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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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A survey from GfK Panel Services Deutschland GfK shows that the event market had a total volume of 3, million euro in , whereof 2, million euro were realized by music events, consisting of concerts, festivals and musicals GfK Panel Services Deutschland. The figure is provided in Appendix A. According to Franz Willnauer , from the German Music Information Centre MIZ , approximately festivals are captured in the online data base what from one-third belong to the field of contemporary music.

Climate change, environmental protection and sustainability are current terms today and concern everyone and every branch as every single human is a part of the environmental system. Especially the creative industries which strengthen its economic growth in the last few years German Commission for UNESCO, have a special social end environmental responsibility - and therefore the event and live music industry which attracts million of people every year around the world to participate.

Given that music festivals with its large crowds are often located in the nature it is quite obvious that environmental protection is an important topic. The media which consistently prefer to report how much waste or energy a festival produced linked with the increasing environmental public awareness put additional pressure on festival organizers.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals Besides the high power consumption of a music event, the biggest emitting activity within a festival is the emission produced by the visitors travelling to and from the festival Sound Emissions, In addition, tons of waste will not only damage the environment and its surrounding but also be more cost-intensive to the host.

Considering only some of the negative environmental impacts give cause for serious concern about holding such an event. Therefore, the role and significance of music festivals in our culture as well as their environmental impacts will be examined in this thesis. A few festivals in Germany demonstrate that it is possible to bring together music and humans in nature in an eco-friendly and collective way.

They even published an environmental management handbook for open-air festivals and became awarded several times amongst others by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation Germany BfN. Many European festivals already implemented several aspects of environmental management into their organization, which turned out at the Green Events Germany, an international eco-conference for the live music industry in November, For that reason, fundamental knowledge of environmental and sustainable management will be explored and of even greater importance the scopes of sustainable festival management.

Nevertheless, the effort of an. Therefore, it is necessary to indicate the public on the special effort and to appeal their assistance. Thus, it is important to know what content should be communicated and which tools can be used in order to motivate the audience. Could it even be a platform for environmental and sustainable education by non-governmental NGO and governmental organizations? Eco-friendly Music Festivals 1. To facilitate the overall aims following research objectives were generated:.

Acquire basic knowledge about the role, impacts and development of music and music festivals. Acquire detailed background information of environmental management and the linkage to sustainability and events. Identify the reasons, scopes and benefits of sustainable management within the festival organization. Compare and identify differences and similarities of these music festivals.

Provide an outline of the main aspects to improve festival communication and environmental education of visitors. The first chapter gives a general overview of the paper by giving background information and outlining the overall aim and objectives. Chapter two describes the methodology of the research, including the research design and the data collection method chosen.

Moreover, the questionnaires which were set up and the interviews which were hold as well as the limitations and bias are short portrayed. The third chapter introduces to music festivals by first illustrating the importance and impacts of music and a short overview of the music industry. Afterwards the term and development of music festivals are described followed by further descriptions of music tourism and festival sponsoring.

In order to complete the festival development the recent festival market in Germany is described. The further description of the major impacts. Eco-friendly Music Festivals according to the thesis topic of music open-air festivals explains the reasons for development.

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Chapter four introduces to environmental management by giving a short overview of environmental management approaches, systems and its constraints in Germany. Moreover, sustainable development and sustainability are explained to create a linkage to environmental management followed by an explanation of sustainable management. To complement this chapter the meaning of eco-labels and the risk of green washing are explained. In the fifth chapter sustainable management and music festivals come together.

Furthermore, the several scopes of sustainable event management are explained in particular. In the end, possible benefits of sustainable management are outlined. In order to identify differences and similarities the three festivals are compared with each other. The last chapter draws a conclusion and gives a recommendation. Methodology This chapter deals with the research design and the data collection methods used in this research.

Furthermore, the questionnaires and interviews with their limitations and bias are demonstrated. In order to analyze the opportunity of ecofriendly music festivals to serve as an education platform for sustainable development, exploratory research was chosen to gain insights of the role of music festivals, its current environmental efforts and develop ideas how environmental communication and education could work. Furthermore, exploratory research increased familiarity with fundamental.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals knowledge of music festival and its impacts as well as environmental and sustainable management. Secondary data was collected using external data, which were obtained from published and commercial sources. Therefore, information from associations, books, journals, magazines, data bases, newspaper articles, television reports and several web sites and documents provided profound knowledge on the topic and the structure of the thesis.

Primary data were collected via two personal interviews and one mail questionnaire with the festival organizers of the RhEINKULTUR Bonn , the Taubertal festival Rothenburg and the Das Fest festival Karlsruhe to get an insight of current environmental efforts of eco-friendly music festivals and how they communicate their efforts to the audience. November, , where festival organizers from across Europe participated, allowed a deeper insight to the efforts and problems of environmental management within a festival. Compared to the case studies common problems can be pointed out.

The questionnaires and the transcript of interviews are provided in Appendix L, M, N. Eco-friendly Music Festivals Moreover, some close-ended questions are provided in the questionnaire. Furthermore, the questionnaire was divided into four parts:. General Information about the Organizers II.

Tangible Environmental Efforts. The questionnaire was sent via e-mail as an attached file to the KARO Agentur, the organizers of the Taubertal festival in Rothenburg after a telephone call. Question that arose after receiving the filled survey were answered via e-mails correspondence. The selfcompleted questionnaire of the Taubertal festival is attached in Appendix L.

Prior the interview, the questionnaire was sent out to Sabine Funk via e-mail to give her an insight of the length of the interview as well as to give her the opportunity to prepare herself. Furthermore, the interview was recorded by a video camera to have a fluent conversation and afterwards documented. The transcript of the interview is attached in Appendix M. The interview with Michael Kozak, responsible for the environmental issues of the Das Fest festival in Karlsruhe was held at the 4th November, in the Wissenschaftszentrum Bonn. The questionnaire built the basis for the interview.

The completed questionnaire is attached in Appendix N. Most data available about festivals cover traditional and regional festivals, while studies on modern music festivals according to the topic are relatively rare. Furthermore, the terms. Eco-friendly Music Festivals sustainable management and environmental management as well as environmental management and environmental management systems are mixed in literature. Therefore, the scopes of environmental management within the festivals changes after literature research as sustainable management suited better to the overall research aim.

Furthermore, the interview held with Michael Kozak from Das Fest, was in a tight timeframe and due to the fact that the Das Fest GmbH just exist since , no recorded material was available. Due to the fact that the Taubertal festival organizer had no time for a telephone interview the questionnaire was sent out to the KARO Konzert Agentur. The general result of recent environmental performances of eco-friendly music festivals would be of higher quality if every interview would have been performed face-to-face or more time would be available for them.

Although, as already mentioned the Green Events Conference provides a general overview and insight of environmental performances and problems of music festivals across Europe. Music Festivals The following chapter acquires profound knowledge of music festivals. First short descriptions of the role of music and the music industry are given followed by the development of music festivals and a demonstration of the actual festival market in Germany. Furthermore, the major impacts of festivals concerning the research topic are described.

Music has a big impact across all cultures and times. GfK Panel Services Deutschland. The cultural and religious function of music can be lead back to the ceremonies and rites of the indigenous people. Music bears and communicates cultural activities. The church chants, passions, mass and cantatas and the royal courts minnesingers, musical.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals entertainment, festivals and dance music were the most important institutions in the past European music culture Baumann, Furthermore, music is able to communicate emotions and thoughts and therefore it promotes social behavior due to increasing sensitivity, perception and expressiveness in handling with each other. These social functions are also a reason for the development of many diverse subcultures as means of expression, like for example gothic music, heavy metal or punk-rock.

Even national hymns are means of identification. Music can also fulfill a political function by demonstrating authority or protest. Although music can not directly induce social change, it can concentrate and coordinate reactions on social states and can set free social energy which can have an arresting or activating effect Baumann, Based on the high emotional impact of music it is often used in combination with selling products and services.

Music goes along with TV commercials, video games, movies and mobile ring tones. Furthermore, the power of artists should not be undervalued. Derived from their charismatic authority, musicians are often seen as role models to younger generations. Today more than 90 percent of music covered in the media belongs to the genres of popular music, which are pop, rock, hip hop, rap, techno, dance, jazz, hit, folk music, brass and chanson Wicke, This shows that music has still today not lost its cultural and social importance as it is even part of our cultural industry German Commission for UNESCO, Eco-friendly Music Festivals 3.

Appendix B gives further details on the turnovers in particular. This innovation led to a lot of illegal music downloads and precipitated a crisis in the recorded music industry Appendix C. Though, a paradigm change can be denoted in the music industry in as revenues of live music industry overtake revenues of record sales. Live music generated revenues of about 2. Live performance may have a direct effect on increasing record sales.

Unfortunately, as it can be seen in detail in Appendix D, live music does not avoid the decreasing of the total music revenue. A further example for the development of the music industry is the biggest entertainment company in the world, Live Nation Entertainment. Concert promotion, venue operations, sponsorship, ticketing solutions, e-commerce and artist management are the five businesses of the entertainment company. Live Nation Entertainment wrote in its company profile n. In , Live Nation sold million tickets, promoted 21, concerts, partnered with sponsors and averages 25 million unique monthly users of its e-commerce sites […] connecting million fans to.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals , events in over 40 countries which has made Ticketmaster. The expansion of Live Nation means keen business competition for the ticketing agency CTS Eventim and more competition on the German market which possibly can lead to better offerings for concertgoers Kulturnews, Every such event is unique, stemming from the blend of management, program, setting and people. Any of these events can be considered as special event.

Attributes like a festive spirit, uniqueness, quality, authenticity, tradition, hospitality, theme, flexibility, multiplicity goals, tangibility, affordability, convenience and symbolism create a sense of specialness Allen et. On the basis of this developed categories, commercial music festival can be related to music festivals in terms of the research topic. According to Mintel , 71 to 73 percent of music concerts and festivals market belong to pop or rock music, Therefore, one characteristic of music festivals is the genre of music performed at the event, but not always one music genre is performed.

Mixed genres are preferred especially by major music festivals, like for example the Rock am Ring festival, which also offers some hip hop, pop or electronic music acts besides the main genres rock and heavy metal music. Willnauer defines music festivals as event, where multiple artists at least two perform live music.

In the majority of cases German festivals present 5 to 20 different musicians. Festivals endure from one day up to several but sequenced days, for example a weekend. Taking a view on the homepage of Festivalhopper. Besides professional artists, major festivals also offer amateur artists to perform on a smaller stage sometimes designed as a contest. Most music festivals are multicultural in terms of artists but also in terms of visitors.

Ticket prices vary from festival to festival. Eco-friendly Music Festivals about 99 euro. All this prices are early bird rebates; therefore prices will increase Eventim, Essential for economic success, especially for those free-entrance festivals, is a dependable and long-termed core funding. According to Willnauer , the three most important forms of financing a festival are:. Revenues from ticket selling and media coverage; 2.

Subsidies from the public sector and; 3. Donations from sponsors or initiatives. Hence, a music festival consists of many different Stakeholders. Adequately, as described by Larson and Getz , actors of a festival network are the festival organization, the audience, the city or municipality, the sector, restaurants, market vendors, voluntary associations, the media, suppliers of goods and services, sponsors, cooperates like security agencies, and the public in Larson, Originally, festivals developed between the 17th and 19th century from courtly events and its historical anniversary celebrations or music festivals.

After the Second World War festivals became a determining factor of the music scene.

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Through international exchange of artistic performances a base for peaceful togetherness should be created. Caused by aim many new festivals flood central Europe. A second creation wave of festivals can be detected at the beginning of the nineties after the big political turn, the Fall of the Wall. Further details are shown in Appendix F. Festivals are an expression for the spirit of time.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals Willnauer , criticized the new type of festival as it refers rather to a touristic mass audience than to cultural elites. Festivals became a kind of commercial enterprise as they turned out to be an important marketing tool for the tourism, product and service industry.

Therefore, the terms music tourism and festival sponsoring are described more detailed in the chapters below 3. On the basis of these definitions, it is obvious that music tourism is part of cultural tourism and a form of event tourism. The first distinctive form of music tourism was the Bayreuth festival by Richard Wagner, in southern Germany in The change in values towards identity, hedonism and adventure leads to a great dynamic in the tourism market in the s Steinecke, For these reason further sites, sights and experiences are needed to meet the personal requirements.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals of tourists. Their aim is to create tours with a special metal-atmosphere, consisting of worldwide short trips to strongholds of metal or an all-inclusive bus trip to metal events. Special features of the Metal Train are a booked seat or couchette coach during the roundtrip, a bus shuttle between train station and the festival site, a Metal Train CD and a tour guide Metal Travel GmbH, n.

These offers are also available in the driving directions on the official homepage of the Wacken Open-Air festival. Some festivals could not even be held without the support by sponsors, like for example the Rheinkultur Festival in Bonn personal communication. Sponsoring became a critical element in the integrated marketing communication mix, besides public relations, advertising or sales promotion Appendix G. According to the International Events Group Inc. Eco-friendly Music Festivals marketing in Hoyle, Since investments on cultural sponsoring are on a constant level of circa million euro Kearney, This might be caused by the several aims of several sponsorship types.

The main aims of sport sponsoring are increasing brand awareness and the improvement of the brand image where in contrast the aims of socio, eco and cultural sponsoring are the expression of social responsibility and image improvement Nufer, This reflects the recent change in consumer values towards more social responsibility.

Therefore, music festivals are an ideal platform to reach a young target market in their own themed environment The Sponsor People GmbH, Sponsoring an eco-friendly music festival for example combines cultural, socio- and eco-sponsoring, which makes a music festival to an additional attractive communication platform. Hence, they did not just appear as an exclusive partner for tobacco products but engaged in cooperation with the organizer concerning environmental protection and waste management. They handed out eco-friendly garbage bags, pocket ashtrays and sold metal storage boxes whereof 60 percent have been donated to VivaConAgua, in order to finance a drinking water project Marketing-Guide, Eco-friendly Music Festivals Furthermore, renewable energy providers start to sponsor eco-friendly festivals.

Other festivals like the Das Fest festival start to search for such sponsors personal communication, These three German festivals are described circumstantial in chapter 6. A music festival has a positive effect on the young target group and the additional environmental efforts a special positive effect on the media.

Event marketing became an important term to many marketers in the past few years because sponsors want to be recognized as originators of festivals and events Nufer, The term and recent development of event marketing is too extensive and is not explored in this thesis. The number of music festivals in Germany nearly tripled since the reunion Deutscher Musikrat, Furthermore, festivals are the most popular event form of 16 to 29 years old people in Marketing-Guide, , which is shown in Figure 1.

A survey of The Sponsor People GmbH in shows that over 80 percent of festival goers were between 16 and 29 years old. The distribution between the sexes is on average balanced. More than 60 percent of the visitors have a high education degree, the Allgemeine Fachhochschulreife A-level or even finished university The Sponsor People GmbH, The number of visitors increases steadily Appendix H , especially on major festivals.

Allen et al. The social, cultural, political and especially environmental impacts are of more importance according the research topic therefore the tourism and economic impacts are not further described. Music festivals with different genres and sometimes unknown artists, confronted the audience with new challenges or ideas. Additionally, many festivals and initiatives offer talented but unknown artists the chance to perform on stage or to demonstrate their proficiency within a contest. Furthermore, festivals often give social or environmental initiatives the chance to act on the festival with a low priced information booth or the possibility, to collect returnable cans or bottles and then donating the money to aid organizations personal communication, Eco-friendly Music Festivals Viva con Agua, an initiative for drinking water supply in the developing world, collects returnable cans and builds standpipes in less developed countries Viva con Agua de Sankt Pauli, Through international exchange of music and the multicultural audience cultural perspectives of visitors, stakeholders and citizen can be expanded.

Live concerts or festivals may even influence visitors to cultivate themselves and learn how to play an instrument. Furthermore, music festivals often develop a corporate feeling between the festival visitors, especially on the camping site this phenomena can be recognized. Sometimes the preparation of festival goers starts days in advance to the actual festival.

Little groups of people who want to visit the festival together meet before the event and plan their group trip to the festival. There are even festival visitors who build wooden houses, bring carpets or the whole living room furniture. It could be said that festivals even developed something like their own culture. Moreover, many festival visitors of the Hurricane festival stated in the NDR television report that the festival means to them something like having holidays.

They save money for this event and want to leave everything behind them even their good behavior which sure can cause problems. Therefore, festivals can carry negative social impacts, too. The resident community is sometimes bothered by the mass of visitors, bad behavior, noise or waste. In some extents, festivals conform to such complaints, like Das Fest, which closes its doors at 11 p. Kozak, personal communication, The Friedensfestival lives from the creativity of highly engaged volunteers. They want to provide common information, motivation and activation.

Together with social expertise of politics and economy the festival simply joins the aim to transpose the human rights according to the Charter of the United Nations with the help of information booths, speeches, talks and music FB e. The Festival Musik und Politik, in Berlin, provided a meeting place for politically involved musicians from around the globe with a like-minded audience Lied und Soziale Bewegung e. The global media attention should force leading politicians of the G8 to enact a debt cancelation for the developing world Rapp, Certainly the political input of Live8 was also criticized.

Furthermore, many festivals depend on public funds. Therefore, a misallocation or cut-back of funds can drive festivals into a dilemma personal communication, It even can be the end of a festival. The political power of an event may also be misused for propaganda purposes thinking of diverse right-wing extremist concerts in the underground that legitimate their ideology in their circles. If the political. Eco-friendly Music Festivals statement is not clear or the evaluation of set aims is not transparent, politics can lose its community ownership and control.

Therefore, it is not astonishing that a music festival and its visitors have a negative impact on the environment. The numerous activities on an event, in the end can be refined to resource use or emission. For that reason several organizations and initiatives promote sustainability and environmental care to musicians, festivals and events. Eco-friendly Music Festivals sustainability JB, Moreover, the Association of Independent Festivals AIF surveyed that 60 percent of the 3, asked visitors travelled by car while 44 percent of those had three or more passengers in IQ, The OpenAir St.

Gallen, in Switzerland, compares its audience travel in to the UK research of , which is shown in Table 1 below. Waste on festivals is a further, more visible issue than travel emissions. For this reason, the media often reports about the waste problem of festivals, like for example the headline of Stern. Furthermore, waste disposal is one of the most costly expenses for festival organizers A Greener Festival Ltd. Waste costs can cause serious problems to organizers, as for example the Love Parade, an electronic dance music festival, which celebrated love and hedonism in Berlin from to The high volume of waste and pollution left after the parade, which was to that time billed as a political demonstration, creates high waste disposal and cleaning costs for the city of Berlin.

In the courts decided that the Love Parade had become a commercial event and therefore became responsible for paying the waste disposal. This leads the Love Parade to a dilemma because it was an entrance free and non profit festival. Most of the festival organizers attending at the. Eco-friendly Music Festivals Green Events conference for the live music industry, state that their main problem is the waste produced by visitors and the according recycling costs. In this context festival organizers mentioned the waste on the camping site created amongst others by left tents, chairs and tables. One reason could be the low prices for tents and the attitude of visitors, who do not want to take a dirty tent back home to wash it there.

A further negative environmental impact of festivals is the noise. Noise affects animals, worker, visitors and residents. Therefore, Germany, but also most of the other countries set out noise regulations. Noise can not only seriously harm hearing but also disturb the welfare of the surrounding fauna. Due to the mass of visitors on the green field sites, land damage and wild life damages are a further environmental impact. If the camping site for example is not correctly fenced, the visitors may make their own trails and will even walk through the wood or nature protection areas.

Music festivals offer amounts of water, especially if there are a camping sites included with toilets, showers and basins etc. At the ratio of negative environmental impacts the positive impacts are to a lesser extent, but not less important. Holding a festival in the nature provides the opportunity to showcase the environment and may increase environmental awareness. Furthermore, it may provide the possibility to act as a model for best practice if environmental care is put in to the festival organization.

In general, festivals have more negative environmental impacts than positive impacts. Therefore, festivals could be called into question. However, the role of festivals for the tourism industry and for marketing as well as the cultural and social impacts should be kept in mind. Environmental and Sustainable Management Chapter 4 explains the term sustainability and sustainable development. Furthermore, a short description of sustainable management follows which is subsequently linked to environmental management and environmental management systems.

In addition, common environmental management systems EMAS, ISO are described as well as a short description of environmental management approaches in Germany. In the end, the application of eco-labels is described, followed by an explanation of the risks of green washing and which criteria have to be considered. Nowadays the term sustainability is ubiquitous and of utmost importance to all of us and future generations.

The document contains topics like the protection of the atmosphere, waste management, the protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources, and environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals Bowdin et al. In order to ensure full support for implementation of Agenda 21, the Commission on Sustainable Development CSD was created in and held annual meetings since to enhance action by Governments, businesses, industry and other NGOs United Nations, A further milestone in the history of sustainable development was in , where the Kyoto Protocol enters into force and legally binds developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to establish the Clean Development Mechanism for developing countries IISD, In public attention to climate change had considerably increased due to U.

The German government aims, at two-year intervals, to indicate what progress has been made in sustainable development in Germany and where further action is needed. The Progress Report for a Sustainable Germany focused on climate and energy, the sustainable management of raw materials, the social opportunities posed by demographic change and food for the world. Furthermore, the German government adopted new indicators relating smoking and obesity and pointed out that the education sector needs further improvement.

The milestones in sustainable development as well as the key areas on the several levels UN, Europe, and Germany show very well which areas are affected within sustainable development: environmental, social and economic issues see Figure 2. In order to understand sustainable development the world has to be Figure 2: The Three Spheres of Sustainability Source: www. Eco-friendly Music Festivals space and system that connects time. The air pollution from North America for example affects air quality in Asia or pesticides sprayed in Argentina could harm fish stocks in Australia system that connects space.

Decisions made for example by our forefathers regarding farming affects agriculture practice today system that connects time IISD, So if there is no system which connects spaces, there will also not be a system that connects time. This explains the importance of environmental aspects in the overall sustainable development. As the negative environmental aspects of festivals predominate and therefore have to be improved first to become more sustainable, the following chapter 4. Regarding the overall research topic, a closer look on the three criteria of sustainable management underscores once more that sustainable festival management firstly has to focus on the environmental criteria and secondly on the social criteria concerning the negative environmental impacts and the social and cultural significance of music festivals explored in.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals Chapter 3. Furthermore the IISD , developed seven steps that are required for managing a business according to sustainable development principles:. Perform a stakeholder analysis 2. Set sustainable development policies and objectives 3. Design and execute an implementation plan 4. Develop a supportive corporate culture 5. Develop measures and standards of performance 6. Prepare reports 7. Enhance internal monitoring process.

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These seven requirements can be related to environmental management system, which are explained in the following chapter. Therefore, environmental management becomes more important to the industry. The environmental policy establishes the objectives and action principles of a company regarding the environmental protection. On the one hand an environmental policy represents the basic principles for decisions and planning from an environmental point of view and on the other hand it demonstrates the environmental responsibility of an organization to the public and staff EcoSMEs, Therefore the environmental policies should be recorded for example in an environmental handbook, a process description or a job description.

In order to make the policies visible to the public, the handbook for example. Eco-friendly Music Festivals could be available on the official homepage of the company or the environmental policies could be implemented to the overall philosophy of the company. While environmental management deals with the internal environmental policy and the legal environmental regulations, environmental management systems EMS ensure environmental sustainability of products and processes within an organization as well as environmental orientated leadership. The most common elements of an EMS are the identification of environmental influences and legal requirements, the improvement or creation of a management plan, the allocation of responsibilities as well as the monitoring of the actions Kolk, Eco-friendly Music Festivals Furthermore, both systems have specific objectives to avoid pollution and damages to the environment and concentrate on the main goal to improve the environmental performance of companies.

Therefore, the European Commission developed a list with the main differences, which can be seen in Appendix K. Although, differences are also noticeable in the different requirements they set. Seek certification of its environmental management system by an external third party organization;. This is especially reflected in the enforcement of the publication of the environmental statement and the commitment for continual improvement of environmental performances. Eco-friendly Music Festivals 4. The market of environmental approaches can be divided into four areas: eco-profit, environmental certifications, branch-oriented approaches and miscellaneous approaches.

More than 1, of the enterprises use eco-profit. Several EMA developed in recent years with a few exceptions as for example eco-profit. Most of these approaches are not nationwide dispread and are commonly aligned to a certain target group. For some approaches own institutions exist with clear rules concerning the cooperation of several stakeholders.

However, other approaches are operated without or just with few institutional structures which are very attractive to small and medium sized enterprises SME as costs of institutionalization are relatively high. Therefore, voluntary appraisers or internal environmental consultants are deployed instead of approved environmental experts. Transparency gains more importance and so are labels which enable the customer to distinguish products from another. With the approach of third party certification the threat of misleading information by the producers is minimized.

Eco-labels are not just important to the single customer they are also crucial for the purchasing decision of festival organizers. Especially when it comes to catering the eco-label can help to find suppliers of organic food. Moreover, the organizer can use signs to inform the audience about the percentage of organics used.

In order to obtain organic food the festival organizer has to stick to suppliers of sustainable agriculture. The Rainforest Alliance is a non-profit organization which certifies farms which reduce environmental footprints, protect wildlife, waterways, soils, and welfare of workers Jones, Here one can see the dimensions and impacts the purchasing decisions can have on several parties involved.

Of course there are lots of different eco-labels around the world with different dispersion. In Figure 3 some eco-labels are shown. Negative reactions can evoke from hiding behind green ideals when festivals exaggerate their endeavors. Sin of the hidden trade-off; e. Sin of no proof; e. Sin of vagueness; e. Sin of irrelevance; e. Sin of fibbing e. Sin of lesser two evils e.

However, most eco-friendly festivals actually do not have to think about a green washing issue as they do not promote their efforts as much as they should even if they have an approved and awarded sustainability concept. Eco-friendly Music Festivals In the following chapter sustainable management and music festivals are brought together. Therefore, first the role of the cultural sector and the view point of visitors are described. Furthermore, some initiatives and awards whose aim is to support sustainable development in the music and festival industry are described.

Afterwards, the several scopes of sustainable management within the festival are outlined and possible approaches to problem-solving are provided. Eco-friendly Music Festivals 5. The first documented protest against the staging of a public event takes place in in Denver, Colorado where the Winter Games should be held Chernushenko, in Bowdin et al. Environmental concerns still persist today; they even have increased in the last few years according to current discussions about climate change and sustainable development. Furthermore, due to sustainable development strategies on an international or national level forced developed countries to act sustainable.

Therefore, the creative industry and the cultural sector, which had strengthen its economic growth in the last few years German Commission for UNESCO, have a special social end environmental responsibility. The range of positive effects and the significance of music and festivals in every culture should be reason enough to reconsider each area of festival operation, minimize the negative environmental impacts and maximize the social and cultural ones.

If each individual takes care of environmental and social issues as much as possible, all small contribution together can have a big impact. It should be pointed out that the respondents had chosen between those given categories, therefore this survey reflects. Eco-friendly Music Festivals the ranking on visitors perception of environmental impacts and not exactly their knowledge on causes or impacts. Furthermore, 88 percent of the European visitors thought that firstly the festival organizer should be responsible for minimizing environmental damage and secondly the festival goers 57 percent.

In addition 80 percent of the Europe sample visitors would travel by public transport to a festival if it was provided within the ticket price. This response demonstrates the willingness of visitors to act environmental friendly but does not show how many visitors actually travel by public transport. Nevertheless, a positive attitude towards public transport exist which has to be supported by communication or incentives.

However, 88 percent of the EU visitors would still visit a festival if their favorite band performs even if the festival is not environmental friendly. This result highlights the responsibility of the music industry and in special of the artist and their management. A further interesting result of the survey is that 39 percent of the UK visitors stated that food stalls should use re-usable crockery while 36 percent disagreed.

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What are the arguments for not using re-usable crockery? This could also be a sign of inconvenient handling of reusable dishes or for insufficient knowledge about the advantages. In the end, the survey points out that there is a general environmental awareness across festival visitors but a lack in knowledge of their role within the festivals impact. Since , Yourope offers special discounts for two seminars about sustainable management at Bucks New University Yourope, SfN is a registered brand name which ensures quality in the developing of ecological strategies at major events.

Furthermore, SfN provide a guideline for open-air festivals with hints and suggestions to create an ecofriendly festival. Within this guideline SfN focuses on the negative environmental impacts of a festival and how they can be reduced or even avoided, how to handle public relations and sponsorships as well as the legal framework in Germany SfN, Therefore, events like Green Music Dinners or Roundtables are hold to bring several stakeholders from the music industry and scientific institutions together.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals visitors have to produce power via bike riding so that the DJ can play music. As long as the audience produces power, they will get music Green Music Initiative, Furthermore, communication and education are relevant areas within the sustainable development of a festival and therefore an important part of sustainable management. As already mentioned in Chapter 4 about sustainable and environmental management monitoring the impacts and developing policies for every area is a first crucial step in order to change things to become more sustainable.

Besides the audience also equipment, food, staff, goods and artists need to get to and from the event. Therefore, the festival organizer has to find ways to change transport behavior of all stakeholders and should search for innovative transport solutions to be more sustainable Jones, It is important to appeal the assistance of the people by offering alternatives and to communicate the environmental impact of the several transport options on a comprehensible and not scientific level.

Furthermore, to encourage public transport use, the festival organizer has to provide detailed information on public transport and should offer a platform or link for lift sharing. This will also make public transport use more attractive as it is simple to plan the travel and therefore easier to handle in general. The organizer should also offer bus shuttles between the train or bus station and the festival site. If the parking space of a festival is reduced or even parking fees have to be paid by visitors, they may perceive public transport as more comfortable.

This content has to be communicated to the visitors on the one hand to prevent frustration when they arrive at the festival and on the other hand it may activate thinking as the visitors do not want to be stuck in traffic or drive circles to find a parking space. Using public. Eco-friendly Music Festivals transport can also be entertaining and part of the festival like for example Metal Travel offered at the Wacken Open-Air Festival see also Chapter 3. Furthermore, travelling by train, bus or filling up every seat of the car could provide incentives for visitors. These incentives could be a lower price on train ticket or a travel ticket is already included in the festival ticket.

Some festivals like for example the RhEINKULTUR festival offer their visitors to compensate their emissions via internet by giving detailed information on their travel option and distance personal communication, The Shambala Festival in England encourages people to cycle from five major cities to the festival site one to three days long including camping IQ, However, also stallholders, caterers, volunteers, staff and artists have to be encouraged to rethink their travel behavior.

The organizer can use sustainable transport companies. Moreover, to reduce transport miles the festival organizer could use local transport companies or even regional suppliers. Besides reducing the negative environmental impact it will support the regional economy, thus have a social impact. In the end all the emissions should be measured. Therefore, the organizer should ask stakeholders to measure their performance; evaluate the percentage of arrivals of visitors and other stakeholders within the festival and the average travel distance Jones, Therefore, waste management is inevitable.

According to dictionary. Further, waste management deals with the analysis of the number and size of bins, effective placement, and an appropriate signage Jones, Jones further argues that waste is produced by two main sources. Firstly, it is production waste including batteries, machinery oil, scrap metal, and packaging material.

Secondly, it is audience waste which mainly includes food packaging,. Eco-friendly Music Festivals drink cups, bottles, and flyers. Of course waste management undertakes specific measures in order to optimize the minimization of waste production. The first step is waste prevention. Waste prevention deals mainly with paperless ticketing and reducing the volume of distributed flyers. By reducing the amount of printed material the organizer saves money and resources and does not has to bother with its disposal if people throw the promotional material away Jones, Moreover, giveaways should be chosen wisely as most of the time due to a lack of functionality or creativity people can make no use it and will dump it in the trash.

Audience waste such as bottles or cans can be reduced by regulating the entrainment of beverages to the festival venue. Another fundamental measure of waste management is recycling. People are already use to recycling as it is part of their everyday life. Still it is advisable to use certain incentives to make visitors recycle their waste. For instance visitors could be charged a deposit on bottles and cups which they get back as soon as they return the bottle or cup to the seller.

A further incentive could be the handover of a voucher in exchange for a full garbage bag.

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With that measure litter on-site is also minimized. When talking about recycling one should point out two remarkable methods to dispose biodegradable waste. The first method is simple composting. Compost offers natural fertilizer and therefore can improve plant growth. The second method is anaerobic digestion. This method is composting biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen Jones, A result is biogas which can be used to generate electricity and heat. Eventually waste management should work towards the goal of having no waste at all. This is the vision of the zero waste movement.

The idea is to optimize waste systems and disposal strategies in order to reduce waste to a minimum Jones, Once again people can share a vision, motivate each other, and pursue a collective goal. Unnecessary wasted water, poor disposal of waste water and potential pollution of water could be environmental impacts of festivals. In order to conserve water, water consumption can be reduced due to water saving devices or taps which turn off automatically when not in use A Greener Festival Ltd. Furthermore, rain water can be captured and use for toilets if they are not waterless urinals or.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals compost toilets Jones, Some festivals like the Sunrise Summer Celebration festival or the Standon Calling festival, both hold in England, used percent compost toilets including the crew toilets IQ, Furthermore, should encourage cleaning with mop and bucket instead of using high pressure hoses Jones, To manage waste water sustainable, grey water can be captured and then used for non contact activities like toilet water.

Grey water is water that was already used for example by showering or washing. Emissions to water can be caused by personal products of festival visitors, cleaning products, paint wash-up water and urination. In order to reduce emissions to water biological or chemical-free cleaning products should be used. Furthermore, the audience can be encouraged to use environmental friendly shampoo, body wash products or hand wash products.

Thus, enough toilets should be provided especially where a large amount of people get together. Besides, dark areas could be lightened to prevent urination Jones, Therefore, it is important again to encourage the audience to save water via signs on the festival and camping site or by providing information on water scarcity and hints for responsible water use within the festival which can be communicated before the event on the webpage and during the event between the live performances on screens if available.

Moreover, all other stakeholders, especially catering and food stalls should be encouraged to reduce water consumption. It has been estimated that by 1. In addition, the placement of generators play an important role as well as providing secondary generators that are switched on only at peak times Jones, To meet the requirements of sustainability festival organizers have to look for alternative ways to provide power Jones, Innovative technologies but also the nature.

Eco-friendly Music Festivals can provide best practice examples to power a music festival. According to IQ , 39 percent of the European festivals used partly sustainable energy sources in , which are wind power, solar power, green tariff suppliers and the more regularly used bio-diesel A Greener Festival Ltd.

Nevertheless, using such fuels also means to be aware of the supply chain as more and more people are informed about the problem of inter alia rainforests are being used for biofuel crops which leads to potential food shortages and environmental damages in those countries IQ, Perhaps, a local refinery convert waste vegetable oil or even collects used oil from caterers.

KG, Nonetheless, using bio-fuels builds demand for renewable fuels and encourages the market to invest in new technologies Jones, Moreover, the festival can offer financial incentives like discounts to stallholders for reducing energy use. Besides, the festival organizer can develop restrictions and quotas to achieve the desirable goal of a minimum energy usage. These restrictions and quotas have to be communicated to the stallholders and the compliance has to be audited.


Using energy efficient bulbs, like LED, is a further method to reduce energy Jones, But also the visitors can be involved in reducing energy consumption by producing the energy themselves, like for example the Green Music Fahrrad Disco mentioned in Chapter 5. To show the effort of the festival organizer, the alternative energy sources should be as visible as possible.

Furthermore, the visitors can be indicated to the additional effort of the festival via campaigns that promote the festival energy savings and invite festival visitors to implement some energy saving actions at home. However, also artists and artist management has to be involved. For instance if bands that are supposed to be a strong pull factor for visitors use a lot of energy to support their show and are not willing to sacrifice it, the festival organizer is in a paradoxical situation as long as not everyone feels responsible for sustainable development Green Events Conference, The by-product of consumption is waste and waste connoted to affect climate change.

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