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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Cello Yehudi Menuhin Music Guides Beethoven: The Music and the Life 6. David Popper Emanuel Feuermann, virtuoso: A biography Memoirs of a Stradivarius Pablo Casals. Bach, the fencing master : reading aloud from the first three cello suites - second edition Victor Herbert: A Theatrical Life Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph Casals and the Art of Interpretation Joys and Sorrows: Reflections by Pablo Casals The Way They Play: Book 3 The Great Cellists Emanuel Feuermann Caesar sent them back, along with his ally Commius , king of the Gallic Atrebates , to use their influence to win over as many other states as possible.

He gathered a fleet consisting of eighty transport ships , sufficient to carry two legions Legio VII and Legio X , and an unknown number of warships under a quaestor , at an unnamed port in the territory of the Morini , almost certainly Portus Itius Boulogne. Another eighteen transports of cavalry were to sail from a different port, probably Ambleteuse.

Clearly in a hurry, Caesar himself left a garrison at the port and set out "at the third watch" — well after midnight — on 23 August [15] with the legions, leaving the cavalry to march to their ships, embark, and join him as soon as possible. In light of later events, this was either a tactical mistake or along with the fact that the legions came over without baggage or heavy siege gear [16] confirms the invasion was not intended for complete conquest. Caesar initially tried to land at Dubris Dover , whose natural harbour had presumably been identified by Volusenus as a suitable landing place.

However, when he came in sight of shore, the massed forces of the Britons gathered on the overlooking hills and cliffs dissuaded him from landing there, since the cliffs were so close to the shore that javelins could be thrown down from them onto anyone landing there. The first level beach area after Dover is at Walmer where a memorial is placed.

IL-2 Cliffs of Dover: War Cry

Recent archaeology by the University of Leicester indicates that the possible landing beach was in Pegwell Bay on the Isle of Thanet , Kent, where artefacts and massive earthworks dating from this period have been exposed, although this area would not have been the first easy landing site seen after Dover.

If Caesar had as large a fleet with him as has been suggested, then it is possible that the beaching of ships would have been spread out over a number of miles stretching from Walmer towards Pegwell Bay. Having been tracked all the way along the coast by the British cavalry and chariots, the landing was opposed. To make matters worse, the loaded Roman ships were too low in the water to go close inshore and the troops had to disembark in deep water, all the while attacked by the enemy from the shallows.

Dover and the Unkindest Cut of All (Bello) - AbeBooks - Joyce Porter:

The troops were reluctant, but according to Caesar's account were led by the aquilifer standard-bearer, whose name is not provided by Caesar of the 10th legion who jumped in first as an example, shouting:. The British were eventually driven back with catapultae and slings fired from the warships into the exposed flank of their formation and the Romans managed to land and drive them off. The cavalry, delayed by adverse winds, still had not arrived, so the Britons could not be pursued and finished off, and Caesar could not enjoy what he calls, in his usual self-promoting style, his "accustomed success".

The Romans established a camp of which archaeological traces have been found, received ambassadors and had Commius, who had been arrested as soon as he had arrived in Britain, returned to them. Caesar claims he was negotiating from a position of strength and that the British leaders, blaming their attacks on him on the common people, were in only four days awed into giving hostages, some immediately, some as soon as they could be brought from inland, and disbanding their army.

However, after his cavalry had come within sight of the beachhead but then been scattered and turned back to Gaul by storms, and with food running short, Caesar, a native of the Mediterranean , was taken by surprise by high British tides and a storm. His beached warships filled with water, and his transports, riding at anchor, were driven against each other.

Some ships were wrecked, and many others were rendered unseaworthy by the loss of rigging or other vital equipment, threatening the return journey. Realising this and hoping to keep Caesar in Britain over the winter and thus starve him into submission, the Britons renewed the attack, ambushing one of the legions as it foraged near the Roman camp. The foraging party was relieved by the remainder of the Roman force and the Britons were again driven off, only to regroup after several days of storms with a larger force to attack the Roman camp.

This attack was driven off fully, in a bloody rout, with improvised cavalry that Commius had gathered from pro-Roman Britons and a Roman scorched earth policy. The British once again sent ambassadors and Caesar, although he doubled the number of hostages, realised he could not hold out any longer and dared not risk a stormy winter crossing. Caesar had set out late in the campaigning season and the winter was approaching, and so he allowed them to be delivered to him in Gaul, to which he returned with as many of the ships as could be repaired with flotsam from the wrecked ships.

Even then, only two tribes felt sufficiently threatened by Caesar to actually send the hostages, and two of his transports were separated from the main body and made landfall elsewhere. If the invasion was intended as a full-scale campaign, invasion or occupation, it had failed, and if it is seen as a reconnaissance-in-force or a show of strength to deter further British aid to the Gauls, it had fallen short. Nonetheless, going to Britain beyond the "known world" carried such kudos for a Roman that the Senate decreed a supplicatio thanksgiving of twenty days when they received Caesar's report.

It is also suggested that this invasion established alliances with British kings in the area which smoothed the later invasion of AD Caesar's pretext for the invasion was that "in almost all the wars with the Gauls succours had been furnished to our enemy from that country". This is plausible, although it may also have been a cover for investigating Britain's mineral resources and economic potential: afterwards, Cicero refers to the disappointing discovery that there was no gold or silver in the island; [22] and Suetonius reports that Caesar was said to have gone to Britain in search of pearls.

A second invasion was planned in the winter of 55—54 for the summer of 54 BC. Cicero wrote letters to his friend Gaius Trebatius Testa and his brother Quintus , both of whom were serving in Caesar's army, expressing his excitement at the prospect. He urged Trebatius to capture him a war chariot, and asked Quintus to write him a description of the island. Trebatius, as it turned out, did not go to Britain, but Quintus did, and wrote him several letters from there — as did Caesar himself. Determined not to make the same mistakes as the previous year, Caesar gathered a larger force than on his previous expedition with five legions as opposed to two, plus two thousand cavalry, carried in ships which he designed, with experience of Venetic shipbuilding technology so as to be more suitable for a beach landing than those used in 55 BC, being broader and lower for easier beaching.

This time he named Portus Itius as the departure point. Labienus was left at Portus Itius to oversee regular food transports from there to the British beachhead. The military ships were joined by a flotilla of trading ships captained by Romans and provincials from across the empire, and local Gauls, hoping to cash in on the trading opportunities. It seems more likely that the figure Caesar quotes for the fleet ships include these traders and the troop-transports, rather than the troop-transports alone.

Caesar landed at the place he had identified as the best landing-place the previous year. The Britons did not oppose the landing, apparently, as Caesar states, intimidated by the size of the fleet, but equally this may have been a strategic ploy to give them time to gather their forces, or may reflect their lack of concern. The Britons attacked but were repulsed, and attempted to regroup at a fortified place in the forests, possibly the hillfort at Bigbury Wood, Kent , [26] but were again defeated and scattered.

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As it was late in the day and Caesar was unsure of the territory, he called off the pursuit and made camp. However, the next morning, as he prepared to advance further, Caesar received word from Atrius that, once again, his ships at anchor had been dashed against each other in a storm and suffered considerable damage. About forty, he says, were lost. The Romans were unused to Atlantic and Channel tides and storms, but nevertheless, considering the damage he had sustained the previous year, this was poor planning on Caesar's part.

However, Caesar may have exaggerated the number of ships wrecked to magnify his own achievement in rescuing the situation. His men worked day and night for approximately ten days, beaching and repairing the ships, and building a fortified camp around them. Word was sent to Labienus to send more ships. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book.

Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Dover Three by Joyce Porter. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published August 1st by Countryman Press first published More Details Original Title.

Julius Caesar's invasions of Britain

Inspector Dover 3. Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Dover Three , please sign up. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Mar 31, dmayr rated it really liked it Shelves: poison-pen-letters , crime-detective-series , crime-in-vintage , books-i-really-enjoyed , chuckleworthy-books , quirky-characters , murder-in-the-village.

I really love mysteries with anonymous letters and malice in small villages. View 2 comments. Sep 16, Whistlers Mom rated it really liked it. The mid's was a bad time for Scotland Yard's public relations department. First a brutal, corrupt Inspector named Callender made headlines.


  1. Conservative Humour And Mad Men.
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But the low point came when Joyce Porter's fictional Chief Inspector Wilf Dover fat, lazy, uncouth, dishonest, and any other unflattering pejorative you can think of appeared on the scene. Porter was raised in a middle-class family in a village in the north o The mid's was a bad time for Scotland Yard's public relations department. Porter was raised in a middle-class family in a village in the north of England and won a scholarship to attend London University. In , she resigned from the RAF and told her horrified family that she was now a writer.

Dover Three: A Mystery

Indeed she was, with three books already written and a publisher signed up for all three. She eventually published ten popular mysteries and a book of short stories featuring the infamous Dover. Once again, old Wilf and his long-suffering partner Sergeant MacGregor are dispatched on a train to the wilds of northern England. Dover is less reluctant than usual to leave the comforts of London.

His wife's sister is in town for an extended visit.

Wilf-the-Bully has his wife under his thumb, but Sister is made of sterner stuff.