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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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La Eneida por Virgilio / Literatura Comparada Clásica

Carbajo Valladolid, Spain Search for more papers by this author. Rivero Santander, Spain Search for more papers by this author. Monfort Barcelona, Spain Search for more papers by this author. Pages with red coloured treatment and zigzag decoration. This reference is repeated, handwritten, on the fly leaf. There is also a green bookmark ribbon, presumably dating from the same time as the binding. The book has suffered remarkably little damage considering its age — the top edges of the pages are discoloured, presumably storage damage, and the title page has two small holes above the stamp where handwritten letters have been obliterated.

Unfortunately, even with the use of an ultraviolet light machine, the obliteration is too great for the writing to be deciphered. There is a small piece of marginalia on the right hand side of the page, possibly numbers for a price, but their exact meaning is unclear. The most intriguing feature of this book is the supposed signature of Mary, Queen of Scots, written landscape across a final fly leaf. Its authenticity as her signature is doubtful however, as historians such as John Durkan surmise, although it is contemporary to the time.

Whilst these inventories are detailed in places, there is an element of incompleteness, as her library was further divided among several people and institutions. Additionally, as a result of the tumultuous political uncertainty, many items were removed by individuals over fears for their safe-keeping and some did not reappear.


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The University of St. As a monarch during the Renaissance, there would have been certain expectations that Mary would be required to fulfill. With the high sophistication of the French court in which Mary grew up, mastery of multiple languages was expected, as well as more ancient languages of Hebrew and Greek.

The recording of several dictionaries supports this, including one Italian-Latin. Of the Romance languages it was not simply linguistic comprehension which was expected, but also understanding of literatures and histories of countries other than her own, such as neighbouring Spain, so as to demonstrate her awareness and engagement with the wider world.

Furthermore, it was common for classical texts to be used as cribs and reference points to aid learning of Romance languages. Although popularised by the humanists, the inclusion of classical texts in education existed prior to their peak — during the Middle Ages. At this point in time, the focus within classical texts was on the grammar. For the humanists however, the attraction of the writings of Virgil and other classical authors was the morals and virtues that the characters exemplified, which could be drawn out in the form of memorable proverbs.

The way in which these texts were read began to change from the perspective of the Middle Ages: moving from a focus on looking only for excellent grammar and notable phrases, to alternatively for allegorical, as well as literal meanings. One reason for why texts were consulted through a different perspective is the increased awareness humanists had of their place in history.

This formed a crucial part of moral philosophy education in schools. Considered a means to communicate ideals, the way in which literature was interpreted tallied with the geographic and cultural spheres that the interpreter existed in. As well as this praise however, he is also condemned for any vices which he displays. This praise and blame method became one which teachers used with their students, being both complimentary and critical of them, but not to the extent to which they would be dissuaded from their studies.

The relationship between poetry and morals developed to become so closely entwined that there arose a constant expectation that the author would always be intending to communicate, whether literally or allegorically, moral virtue. Although the humanists were concerned largely with contextualising these works, they came to agree with the readings of the Aeneid of their contemporaries. These were often then reprinted alongside the original text, forming a textbook which could be used in the classroom. Evidence of this can frequently be seen in marginalia, or in commonplace books of students.

This shows a strong focus on dividing important speeches into manageable and understandable phrases, frequently to emphasise rhetorical structure and argumentation. The very existence of Los Doze Libros de la Eneida therefore, whether or not actually a possession of Mary Queen of Scots, is a prime example of the broader revival of antiquity fuelled by the humanists but beginning in the Middle Ages.

For Mary, as for students, teachers and everyday people alike, classical texts and particularly the Aeneid provided a blueprint of morals which they could build into their lives.

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The effects of Virgil are felt even today, when Latin is no longer considered a vital component of education. As this text is still important today, it should be displayed in a way which would engage the public. Although the signature is likely a forgery, it is still an interesting element of the book, as is the front page and the decorative letters which begin each book.

I would propose that this book is part of a digital interactive exhibit, so that the book itself would be preserved and sustain no further damage. This could happen on a large interactive screen, simulating a portion of a bookshelf. As well as this, the physical size of the books would be more tangible, as the public would be able to clearly see how they differ greatly between that of folio and duodecimo.

Ideally they would then be able to open the book on screen, and then particular areas of interest would be highlighted with additional information. The signature would be one of these, as well as the Hunterian sticker which is another point of interest for the local public as the collection is held by the University of Glasgow. Some information on the text itself should also be given, possibly highlighting and translating particular proverbs to show prime examples of the morals and virtues sought after by those in the Renaissance.

Presenting Los Doze Libros de la Eneida in a way like this would allow the public to engage with the book — its connection to Mary and her extensive library — as well as its importance to the Renaissance as a centre of moral guidance, helping them to understand why more than 1, years after it was written, the Aeneid was still considered a crucial text.

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The Oxford companion to the Book , eds. Michael F. Woudhuysen Oxford: Oxford University Press,