Besides, we also saw that case study research has a major function in generating hypotheses and build theory. In fact, a theory or theoretical framework first emerges through the inductive approach of studying an empirical case or object, not through a deductive process. As the author tried to demonstrate in Section 4. Hence, qualitative content analysis might be an appropriate analysis and interpretation method for case study research.
As a matter of fact, its quantitative counterpart—classical content analysis—is repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data in the context of conducting case study research cf. YIN, a, p. Even though they concede that this is "not a particularly satisfactory approach," they claim that "it is not infrequently used" REMENYI et al. In Section 4. Besides it preserves the advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation. Therefore, it can be argued that qualitative content analysis could prove to be a useful tool for analyzing data material in case study research.
In fact, the contribution of using qualitative content analysis in case study research will be demonstrated on the basis of the following points: [ 76 ]. One of the strengths of qualitative content analysis is the way it tries to synthesize openness—as claimed by the qualitative research paradigm—and theory-guided investigation—usually demanded by the hypothetical-deductive paradigm.
In fact, despite this openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a step-by-step process see Section 4. It is this combination that fosters its strong ability to deal with complexity. Qualitative content analysis takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards analyzing data material and thus achieves to almost completely grasp and cover the complexity of the social situations examined and social data material derived from them.
At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it. The procedures of summary, explication and structuring step-by-step reduce complexity and filter out the main points of analysis in an iterative process. Therefore, qualitative content analysis perfectly fits the credo of case study research: helping to understand complex social phenomena see also Section 3.
We just mentioned theory-guided analysis as one of the special strengths of qualitative content analysis see above, Section 5. Theory-guided analysis also offers the chance to compare and complement the primary data collected within the research project with secondary data. In fact, experts in social research recommend to conduct interpretations of results on two levels: interpretation of the results of one's own survey and comparative interpretation of results and conclusions of existing theories and research results cf.
This analysis of complementing secondary data can help to ensure the quality of content analysis, especially validity MAYRING, , p. One of the key features of qualitative content analysis in contrast to classical quantitative content analysis is that the context is also central to the interpretation and analysis of the material.
In fact, it is not only the manifest content of the material that is important but also the latent content as well as formal aspects need to be taken into consideration cf. This is again in order to achieve a holistic and comprehensive analysis of complex social phenomena. As we have seen in Section 3. Therefore, research questions about "how" and "why" rather than "what" or "how much" are best suited to the case study strategy ibid. As shown above Section 4. This means that in a comprehensive study which aims at analyzing different kinds of data material, the same method can be applied to different types of evidence—a major advantage not only from a pragmatic point of view, but also as far as quality criteria are concerned.
Of course, case study research usually corresponds to such a comprehensive study. According to YIN a a major strength of case study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence because the use of multiple sources of evidence in case studies allows an investigator to address a broader range of historical, attitudinal, and behavioral issues YIN, a, pp.
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In fact, GILLHAM states that case study "is a main method," within which different sub-methods are used: interviews, observations, document and record analysis, work samples etc p. Furthermore, qualitative or expert interviews are a very common field of application for qualitative content analysis cf. According to YIN a one of the most important sources of case study information is the interview: "most commonly, case study interviews are of an open-ended nature , in which you can ask key respondents about the facts of a matter as well as their opinions about events" YIN, a, p.
Therefore, qualitative content analysis offers a rule-based, theory-guided method for analyzing interview transcripts, just in the way it is required by the principles of case study research. This is certainly a great advantage when dealing with various, heterogeneous types of data material. However, he fails to go into greater detail concerning this matter.
As was discussed above Sections 4. These are especially important when trying to generalize results. They are predominant, but quantitative data and its analysis can add to the overall picture" p. According to JICK , "[q]ualitative data and analysis function as the glue that cements the interpretation of multimethod results" p. Moreover, the combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses has also been addressed in the field of case study research see above, Sections 3. As has already been mentioned, many experts in the field of socio-scientific research suggest using and combining several methods—so-called triangulation or cross-examination—in order to obtain more valid results see Sections 1.
Especially the combination of qualitative methods and quantitative methods seems to be appropriate in order to gain deeper insight and a more general view of the object of research cf. JICK, pp. The procedures of qualitative content analysis seem less appropriate, if the research question is highly open-ended, explorative, variable and working with categories would be a restriction, or if a more holistic, not step-by-step ongoing of analysis is planned MAYRING, b, p.
In fact, MAYRING recommends his qualitative content analysis in the case of theory-guided text analysis but rather not in the case of merely explorative-interpretive interpretation of the material p. Furthermore, due to the fact that qualitative content analysis first extracts the relevant parts of the text material and then analyzes them cf. Last but not least, when using qualitative content analysis in case study research, one should be aware of the fact that "[r]eplicating a mixed-methods package […] is a nearly impossible task" JICK, , p. This paper tried to explore and discuss the possibilities of using qualitative content analysis in case study research.
It highlighted the strengths of qualitative content analysis as a method that achieves to respect the credos of openness and theory-guided analysis at the same time. In fact, with its rule-based logic and methodologically controlled step-by-step procedures of analysis it manages to combine the advantages of classical quantitative content analysis with a qualitatively oriented approach taking also context and other important points into consideration.
Therefore, qualitative content analysis can be viewed as a comprehensive approach to data analysis, which seems to be especially suitable for case study research. It can certainly contribute to adding and enhancing rigor, validity and reliability of case study research. Nevertheless, qualitative content analysis is still a young discipline and further development and improvement might be advisable and appropriate as some of the amendments, critiques and limitations of MAYRING's approach show see above Sections 4. Besides, papers and essays in English are crucial to help qualitative content analysis gain attention and dissemination internationally as well.
Last but not least, empirical testing and experience will be indispensable to ensure methodological and practical advances of this method. Therefore, the author strongly recommends all researchers who are conducting case studies to use and apply qualitative content analysis in their research endeavors.
All mistakes are solely mine. I indirectly argue in Section 5. Interestingly, YIN b in his companion book to his case study textbook YIN, a speaks of the "case study method" pp. Altheide, David L. Qualitative media analysis. Qualitative research methods Vol. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Atteslander, Peter Methoden der empirischen Sozialforschung 10th ed.
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Babbie, Earl The practice of social research 9th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth. Berelson, Bernard Reuben Content analysis in communication research. New York: Hafner. Brannen, Julia Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches: an overview. In Julia Brannen Ed. Brookfield: Avebury. Bryman, Alan Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. Social research methods 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Qualitative research in work contexts. London: Sage. Creswell, John W. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 2nd ed.
Denzin, Norman K. Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Norman K. Lincoln Eds. Diekmann, Andreas Empirische Sozialforschung: Grundlagen, Methoden, Anwendungen 10th ed. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review , 14 4 , Gillham, Bill Case study research methods.
Applications of Case Study Research
London: Continuum. Theoriegeleitete Textanalyse? Das Potential einer variablenorientierten qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse. Experteninterviews und qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als Instrumente rekonstruierender Untersuchungen. Case study method, key issues, key texts. Hamel, Jacques Case study methods. Hammersley, Martyn Deconstructing the qualitative-quantitative divide. Hartley, Jean Case studies in organizational research. Case study research. Jick, Todd D Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action.
Administrative Science Quarterly , 24 December , Kelle, Udo Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag. Kelle, Udo , February. Kracauer, Siegfried The challenge of qualitative content analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly , 16 4 , Krippendorff, Klaus Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology 2nd ed. Lueger, Manfred Grundlagen qualitativer Feldforschung: Methodologie, Organisierung, Materialanalyse. Vienna: WUV. Mayring, Philipp a, June. Qualitative content analysis [28 paragraphs]. Mayring, Philipp b. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Reinbeck bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.
Mayring, Philipp , February. Kombination und Integration qualitativer und quantitativer Analyse [31 paragraphs]. Mayring, Philipp Weinheim: Beltz. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse, Grundlagen und Techniken 8th ed. IEEE32 more recently stated that this will not be enough as demand for engineers is high throughout Europe. Therefore, universities must attract more students to enroll in engineering programs while also reducing dropout rates. Bach et al3 have commented that Germany could potentially increase its number of engineers by motivating women to choose this profession.
Garloffet al26 have remarked that Germany's demand for highly skilled labor has been growing very quickly. In addition, demographic changes have taken place in relation to population decline and workforce aging. This has led to a shortage of professionals. The age structure of employed engineering workers in Germany forecasts that problems with replacing these employees will occur within next years Figure 2. Existing literature claims that intrinsically motivated employees are more productive and less likely to leave their positions.
This research project will try to prove that engineers working in Germany are intrinsically motivated by their profession and work. The research methodology will be qualitative, and interviews will be held with engineers working in Germany to answer the aforementioned questions and to identify new intrinsic rewards that are effective for this group. These research questions can be considered:. RQ2: Do companies in Germany provide work environments and tools that enhance the intrinsic motivation of engineers?
Motivation: Deci and Ryan11 state that being motivated is to desire or to be stimulated to perform an activity or a task. People who act and are energized to reach objectives are considered to be motivated. According to Deci and Ryan11, there are different types of motivation, taking into account level quantity and orientation why. Awareness of dying. New Brunswick: Aldine Transaction. Grawe, Klaus Delinquents and criminals. Their making and unmaking. New York: Macmillan.
Hildenbrand, Bruno Fallrekonstruktive Forschung. Kardorff, Heiner Keupp, Lutz v. Hilliard, Russell B. Single-case methodology in psychotherapy process and outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Hofmann, Stefan G. Treating avoidant personality disorder: The case of Paul. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 21 , — Johnson, Jeffrey C. Selecting ethnographic informants.
Komparative Kasuistik. Lengerich: Pabst. Biographische Forschung in der Rechtspsychologie. Lamnek, Siegfried Qualitative Sozialforschung: Lehrbuch 4. Weinheim: Beltz PVU.
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