First recorded in the s and still going strong today. The phrase was first recorded in the s. In recent years it has also been used with reference to questions of gender identity, and in this sense it has been exported to other countries. Australia; Australian. The abbreviation Aussie is a typical example of the way Australians abbreviate words and then add the -ie or -y suffix. Other common examples includes budgie a budgerigar , rellie a relative , and tradie a tradesperson. The word is used as a noun to refer to the country and to a person born or residing in the country, and as an adjective denoting something relating to Australia.

Aussie is also used as an abbreviation for 'Australian English' and the 'Australian dollar'. The earliest evidence for Aussie occurs in the context of the First World War. Moberly Experiences 'Dinki Di' R. Nurse : A farewell dance for the boys going home to 'Aussie' tomorrow. Nurse : One of our Aussie officers. Why is Australia called Australia? From the early sixteenth century, European philosophers and mapmakers assumed a great southern continent existed south of Asia. They called this hypothetical place Terra Australis , Latin for 'southern land'. The first European contact with Australia was in the early seventeenth century, when Dutch explorers touched on parts of the Australian continent.


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As a result of their explorations, that part of the mainland lying west of the meridian which passes through Torres Strait was named Nova Hollandia Latin for 'New Holland'. Cook entered the word Astralia misspelt thus in his journal the following August. However he did so only in reference to an earlier seeker of the southern land, the Portuguese-born navigator Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, who in had named the New Hebrides Austrialis de Spiritu Santo. Cook says: The Islands discover'd by Quiros call'd by him Astralia del Espiritu Santo lays in this parallel but how far to the East is hard to say.

Cook himself called the new continent New Holland , a name that acknowledges the early Dutch exploration; the eastern coast he claimed for Britain and called New South Wales. The first written record of Australia an anglicised form of Terra Australis as a name for the known continent did not occur until George Shaw in his Zoology of New Holland refers to:.

It was Matthew Flinders, English navigator and the first person to circumnavigate and map Australia's coastline , who first expressed a strong preference for the name Australia. He gave his reasons in It is necessary, however, to geographical propriety, that the whole body of land should be designated under one general name; on this account, and under the circumstances of the discovery of the different parts, it seems best to refer back to the original Terra Australis, or Australia; which being descriptive of its situation, having antiquity to recommend it, and no reference to either of the two claiming nations, is perhaps the least objectionable that could have been chosen; for it is little to apprehended, that any considerable body of land, in a more southern situation, will be hereafter discovered.

To these geographical, historical and political reasons for preferring the name, he adds in his account of his voyages that Australia is 'agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth'. Australia was championed too by Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from , who was aware of Flinders' preference and popularised the name by using it in official dispatches to London. He writes in of:. With Macquarie's kickstart Australia eventually proved to be the popular choice.

Although the name New Holland continued alongside it for some time, by William Westgarth noted that 'the old term New Holland may now be regarded as supplanted by that happier and fitter one of Australia'. A Queenslander. The term derives from the joking notion as perceived from the southern states of Australia that Queenslanders spend their time putting bends into bananas. An article from 15 July in the Queenslander provides a forerunner to the term when a man is asked by the Queen what his occupation is:.

Further to enlighten her Majesty he explained that bananas grew straight on the trees, and so just before they ripened, his was the job to mount the ladder, and with a specialised twist of the wrist, put into the fruit the Grecian bend that was half its charm. The association of bananas with Queensland 'banana land' is based on the extensive banana-growing industry in tropical Queensland. The Queensland border has been called the Banana curtain and Brisbane has been called Banana city.

Banana bender , in reference to a Queenslander, is first recorded in and is till commonly heard. What do you say to a quick look at the banana-benders? Soon after white settlement in the word bandicoot the name for the Indian mammal Bandicota indica was applied to several Australian mammals having long pointed heads and bearing some resemblance to their Indian namesake.

In David Collins writes of the 'bones of small animals, such as opossums From s the word bandicoot has been used in various distinctively Australian phrases as an emblem of deprivation or desolation. In H. Watson in Lecture on South Australia writes: 'The land here is generally good; there is a small proportion that is actually good for nothing; to use a colonial phrase, "a bandicoot an animal between a rat and a rabbit would starve upon it". Probably from the perception of the bandicoot's burrowing habits, a new Australian verb to bandicoot arose towards the end of the nineteenth century.

It means 'to remove potatoes from the ground, leaving the tops undisturbed'.

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Usually this activity is surreptitious. The bandicooter goes at night to a field of ripe potatoes and carefully extracts the tubers from the roots without disturbing the tops. Extremely unhappy. Bandicoots are small marsupials with long faces, and have been given a role in Australian English in similes that suggest unhappiness or some kind of deprivation see above.

The expression miserable as a bandicoot was first recorded in the s. The large woody cone of several Banksia species, originally as a character in children's stories. Banksia is the name of an Australian genus of shrubs and trees with about 60 species. It was named after the botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who was on the Endeavour with James Cook on his voyage of discovery in After flowering, many banksias form thick woody cones, often in strange shapes.

It was on such grotesque shapes that May Gibbs modelled her banksia men in Snugglepot and Cuddlepie of 'She could see the glistening, wicked eyes of Mrs. Snake and the bushy heads of the bad Banksia men'. Prichard Bid me to Love : Louise See what I've got in my pocket for you Bill : diving into a pocket of her coat and pulling out a banksia cone A banksia man. Oh Mum! Smith Saddle in the Kitchen : Hell was under the well near the cow paddock, deep and murky and peopled by gnarled and knobby banksia men who lurked there waiting for the unguarded to fall in.

A topic of great public interest, especially a political one. The term derives from the notion that a topic is so interesting that it could halt proceedings at a barbecue - and anything that could interrupt an Aussie barbecue would have to be very significant indeed! The term was coined by Australian prime minister John Howard in in the context of balancing work pressures with family responsibilities.


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Barbecue stopper is now used in a wide range of contexts. For an earlier discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from August The name of the Barcoo River in western Queensland has been used since the s as a shorthand reference for the hardships, privations, and living conditions of the outback. Poor diets were common in remote areas, with little access to fresh vegetables or fruit, and as a result diseases caused by dietary deficiencies, such Barcoo rot —a form of scurvy characterised by chronic sores—were common.

Another illness probably caused by poor diet was Barcoo sickness also called Barcoo vomit , Barcoo spew , or just Barcoo , a condition characterised by vomiting. Barcoo can also typify the laconic bush wit. To give support or encouragement to a person, team, etc. Some claim barrack comes from Australian pidgin to poke borak at 'to deride', but its origin is probably from Northern Irish barrack 'to brag; to be boastful'.

By itself barrack meant 'to jeer' and still does in British English , but the form barrack for transformed the jeering into cheering in Australian English. The opening of the starting gates to begin a horserace. In horseracing the barrier is a starting gate at the racecourse. The word barrier is found in a number of horseracing terms in Australian English including barrier blanket a heavy blanket placed over the flanks of a racehorse to calm it when entering a barrier stall at the start of a race , barrier trial a practice race for young, inexperienced, or resuming racehorses , and barrier rogue a racehorse that regularly misbehaves when being placed into a starting gate.

Barrier rise is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from October Wilson's colt Merman, who, like Hova, was comparatively friendless at barrier rise. The word battler has been in the English language for a long time. The word is a borrowing from French in the Middle English period, and meant, literally, 'a person who battles or fights', and figuratively 'a person who fights against the odds or does not give up easily'. The corresponding English word was feohtan which gives us modern English 'to fight'.

English also borrowed the word war from the French in the twelfth century; it's the same word as modern French guerre. But the word battler , at the end of the nineteenth century, starts to acquire some distinctively Australian connotations. For this reason, it gets a guernsey in the Australian National Dictionary.

It describes the person with few natural advantages, who works doggedly and with little reward, who struggles for a livelihood and who displays courage in so doing. In Kylie Tennant writes: 'She was a battler, Snow admitted; impudent, hardy, cool, and she could take a "knock-back" as though it didn't matter, and come up to meet the next blow'. In this tradition, K. Roughly speaking, there are three kinds of people in this country: the rich, the middle class and the battlers'.

In the 21st century the term has been used in various political contests as this quotation in the Australian from 1 July demonstrates: 'The Prime Minister, who has built his success on an appeal to Australia's battlers, is about to meet thousands more of them in his northern Sydney seat of Bennelong'. This sense is first recorded in the Bulletin in 'I found patch after patch destroyed.

Almost everyone I met blamed the unfortunate "battler", and I put it down to some of the Sydney "talent" until I caught two Chows vigorously destroying melon-vines'. Again in the Bulletin in we find: 'They were old, white-bearded, travel-stained battlers of the track'. A person who frequents racecourses in search of a living, esp.


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  5. The word is used in Australia with this sense from the end of the nineteenth century. Cornelius Crowe in his Australian Slang Dictionary gives: ' Battlers broken-down backers of horses still sticking to the game'. In A. Wright in The Boy from Bullarah notes: 'He betook himself with his few remaining shillings to the home of the battler - Randwick [a racecourse in Sydney]'. In we find in the Bulletin : 'A bludger is about the lowest grade of human thing, and is a brothel bully A battler is the feminine'.

    Chandler in Darkest Adelaide c. Meanings 2. This is still the person of the Henry Lawson tradition, who, 'with few natural advantages, works doggedly and with little reward, struggles for a livelihood and displays courage in so doing '. But perhaps the battler of contemporary Australia is more likely to be paying down a large mortgage rather than working hard to put food on the table!

    Berley is ground-bait scattered by an angler in the water to attract fish to a line or lure.

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    Anglers use a variety of baits for berley, such as bread, or fish heads and guts. Poultry mash and tinned cat food make more unusual berleying material, although this pales beside a Bulletin article in suggesting 'a kerosene-tinful of rabbit carcasses boiled to a pulp' as the best berley for Murray cod.

    The first evidence for the noun occurs in the s. The origin of the word is unknown. To display or boast of one's wealth; to exaggerate one's own importance, achievements, etc. In pre-decimal currency days the larger the denomination, the bigger the banknote. Big-noting arose from the connection between flashing large sums of money about and showing off. He had admitted producing it to 'big note' himself in the eyes of the young woman and her parents. Foster Man of Letters : He's never been one to big-note himself.

    A member of a gang of motorcyclists. Bikie follows a very common pattern in Australian English by incorporating the -ie or -y suffix. This suffix works as an informal marker in the language. In early use bikie often referred to any member of a motorcycle motorbike gang or club - often associated with youth culture. In more recent times the term is often associated with gangs of motorcylists operating on the fringes of legality. Bikie is first recorded in the s. For a more detailied discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from March Some bikies procure, distribute and sell drugs through their 'associates', who in turn sell them to kids.

    The bilby is either of two Australian bandicoots, especially the rabbit-eared bandicoot Macrotis lagotis , a burrowing marsupial of woodlands and plains of drier parts of mainland Australia. The word is a borrowing from Yuwaalaraay an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and neighbouring languages. The bilby is also known as dalgyte in Western Australia and pinky in South Australia.

    Since the early s there have been attempts to replace the Easter bunny with the Easter bilby. At Easter it is now possible to buy chocolate bilbies. Bilby is first recorded in the s. An arm of a river, made by water flowing from the main stream usually only in time of flood to form a backwater, blind creek, anabranch, or, when the water level falls, a pool or lagoon often of considerable extent ; the dry bed of such a formation.

    Billabongs are often formed when floodwaters recede. A vessel for the boiling of water, making of tea, etc. It is not, as popularly thought, related to the Aboriginal word billabong. Billy is first recorded in the s. Burrows Adventures of a Mounted Trooper in the Australain Constabulary : A 'billy' is a tin vessel, something between a saucepan and a kettle, always black outside from being constantly on the fire, and looking brown inside from the quantity of tea that is generally to be seen in it.

    Billycart is a shortened form of the Australian term billy-goat cart which dates back to the s. In earlier times the term applied to a small cart, often two-wheeled, that was pulled by a goat. These billycarts were used for such purposes as home deliveries, and they were also used in races. The term was then applied to any homemade go-cart. Billycart is recorded in the first decade of the 20th century. Winton Cloudstreet : Bits of busted billycarts and boxes litter the place beneath the sagging clothesline. Any of several plants bearing barbed fruits, especially herbs of the widespread genus Calotis ; the fruit of these plants.

    Bindi-eye is oftened shortened to bindi , and can be spelt in several ways including bindy-eye and bindii. Bindi-eye is usually considered a weed when found in one's lawn. Many a child's play has been painfully interrupted by the sharp barbs of the plant which have a habit of sticking into the sole of one's foot. Bindy-eye is first recorded in the s. A fight or skirmish; a collision. Bingle is perhaps from Cornish dialect bing 'a thump or blow'.

    Most other words derived from Cornish dialect in Australian English were originally related to mining, including fossick. The word is frequently used to refer to a car collision. Bingle is first recorded in the s. Carr Surfie : There was this clang of metal on metal and both cars lurched over to the shoulder and we nearly went for a bingle. A mongrel. A dog or other animal which is made up of a bit of this and a bit of that.

    This meaning is common today, but when bitser first appeared in the s it referred to any contraption or vehicle that was made of spare parts, or had odd bits and pieces added. The small girl pondered. My friends call him a "bitzer"', she replied. My favourite was a bitser named Sheila. The black stump of Australian legend first appears in the late 19th century, and is an imaginary marker at the limits of settlement.

    Anywhere beyond the black stump is beyond civilisation, deep in the outback, whereas something this side of the black stump belongs to the known world. Although the towns of Blackall, Coolah and Merriwagga each claim to possess the original black stump , a single stump is unlikely to be the origin of this term. It is more probable that the burnt and blackened tree stumps, ubiquitous in the outback, and used as markers when giving directions to travellers is the origin - this sense of black stump is recorded from Tracks have been made, commencing nowhere and ending the same, roads have been constructed haphazard, bridges have been built that had no roads leading either to or from them, railways have terminated at the proverbial black stump.

    Beyond the Black Stump. Not shown on the petrol station maps, even. A very unperceptive person; such a person as a type. This term often appears in the phrase even blind Freddy could see that. Although the term may not derive from an actual person, early commentators associate it with a blind Sydney character or characters. Australian lexicographer Sidney Baker wrote in that 'Legend has it that there was a blind hawker in Sydney in the s, named Freddy, whose blindness did not prevent his moving freely about the central city area'. Other commentators suggest a character who frequented various Sydney sporting venues in the first decades of the 20th century could be the original Freddy.

    The term itself is first recorded in It applied to a person of great heart, who displayed courage, loyalty, and mateship. To defeat a competitor by a very small margin; to win narrowly. This verb derives from the noun blouse meaning 'the silk jacket worn by a jockey'. As the origin of this word would indicate, much of the evidence is from the sport of horseracing. For a detailed discussion of blouse see our Word of the Month article from November This word is a survival of British slang bludger , meaning 'a prostitute's pimp'.

    The word is ultimately a shortening of bludgeoner. A bludgeoner not surprisingly was a person who carried a bludgeon 'a short stout stick or club'. It appears in a mid-nineteenth century English slang dictionary as a term for 'a low thief, who does not hesitate to use violence'. By the s the 'prostitute's pimp' sense of bludger is found in Australian sources. In the Sydney Slang Dictionary of bludgers are defined as 'plunderers in company with prostitutes'.

    Cornelius Crowe, in his Australian Slang Dictionary , defines a bludger as 'a thief who will use his bludgeon and lives on the gains of immoral women'. Thus bludger came to mean 'one who lives on the earnings of a prostitute'. It retained this meaning until the midth century. From the early twentieth century it moved out to be a more general term of abuse, especially as applied to a person who appears to live off the efforts of others as a pimp lives on the earnings of a prostitute. It was then used to refer to a person engaged in non-manual labour - a white-collar worker.

    This sense appears as early as , but its typical use is represented by this passage from D. Whitington's Treasure Upon Earth : '"Bludgers" he dubbed them early, because in his language anyone who did not work with his hands at a laboring job was a bludger'. And so it came to mean 'an idler, one who makes little effort'.

    In the war newspaper Ack Ack News in we find: 'Who said our sappers are bludgers? Cleary in Just let me be writes: 'Everything I backed ran like a no-hoper. Four certs I had, and the bludgers were so far back the ambulance nearly had to bring 'em home'. And thence to 'a person who does not make a fair contribution to a cost, enterprise etc. Niland writes in The Shiralee : 'Put the nips into me for tea and sugar and tobacco in his usual style.

    The biggest bludger in the country'. In J. O'Grady writes: 'When it comes to your turn, return the "shout". Otherwise the word will spread that you are a "bludger", and there is no worse thing to be'. The term dole bludger i. From the following year we have a citation indicating a reaction to the use of the term: Cattleman Rockhampton 'Young people are being forced from their country homes because of a lack of work opportunities and the only response from these so-called political protectors is to label them as dole bludgers'.

    Throughout the history of the word, most bludgers appear to have been male. The term bludgeress made a brief appearance in the first decade of this century - 'Latterly, bludgers, so the police say, are marrying bludgeresses' Truth 27 September - but it was shortlived. The word bluey in Australian English has a variety of meanings. The most common is the swag i. There's the everlasting swaggie with his bluey on his back who is striking out for sunset on the Never-never track.

    Goodge, Hits! The association of the swaggie and his bluey continues in more recent evidence for the term:. A swaggie suddenly appeared out of the bush, unshaven, with wild, haunted eyes, his bluey and billycan on his back. Cross, George and Widda-Woman That bluey is later transferred to luggage in general, is perhaps not surprising in an urban society which romanticises its 'bush' tradition:. Canberra Times 19 Nov. The word has been used to denote another item of clothing - denim working trousers or overalls - but the citation evidence indicates the last citation being that this usage is no longer current.

    More familiar is the use of bluey to describe a summons, especially for a traffic offence originally printed on blue paper :. Perhaps the most Australian use of bluey is the curious use of it to describe a red-headed person first recorded in :. Paterson, Shearer's Colt : 'Bluey', as the crowd called him, had found another winner. All red-haired men are called 'Bluey' in Australia for some reason or other. Conquest, Dusty Distances : I found out later that he was a native of New South Wales, called ' Bluey because of his red hair - typical Australian logic.

    A more literal use of bluey in Australian English is its application to fauna whose names begin with blue and which is predominantly blue in colour:. Ornithologists refer to them as some species of wood swallow They're all 'blueys' to us. There are two senses of the word bodgie in Australian English, both probably deriving from an earlier now obsolete word bodger.

    The obsolete bodger probably derives from British dialect bodge 'to work clumsily'. In Australian English in the s and s bodger meant: 'Something or occasionally someone which is fake, false, or worthless'. The noun was also used adjectivally. Typical uses:. Hardy, Power without Glory : This entailed the addition of as many more 'bodger' votes as possible. Baker, The Australian Language : An earlier underworld and Army use of bodger for something faked, worthless or shoddy. For example, a faked receipt or false name.. The word bodger was altered to bodgie , and this is now the standard form:.

    White, Silent Reach : This heap is hot - else why did they give it a one-coat spray job over the original white duco and fix it with bodgie number plates? In the s another sense of bodgie arose. The word was used to describe a male youth, distinguished by his conformity to certain fashions of dress and larrikin behaviour; analogous to the British 'teddy boy':. This sense of bodgie seems to be an abbreviation of the word bodger with the addition of the -ie -y suffix. Mr Hewett says his research indicates that the term 'bodgie' arose around the Darlinghurst area in Sydney.

    It was just after the end of World War II and rationing had caused a flourishing black market in American-made cloth. This sense of bodgie belongs primarily to the s, but bodgie in the sense 'fake, false, inferior, worthless' is alive and flourishing in Australian English. An uncultured and unsophisticated person; a boorish and uncouth person. The early evidence is largely confined to teenage slang. Some lexicographers have suspected that the term may derive from the Bogan River and district in western New South Wales, but this is far from certain, and it seems more likely to be an unrelated coinage.

    The term became widespread after it was used in the late s by the fictitious schoolgirl 'Kylie Mole' in the television series The Comedy Company. In the Daily Telegraph 29 November , in an article headed 'Same name a real bogan', a genuine schoolgirl named Kylie Mole 'reckons it really sux' " [i. Someone who wears their socks the wrong way or has the same number of holes in both legs of their stockings.

    A complete loser'. The earliest evidence we have been able to find for the term is in the surfing magazine Tracks September 'So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens boots for all you uninformed bogans? The term has also generated a number of other terms including bogan chick , boganhood , and cashed-up bogan CUB. She had a quiet, middle-class upbringing in Box Hill, attending a private girls' school. Our geographic reach is flexible; residents of Taree and like communities, for example, may readily qualify for Boganhood, usually with little or no burdensome paperwork.

    Affectionate, even I'm a bogan because I'm overweight. For further discussions of bogan see our Word of the Month article from Novemeber , and a article 'Bogan: from Obscurity to Australia's most productive Word' in our newsletter Ozwords. To swim or bathe. Bogey is a borrowing from the Aboriginal Sydney Language. The earliest records show the term being used in the pidgin English of Aborigines:. Bogie d'oway. These were Colby's words on coming out of the water. Dawson, Present State of Australia : 'Top bit, massa, bogy,' bathe and he threw himself into the water.

    Yes, said Mr Dixon, any two of ye that can swim. Harris, Settlers and Convicts : In the cool of the evening had a 'bogie' bathe in the river. Flory was much puzzled till she found out that a 'bogey', in colonial phraseology, meant a bath. Mackenzie, Aurukun Diary : A bogey is the Queensland outback word for a bath or bathe. A bogey hole is a 'swimming or bathing hole'. The verb is rare now in Australian English.

    For an earlier discussion of bogey see our Word of the Month article from February A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes in very calm weather or at high tide merely swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water. The word is now commonly used for the reef or rock itself. Horrobin Guide to Favourite Australian Fish ed. Bombora probably derives from the Aboriginal Sydney Language where it may have referred specifically to the current off Dobroyd Head, Port Jackson.

    Used allusively to refer to a hasty departure or speedy action. Bondi is the Sydney suburb renowned worldwide for its surf beach. Trams last ran on the line in , but the phrase has remained a part of Australian English. Bonzer is an adjective meaning 'surpassingly good, splendid, great'. In the early records the spelling bonzer alternates with bonser , bonza , and bonzor. The adjective, noun, and adverb are all recorded from the early years of the 20th century:.

    Yuong Jack Hansen undertook to sit him but failed at every attempt. Jack states he got a 'bonza on the napper', at one time when thrown. Cable By Blow and Kiss : Came back grinning widely, with the assurance that it [ sc. A fool or simpleton; a stupid person; an uncouth person. Boofhead derives from buffle-headed 'having a head like a buffalo' OED and bufflehead 'a fool, blockhead, stupid fellow' OED. Bufflehead has disappeared from standard English, but survives in its Australian form boofhead.

    It was popularised by the use of boofhead as the name of a dimwitted comic strip character invented by R. Clark and introduced in the Sydney Daily Mail in May For an earlier discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December We get their boofheads so they can have ours. Boomerang is an Australian word which has moved into International English. The word was borrowed from an Aboriginal language in the early years of European settlement, but the exact language is still uncertain. Early evidence suggests it was borrowed from a language in, or just south of, the Sydney region.

    While the spelling boomerang is now standard, in the early period the word was given a variety of spellings: bomerang , bommerang , bomring , boomereng , boomering , bumerang [etc]. The Australian Aboriginal boomerang is a crescent-shaped wooden implement used as a missile or club, in hunting or warfare, and for recreational purposes. The best-known type of boomerang , used primarily for recreation, can be made to circle in flight and return to the thrower. Although boomerang -like objects were known in other parts of the world, the earliest examples and the greatest diversity of design is found in Australia.

    A specimen of a preserved boomerang has been found at Wyrie Swamp in South Australia and is dated at 10, years old. Boomerangs were not known throughout the entirety of Australia, being absent from the west of South Australia, the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, north-east Arnhem Land, and Tasmania. In some regions boomerangs are decorated with designs that are either painted or cut into the wood. Very early in Australian English the term boomerang was used in transferred and figurative senses, especially with reference to something which returns to or recoils upon its author.

    These senses are now part of International English, but it is interesting to look at the earliest Australian evidence for the process of transfer and figurative use:. By the s the verbal sense developed another meaning: 'to return in the manner of a boomerang; to recoil upon the author ; to ricochet'. Australia's a big country An' Freedom's humping bluey And Freedom's on the wallaby Oh don't you hear her Cooee, She's just begun to boomerang She'll knock the tyrants silly.

    On 13 November the Canberra Times reported that 'Greg Chappell's decision to send England in appeared to have boomeranged'. These verbal senses of boomerang have also moved into International English. For a further discussion of boomerang see the article 'Boomerang, Boomerang, Thou Spirit of Australia! The phrase is first recorded in the s. A tax avoidance scheme. In the late s a large number of bottom of the harbour schemes were operating in corporate Australia. The term is usually used attributively.

    Hyland Diamond Dove : The feller in the dock was some fabulous creature - part lawyer, part farmer - who'd been caught in a bottom-of-the-harbour tax avoidance scheme. An employee responsible for maintaining the outer fences on a station, or a publicly owned vermin-proof fence. This sense of boundary rider is recorded from the s but in more recent years, as a result of changes in technology and modes of transport, this occupation has become relatively rare. Since the s the term has been used of a boundary umpire in Australian Rules Football, a cricketer in a fielding position near the boundary, and a roving reporter at a sporting game.

    For a more detailed discussion of the original sense of boundary rider and the later sporting senses see our Word of the Month article from December McGinnis Tracking North : Mechanisation had finally reached the open-range country. There were no more pumpers or boundary riders. Be the unlikely winner of an event; to win an event coming from well behind. For a detailed discussion of this phrase see our blog 'Doing a Bradbury: an Aussie term born in the Winter Olympics' which includes a video of Bradbury's famous win , and our Word of the Month article from August The Socceroos need some of that luck.

    The practice of improperly increasing the membership of a local branch of a political party in order to ensure the preselection of a particular candidate. The term is a specific use of branch meaning 'a local division of a political party'. While the practice described by branch stacking has been around for a very long time, the word itself is first recorded in the s.

    Leaving immediately; making a hasty departure; at full speed. It is likely that this expression was first used in horseracing to refer to a horse that moved very quickly out of the starting gates. Bray Blossom : 'Come on youse blokes! First sign of a better offer and they are off like a bride's nightie. An invitation to bring a plate of food to share at a social gathering or fundraiser.

    There are many stories of new arrivals in Australia being bamboozled by the instruction to bring a plate. As the locals know, a plate alone will not do. In earlier days the request was often ladies a plate , sometimes followed by gentlemen a donation. Ladies bring a plate. Please bring a plate. All welcome. A wild horse. The origin for this term is still disputed.

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    Curr in Australian Race gives booramby meaning 'wild' in the language of the Pitjara or Pidjara or Bidjara people of the region at the headwaters of the Warrego and Nogoa Rivers in south-western Queensland. This is in the general location of the earliest evidence, but the language evidence has not been subsequently confirmed. This origin was popularised by Paterson in an introduction to his poem 'Brumby's run' printed in A common suggestion is that brumby derives from the proper name Brumby. This theory was also noted by E. Morris in Austral English in 'A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name Brumby, viz.

    Over the years, various Messrs Brumby have been postulated as the origin. More recently, Dymphna Lonergan suggested that the word comes from Irish word bromaigh , the plural form of the word for a young horse, or colt. McGinnis Wildhorse Creek : The country's rotten with brumbies. A forlorn hope; no prospect whatever. One explanation for the origin of the term is that it comes from the name of the convict William Buckley, who escaped from Port Phillip in and lived for 32 years with Aboriginal people in southern Victoria.

    A second explanation links the phrase to the Melbourne firm of Buckley and Nunn established in , suggesting that a pun developed on the 'Nunn' part of the firm's name with 'none' and that this gave rise to the formulation 'there are just two chances, Buckley's and none'. This second explanation appears to have arisen after the original phrase was established. For an earlier discussion about the origin of the term buckley's chance see the article 'Buckley's' in our Ozwords newsletter.

    It should have been Buckley. Olympus explains that he altered it because he didn't want the Fitzroy men to have 'Buckley's chance'. A pair of close-fitting male swimming briefs made of stretch fabric. The Australian term is probably a variation of the international English grape smugglers for such a garment.

    The term is a jocular allusion to the appearance of the garment. Budgie smugglers is first recorded in the late s. For a more detailed discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December That, and a thin pair of Speedos so figure-hugging you can see every goosebump - flimsy togs that are known not-all-that-affectionately by us Brown boys as budgie smugglers! A kind of fine powdery dirt or dust, often found in inland Australia. Roads or tracks covered with bulldust may be a hazard for livestock and vehicles, which can become bogged in it. It is probably called bulldust because it resembles the soil trampled by cattle in stockyards.

    The word can also be used as a polite way of saying bullshit. Both senses of the word are first recorded in the s. This 'bull' dust might be about two feet deep, and cakes on the surface, so that it is hard to penetrate. I told him that nothing would get within a 'bull's roar' of Agricolo to interfere with him, and such was the case. The term is often found in this phrasal form where it now has several meanings: 'to be financially bankrupt, to come to nought; to fail, to collapse, to break down'.

    These figurative senses of bung emerged in the late 19th century. An amphibious monster supposed to inhabit inland waterways. Descriptions of it vary greatly. Some give it a frightful human head and an animal body. Many descriptions emphasise its threat to humans and its loud booming at night. It inhabits inland rivers, swamps, and billabongs.

    The word comes from the Aboriginal Wathaurong language of Victoria. Bunyip is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this word see the article 'There's a Bunyip Close behind us and he's Treading on my Tail' in our Ozwords newsletter. Venture an attempt; give something a try. This is an Australian alteration of the standard English phrase give it a whirl. Give it a burl is first recorded in the early years of the 20th century.

    We'll give it a burl, eh? We wanted to give it a burl and see how it went. We'd do it again. What do you think this is, bush week? These senses of bush week go back to the early 20th century. The phrase originally implied the notion that people from the country are easily fooled by the more sophisticated city slickers. The speaker resents being mistaken for a country bumpkin. Glassop Lucky Palmer : I get smart alecks like you trying to put one over on me every minute of the day. What do you think this is? Bush Week? Murray Goodbye Lullaby : They had already been warned about the breastfeeding business Beat it, you two!

    The act or process of criticising the Australian Government and its bureaucracy. Canberra , the capital of Australia, has been used allusively to refer to the Australian Government and its bureaucracy since the s. The term Canberra bashing emerged in the s, and is also applied in criticisms of the city itself. For a more detailed discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from February Politicians on both sides have shown a willingness to put the boot into a national capital. In a political context a decision made by a party leader etc. This term also takes the form captain's call.

    Captain's pick is derived from sporting contexts in which a team captain has the discretion to choose members of the team. The political sense emerged in Australian English in For a more detailed discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from January To die; to break down; to fail. Also spelt kark , and often taking the form cark it. The word is probably a figurative use of an earlier Australian sense of cark meaning 'the caw of a crow', which is imitative. Beilby Gunner : 'That wog ya roughed up - well, he karked. A derogatory term for a person who espouses left-wing views but enjoys an affluent lifestyle.

    It is modelled on the originally British term, champagne socialist , which has a similar meaning. The term chardonnay socialist appeared in the s, not long after the grape variety Chardonnay became very popular with Australian wine drinkers. Williamson Emerald City : I'm going to keep charting their perturbations.. A checkout operator at a supermarket. This term usually refers to female checkout operators hence chick , an informal word for a young woman , but with changes in the gender makeup of the supermarket workforce the term is occasionlly applied to males.

    Checkout chick is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from May A domestic fowl; a chicken. Chook is the common term for the live bird, although chook raffles , held in Australian clubs and pubs, have ready-to-cook chooks as prizes. The term has also been transferred to refer to other birds, and often in the form old chook it can refer to a woman. See our Word of the Month articles 'chook run' and 'chook lit' for further uses of chook.

    Was he looking after the housemaid or the little chookies? A jocular curse. This expression recalls an earlier time when many Australians kept chooks domestic chickens in the backyard and the dunny was a separate outhouse. Although I must say this is a very cunning, contrived piece of legislation, if that is what they set out to do.

    May their chooks turn into emus and kick their dunnies down. To vomit. Chunder possibly comes from a once-popular cartoon character, 'Chunder Loo of Akim Foo', drawn by Norman Lindsay for a series of boot polish advertisements in the early s. It is possible that 'Chunder Loo' became rhyming slang for spew. Chunder , however, is the only form to be recorded. The earliest evidence is associated with Australian troops in action to the north of Australia during the Second World War. Makes you chunda. Something that is largely illusory or exists in name only; a poor substitute or imitation.

    For a more detailed discussion of the word see our blog 'The evolution of a word - the case of Clayton's'. Pung Growing up Asian in Australia : My bikini top is crammed so full of rubbery 'chicken fillets' I'd probably bounce if you threw me. These Clayton's breasts jiggle realistically when I jump up and down on the spot.

    An unbranded animal. In the pastoral industry an animal that has not been branded with a mark identifying the owner can easily be stolen or lost. The word is first recorded in the s. There are several transferred and figurative senses of cleanskin that evolved from the orgininal sense. In the first decade of the 20th century cleanskin began to be used to describe 'an Aboriginal person who has not passed through an initiation rite'. From the s cleanskin was also used of 'a bottle of wine without a label that identifies the maker, sold at a price cheaper than comparable labelled bottles; the wine in such a bottle'.

    Keenan The Horses too are Gone : In the rangelands an unbranded calf becomes a cleanskin and cleanskins belong to the first person capable of planting a brand on the rump. A friend, a companion. It is likely that these terms, as well as cobber , found their way into London slang especially from the Jewish population living in the East End , and from there, via British migrants, into Australian English.

    Cobber , now somewhat dated, is rarely used by young Australians. A small-scale farmer; in later use often applied to a substantial landowner or to the rural interest generally. Cocky arose in the s and is an abbreviation of cockatoo farmer. This was then a disparaging term for small-scale farmers, probably because of their habit of using a small area of land for a short time and then moving on, in the perceived manner of cockatoos feeding.

    A person sentenced in the British Isles to a term of penal servitude in an Australian Colony. The foundations of European settlement in Australia are based on the transportation of tens of thousands of prisoners from the British Isles. While in America convict is still used to refer to a prisoner, in Australia it is now largely historical.

    For a further discussion of this word see our blog 'A long lost convict: Australia's "C-word"? Angas Description of the Barossa Range : No convicts are transported to this place, for South Australia is not a penal colony. Originally a call used by an Aboriginal person to communicate with someone at a distance; later adopted by settlers and now widely used as a signal, especially in the bush; a name given to the call.

    The iconic call of the Australian bush comes from the Aboriginal Sydney language word gawi or guwi meaning 'come here'. Cooee is recorded from the early years of European settlement in Sydney. It is often found in the phrase within cooee meaning 'within earshot; within reach, near'. Cunningham Two Years in New South Wales : In calling to each other at a distance, the natives make use of the word Coo-ee , as we do the word Hollo , prolonging the sound of the coo , and closing that of the ee with a shrill jerk. Lambert Watermen : If I ever see you within coo-ee of my boat again, I'll drown you.

    The word is a borrowing from Yuwaaliyaay and neighbouring languages , an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales. In the earlier period it was was spelt in various ways, including coolabah , coolobar , and coolybah. It is term for any of several eucalypts, especially the blue-leaved Eucalyptus microtheca found across central and northern Australia, a fibrous-barked tree yielding a durable timber and occurring in seasonally flooded areas. Coolibah is first recorded in the s.

    Bad, unpleasant or unsatisfactory: Things were crook on the land in the seventies. Crook means bad in a general sense, and also in more specific senses too: unwell or injured a crook knee , and dishonest or illegal he was accused of crook dealings. All senses are recorded from the s. Pratt Wolaroi's Cup : Most stables.. Clune Roaming Round the Darling : My cobber, here, used to sing in opera. He's a pretty crook singer, but he'll sing for you.