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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Get Talking Swedish in Ten Days: Enhanced Edition (Teach Yourself Audio eBooks) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Get Talking Swedish in Ten Days: Enhanced Edition (Teach Yourself Audio eBooks) book. Happy reading Get Talking Swedish in Ten Days: Enhanced Edition (Teach Yourself Audio eBooks) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Get Talking Swedish in Ten Days: Enhanced Edition (Teach Yourself Audio eBooks) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Get Talking Swedish in Ten Days: Enhanced Edition (Teach Yourself Audio eBooks) Pocket Guide.

Practise the most frequent words and expressions for: -being in an interview -continuing the interview -booking a room in a hotel -checking into a hotel -having a coffee -having a meal -taking a taxi -travelling by subway -going to the supermarket -buying clothes. You'll progress in your understanding of naturally-paced conversations, be able to personalize the language through interactive role-plays and perfect your pronunciation to sound more natural This absolute beginner Swedish course contains an MP3 CD. Also included is a handy phrasebook and a PDF coursebook for reading and writing practice.

Rely on Teach Yourself, trusted by language learners for over 75 years. Get A Copy. Audio CD , 12 pages. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. The form is a grasping hand moving from an open palm to the forehead. The iconic correspondence is between form and concrete source. The metaphorical correspondence is between concrete source and abstract target meaning.

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Because the concrete source is connected to two correspondences linguistics refer to metaphorical signs as "double mapped". Although sign languages have emerged naturally in deaf communities alongside or among spoken languages, they are unrelated to spoken languages and have different grammatical structures at their core.

In non-signing communities, home sign is not a full language, but closer to a pidgin. Home sign is amorphous and generally idiosyncratic to a particular family, where a deaf child does not have contact with other deaf children and is not educated in sign.

Such systems are not generally passed on from one generation to the next. Where they are passed on, creolization would be expected to occur, resulting in a full language. However, home sign may also be closer to full language in communities where the hearing population has a gestural mode of language; examples include various Australian Aboriginal sign languages and gestural systems across West Africa, such as Mofu-Gudur in Cameroon. A village sign language is a local indigenous language that typically arises over several generations in a relatively insular community with a high incidence of deafness, and is used both by the deaf and by a significant portion of the hearing community, who have deaf family and friends.

Deaf-community sign languages , on the other hand, arise where deaf people come together to form their own communities. These include school sign, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language , which develop in the student bodies of deaf schools which do not use sign as a language of instruction, as well as community languages such as Bamako Sign Language , which arise where generally uneducated deaf people congregate in urban centers for employment. At first, Deaf-community sign languages are not generally known by the hearing population, in many cases not even by close family members.

However, they may grow, in some cases becoming a language of instruction and receiving official recognition, as in the case of ASL. Both contrast with speech-taboo languages such as the various Aboriginal Australian sign languages , which are developed by the hearing community and only used secondarily by the deaf. It is doubtful whether most of these are languages in their own right, rather than manual codes of spoken languages, though a few such as Yolngu Sign Language are independent of any particular spoken language. Hearing people may also develop sign to communicate with speakers of other languages, as in Plains Indian Sign Language ; this was a contact signing system or pidgin that was evidently not used by deaf people in the Plains nations, though it presumably influenced home sign.

Contact occurs between sign languages, between sign and spoken languages contact sign , a kind of pidgin , and between sign languages and gestural systems used by the broader community. One author has speculated that Adamorobe Sign Language , a village sign language of Ghana, may be related to the "gestural trade jargon used in the markets throughout West Africa", in vocabulary and areal features including prosody and phonetics.

The only comprehensive classification along these lines going beyond a simple listing of languages dates back to In his classification, the author distinguishes between primary and auxiliary sign languages [65] as well as between single languages and names that are thought to refer to more than one language. Sign languages vary in word-order typology. Influence from the surrounding spoken languages is not improbable. Sign languages tend to be incorporating classifier languages, where a classifier handshape representing the object is incorporated into those transitive verbs which allow such modification.

For a similar group of intransitive verbs especially motion verbs , it is the subject which is incorporated. Only in a very few sign languages for instance Japanese Sign Language are agents ever incorporated. Brentari [69] [70] classifies sign languages as a whole group determined by the medium of communication visual instead of auditory as one group with the features monosyllabic and polymorphemic. That means, that one syllable i. Another aspect of typology that has been studied in sign languages is their systems for cardinal numbers.

Children who are exposed to a sign language from birth will acquire it, just as hearing children acquire their native spoken language. The Critical Period hypothesis suggests that language, spoken or signed, is more easily acquired as a child at a young age versus an adult because of the plasticity of the child's brain. In a study done at the University of McGill, they found that American Sign Language users who acquired the language natively from birth performed better when asked to copy videos of ASL sentences than ASL users who acquired the language later in life. They also found that there are differences in the grammatical morphology of ASL sentences between the two groups, all suggesting that there is a very important critical period in learning signed languages.

At a certain point, the non-manual features are dropped and the word is produced with no facial expression. After a few months, the non-manuals reappear, this time being used the way adult signers would use them. Sign languages do not have a traditional or formal written form. Many deaf people do not see a need to write their own language. So far, there is no consensus regarding the written form of sign language. Except for SignWriting, none are widely used.

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Maria Galea writes that SignWriting "is becoming widespread, uncontainable and untraceable. In the same way that works written in and about a well developed writing system such as the Latin script, the time has arrived where SW is so widespread, that it is impossible in the same way to list all works that have been produced using this writing system and that have been written about this writing system.

For a native signer, sign perception influences how the mind makes sense of their visual language experience.

For example, a handshape may vary based on the other signs made before or after it, but these variations are arranged in perceptual categories during its development. The mind detects handshape contrasts but groups similar handshapes together in one category. The mind ignores some of the similarities between different perceptual categories, at the same time preserving the visual information within each perceptual category of handshape variation. When Deaf people constitute a relatively small proportion of the general population, Deaf communities often develop that are distinct from the surrounding hearing community.

This sign language was developed in the Black Deaf community as a variant during the American era of segregation and racism, where young Black Deaf students were forced to attend separate schools than their white Deaf peers. On occasion, where the prevalence of deaf people is high enough, a deaf sign language has been taken up by an entire local community, forming what is sometimes called a "village sign language" [83] or "shared signing community".

Famous examples include:. In such communities deaf people are generally well integrated in the general community and not socially disadvantaged, so much so that it is difficult to speak of a separate "Deaf" community. Many Australian Aboriginal sign languages arose in a context of extensive speech taboos, such as during mourning and initiation rites. They are or were especially highly developed among the Warlpiri , Warumungu , Dieri , Kaytetye , Arrernte , and Warlmanpa , and are based on their respective spoken languages.

It was used by hearing people to communicate among tribes with different spoken languages , as well as by deaf people. There are especially users today among the Crow , Cheyenne , and Arapaho. Unlike Australian Aboriginal sign languages, it shares the spatial grammar of deaf sign languages. In the s, a Spanish expeditionary, Cabeza de Vaca , observed natives in the western part of modern-day Florida using sign language, [ citation needed ] and in the midth century Coronado mentioned that communication with the Tonkawa using signs was possible without a translator.

Signs may also be used by hearing people for manual communication in secret situations, such as hunting, in noisy environments, underwater, through windows or at a distance. Some sign languages have obtained some form of legal recognition, while others have no status at all. Sarah Batterbury has argued that sign languages should be recognized and supported not merely as an accommodation for the disabled, but as the communication medium of language communities. The Internet now allows deaf people to talk via a video link , either with a special-purpose videophone designed for use with sign language or with "off-the-shelf" video services designed for use with broadband and an ordinary computer webcam.

The special videophones that are designed for sign language communication may provide better quality than 'off-the-shelf' services and may use data compression methods specifically designed to maximize the intelligibility of sign languages. Some advanced equipment enables a person to remotely control the other person's video camera, in order to zoom in and out or to point the camera better to understand the signing. In order to facilitate communication between deaf and hearing people, sign language interpreters are often used.

Such activities involve considerable effort on the part of the interpreter, since sign languages are distinct natural languages with their own syntax , different from any spoken language. Sign language interpreters who can translate between signed and spoken languages that are not normally paired such as between LSE and English , are also available, albeit less frequently. With recent developments in artificial intelligence in computer science , some recent deep learning based machine translation algorithms have been developed which automatically translate short videos containing sign language sentences often simple sentence consists of only one clause directly to written language.

Interpreters may be physically present with both parties to the conversation but, since the technological advancements in the early s, provision of interpreters in remote locations has become available. In video remote interpreting VRI , the two clients a sign language user and a hearing person who wish to communicate with each other are in one location, and the interpreter is in another. The interpreter communicates with the sign language user via a video telecommunications link, and with the hearing person by an audio link.

VRI can be used for situations in which no on-site interpreters are available. However, VRI cannot be used for situations in which all parties are speaking via telephone alone. With video relay service VRS , the sign language user, the interpreter, and the hearing person are in three separate locations, thus allowing the two clients to talk to each other on the phone through the interpreter. Sign language is sometimes provided for television programmes. The signer usually appears in the bottom corner of the screen, with the programme being broadcast full size or slightly shrunk away from that corner.

Typically for press conferences such as those given by the Mayor of New York City , the signer appears to stage left or right of the public official to allow both the speaker and signer to be in frame at the same time.

Paddy Ladd initiated deaf programming on British television in the s and is credited with getting sign language on television and enabling deaf children to be educated in sign. In traditional analogue broadcasting, many programmes are repeated, often in the early hours of the morning, with the signer present rather than have them appear at the main broadcast time. Some emerging television technologies allow the viewer to turn the signer on and off in a similar manner to subtitles and closed captioning.

Legal requirements covering sign language on television vary from country to country. In the United Kingdom , the Broadcasting Act addressed the requirements for blind and deaf viewers, [90] but has since been replaced by the Communications Act As with any spoken language, sign languages are also vulnerable to becoming endangered. For example, a sign language used by a small community may be endangered and even abandoned as users shift to a sign language used by a larger community, as has happened with Hawai'i Sign Language , which is almost extinct except for a few elderly signers.

There are a number of communication systems that are similar in some respects to sign languages, while not having all the characteristics of a full sign language, particularly its grammatical structure. Many of these are either precursors to natural sign languages or are derived from them. When Deaf and Hearing people interact, signing systems may be developed that use signs drawn from a natural sign language but used according to the grammar of the spoken language. In particular, when people devise one-for-one sign-for-word correspondences between spoken words or even morphemes and signs that represent them, the system that results is a manual code for a spoken language, rather than a natural sign language.

Such systems may be invented in an attempt to help teach Deaf children the spoken language, and generally are not used outside an educational context. It has become popular for hearing parents to teach signs from ASL or some other sign language to young hearing children. Since the muscles in babies' hands grow and develop quicker than their mouths, signs can be a beneficial option for better communication.

This reduces the confusion between parents when trying to figure out what their child wants. When the child begins to speak, signing is usually abandoned, so the child does not progress to acquiring the grammar of the sign language. This is in contrast to hearing children who grow up with Deaf parents, who generally acquire the full sign language natively, the same as Deaf children of Deaf parents.

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Informal, rudimentary sign systems are sometimes developed within a single family. For instance, when hearing parents with no sign language skills have a deaf child, the child may develop a system of signs naturally, unless repressed by the parents. The term for these mini-languages is home sign sometimes "kitchen sign".

Home sign arises due to the absence of any other way to communicate. Within the span of a single lifetime and without the support or feedback of a community, the child naturally invents signs to help meet his or her communication needs, and may even develop a few grammatical rules for combining short sequences of signs.

Still, this kind of system is inadequate for the intellectual development of a child and it comes nowhere near meeting the standards linguists use to describe a complete language. No type of home sign is recognized as a full language. There have been several notable examples of scientists teaching signs to non-human primates in order to communicate with humans, [98] such as common chimpanzees , [99] [] [] [] [] [] [] gorillas [] and orangutans. One theory of the evolution of human language states that it developed first as a gestural system, which later shifted to speech.

Note: the articles for specific sign languages e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning. This article is about primary sign languages of the deaf. For signed versions of spoken languages, see manually coded language. Play media. Main article: History of sign language. See also: List of sign languages. French Sign Language family. Russian Sign Language cluster. Czech Sign Language cluster. Danish Sign Language family. Swedish Sign Language family. German Sign Language family. Arab sign-language family.

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Indo-Pakistani Sign Language. Chinese Sign Language. South African Sign Language. Isolated languages. No data. See also: Linguistic typology. The text uses a minimum of mathematics and where algebraic concepts are utilized there is sufficient explanation of the operation, so you may see the solution without actually performing the mathematical operations.

This book is student centered. It has been developed from course materials successfully used by the author in both a college setting and when presented as short course study classes by ISA. These materials have been successful because of the insistence on practicality and solicitation of student suggestions for improvements. Basic Electricity and Electronics for Control will enhance student success in any industrial or technical school setting where basic technician training is to take place.

This book is for anyone who works with boilers: utilities managers, power plant managers, control systems engineers, maintenance technicians or operators. It can also apply to any fuel-fired steam generator. Other books on boiler control have been published; however, they do not cover engineering details on control systems and the setup of the various control functions. Boiler Control Systems Engineering provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning, valve sizing, and transmitter specifications. It also covers different control schemes for furnace draft control.

NFPA 85 Code control system requirements are included, with illustrated examples of coal fired boilers, as well as information on the latest ISA series of standards. This second edition helps today's manufacturing companies face the challenges of a global marketplace where every part of the operation must become more efficient to enhance the bottom line.

Based on the results and conclusions of an applied research project of process manufacturing operations directed by the author, Bottom-Line Automation presents an overview of more than 30 years of industry trends, pointing out the strengths and pitfalls of each. The book also explains how manufacturers selected automation technology suppliers for state-of-the-art technological features in their systems rather than for the improvements the technology could offer the manufacturing operation. New topics in the book discuss the economic optimization of industrial assets.

Key findings include the fact that returns on automation investments were rarely, if ever, calculated. In fact, accounting systems were not even capable of measuring the performance offered by process automation systems. The author explains a strategy for measuring and improving automation system performance for the ultimate goal—the bottom line, and provides case studies of how such a strategy was implemented in three process manufacturing organizations.

The author brings more than 30 years of industry experience, education, and research together in this unprecedented work. This comprehensive review of calibration provides an excellent foundation for understanding principles and applications of the most frequently performed tasks of a technician. Topics addressed include terminology, bench vs. The book is designed as a structured learning tool with questions and answers in each chapter.

If you calibrate instruments or supervise someone that does, then you need this book. Providing a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in Collaborative Process Automation Systems CPAS , this book discusses topics such as engineering, security, enterprise connectivity, advanced process control, plant asset management, and operator efficiency.

Collaborating with other industry experts, the author covers the system architecture and infrastructure required for a CPAS, as well as important standards like OPC and the ISA series of standards. This in-depth reference focuses on the differences between a CPAS and traditional automation systems.

Implications on modern automation systems are outlined in theory and practice. This book is ideal for industrial engineers, as well as graduate students in control and automation. Selecting and implementing measurement and control devices for process automation applications is made easier with this best-selling reference. This clear and concise third edition provides quick access to ISA symbology, instrument and control valve selection criteria, and conversion guidelines, with new sections on maintenance, calibration, decision-making skills, and consulting.

Whether you are an experienced engineer, technician, salesperson, or project manager, or new to the field, you will better understand how to assess, compare, and select the various methods of measurement and control with this valuable and economical handbook in your library. Note: A Chinese translation of this book is also available in ePub or Mobi format. In this in-depth book, the authors address the concepts and terminology that are needed to work in the field of process control.

The material is presented in a straightforward manner that is independent of the control system manufacturer. It is assumed that the reader may not have worked in a process plant environment and may be unfamiliar with the field devices and control systems. Much of the material on the practical aspects of control design and process applications is based on the authors personal experience gained in working with process control systems. Thus, the book is written to act as a guide for engineers, managers, technicians, and others that are new to process control or experienced control engineers who are unfamiliar with multi-loop control techniques.

After the traditional single-loop and multi-loop techniques that are most often used in industry are covered, a brief introduction to advanced control techniques is provided. Whether the reader of this book is working as a process control engineer, working in a control group or working in an instrument department, the information will set the solid foundation needed to understand and work with existing control systems or to design new control applications. At various points in the chapters on process characterization and control design, the reader has an opportunity to apply what was learned using web-based workshops.

The only items required to access these workshops are a high-speed Internet connection and a web browser. Dynamic process simulations are built into the workshops to give the reader a realistic "hands-on" experience. Also, some information is provided on the web site that may be helpful in exploring basic and advanced control techniques. In addition to the online workshops, one chapter of the book is dedicated to techniques that may be used to create process simulations using tools that are commonly available within most distributed control systems. As control techniques are introduced, simple process examples are used to illustrate how these techniques are applied in industry.

The last chapter of the book, on process applications, contains several more complex examples from industry that illustrate how basic control techniques may be combined to meet a variety of application requirements. Includes insights on valve sizing, smart digital valve positioners, field-based architecture, network system technology, and control loop performance evaluation.

Hans Baumann, a holder of more than patents, and author of over a hundred publications in control valve technology, shares his expertise on designing control loops and selecting final control elements. The easy-to-read text provides shortcuts through complex sizing and noise calculation formulas including for liquids and cavitation, and gives practical advice on how to apply control valves for safety, reduced energy costs, loop stability, and easy maintenance. Note: This book is also available in Portuguese. The fourth edition of Foundation Fieldbus significantly expands the subject matter of the earlier editions of this popular book not only to help you stay current with this evolving technology but to also enhance your understanding of Fieldbus.

This edition provides in-depth coverage on Fieldbus communications and configuration, including calculation of macrocycle for Control-In-Field and in the Host system and how the different forms of communication on the H1 network work with each other to make Control-In-Field possible, including the use of these different methods to optimize network bandwidth. More comprehensive step-by-step procedures are discussed for each stage of a typical FF installation: Inspection and electric commissioning to ensure cable integrity, H1 Network commissioning, configuration, and communications tests in the segments and the spurs.

Several new photographs and explanations help emphasize the proper installation procedures so you can quickly identify and prevent potential problems when installing Fieldbus systems. The contents of the entire book are then put to use with a full sample network design.

The fourth edition explains Foundation Fieldbus in a convenient, easy-to-understand way, regardless of your level of experience; a novice wanting to learn what FF is all about or an experienced user looking for a few more tips and a single handy reference. ISA's all-time best-selling book comes with a fully indexed and searchable CD-ROM, making it easier than ever to teach yourself the complexities of process control theory. This classic has been praised for its clear presentation of the principles of process automation and its excellent overview of advanced control techniques.

More than just a reference book, the 15 self-study units provide a solid foundation in theory, as well as a discussion on computer-integrated manufacturing, statistical process control, and expert systems. Both theoretical and practical, this guide lets readers teach themselves the fundamental scientific principles that govern process control, particularly feedback control. This third edition emphasizes the conceptual framework for an application, offering a practical understanding of the theory, along with specific illustrations on how concepts are implemented, along with exercises and answers to further the reader's knowledge and understanding.

Appendices include a glossary of terms, graphic symbols for process measurement and control, and solutions to all exercises. America and the world face daunting questions about how we produce energy and how we use it. Conservation and improved energy efficiency can help in reducing energy requirements, but cannot halt the steady increase in energy consumption. Increasing world population and increasing energy appetites in emerging economies will create competition for energy resources for all nations. The possibilities for future energy production include fossil fuels oil, natural gas, coal, oil sands, and oil shale , biofuels, solar, wind, hydroenergy, geothermal and nuclear probably fission and possibly fusion.

Each of these sources has relative advantages and disadvantages. The problem is to produce enough sustainable energy while avoiding unacceptable environmental consequences, especially climate change. In order to evaluate the potential of the various energy options, citizens must understand the basic science that underlies each potential energy source and each energy use technology.

This knowledge permits assessment of what is possible and practical and, maybe more importantly, what is impossible or impractical. Fortunately most of the pertinent science is old, well established and, for the most part, quite simple. This science provides a framework into which one can insert real data and draw conclusions. Without such quantitative assessments, claims about capabilities of the various energy options must be viewed as unverified assumptions rather than hard facts.

This book presents the essential science in an easy-to-understand, yet comprehensive way. A big change in the ways that we produce and use energy is inevitable. Informed choices will help avoid waste, avoid unnecessary disruptions in our lives and avoid undesirable environmental effects. Ideal for users and designers of industrial control and monitoring systems, this book provides an easy-to-use, yet effective, method to configure, design, and validate human-machine interfaces HMIs.

This book also discusses the overall HMI design process; how that process relates to system design; detailed design methods, principles, and rules for individual displays and groups of displays; and integrating both software-based and hardwired HMIs. The primary audience intended for this book is designers and developers of HMIs; however, it will also assist project leaders and managers, engineers, and system integrators in ensuring that the systems they design will work synergistically with operators, thus leading to improved safety and productivity.

The book was also written with operators in mind. Having been in field service for a number of years, the author recognizes that operators and their supervisors optimize processes on a day-to-day basis. It is hoped this book will help them better understand how to enhance and optimize existing HMIs, and to express their operational requirements in a way that can be more easily understood by HMI designers. The use of cyber warfare as a prelude or substitute for conventional attacks has gone from conjecture to reality.

Contrary to popular opinion, there are effective, structured defenses against such aggression, if they are conscientiously and properly implemented and maintained. This text merges the fundamentals of information system security and the unique requirements of industrial automation and control systems and presents a clear and implementable formula to defend crucial elements, such as refineries, chemical plants, manufacturing operations, power plants and pipelines.

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This work develops a novel protection approach based on the merging of the best relevant and proven government and industry standards, resulting in a practical instrument that can be straightforwardly applied to secure our valuable resources. As automation becomes more thoroughly networked with advances in speed, connectivity, and security; this fifth edition of an ISA best seller is still designed to give technical professionals with little or no background in data communications the knowledge they need to succeed. Additionally, even those with nominal knowledge will find information to enhance troubleshooting and to understand both legacy systems and the more advanced systems now being installed throughout automated facilities.

Nowadays one only needs to read the newspaper headlines to appreciate the importance of Industrial Network Security. Almost daily an article comes out describing the threat to our critical infrastructure, from spies in our electrical grid to the looming threat of cyberwar. Whether we talk about Back to Industrial Network Security, Second Edition Nowadays one only needs to read the newspaper headlines to appreciate the importance of Industrial Network Security. This easy-to-read book introduces managers, engineers, technicians, and operators on how to keep our industrial networks secure amid rising threats from hackers, disgruntled employees, and even cyberterrorists.

This updated, expanded, and improved version provides hundreds of essential equations and tables to help you select, operate and maintain measurement devices. The 2nd Edition adds brand new chapters packed with tables and equations for Industrial Communications Buses, Safety, and Environmental Measurements. Tables and equations have been added to all the previous edition's chapters covering Units of Measurement, Pressure, Flow, Temperature, Level, Humidity, Electrical and Viscosity measurements.

Ideal for classroom use or self-study, this newly updated best-selling book has provided thousands of students, technicians, engineers, and sales people with a practical introduction to the principles, technologies, and strategies used in industrial process control. This fifth edition takes the same proven approach of previous editions. Each chapter begins with basic definitions and concepts that allow readers to become well versed in the principles necessary to understand the variables that affect process control systems.

New features in the fifth edition include improved coverage of process control computers and industrial networks and a new chapter on liquid density measurement. Sections were also added on human machine interface HMI , wireless devices and networks. The book includes solutions to exercises that make it more suitable for self-study. Are you having trouble demonstrating to management what a manufacturing execution system MES is and what it can do for you?

Or do you simply need to justify why your company even needs an MES? Perhaps you're the executive decision maker and just need some answers.