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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Caring and loving. Treats others equally. Strong sense of sympathy. Wary and sharp. Judges people through observations. No difficulties in studying. Loves to be with friends. Always broods about the past and the old friends. Waits for friends. Never looks for friends. Not aggressive unless provoked. Loves to be loved. Easily hurt but takes long to recover. Repost this in the next 5 mins and your reputation will boost someway in the next 12 days.

VERY revengeful. Hates not being trusted. BIG imagination. Decisive and haste but tends to regret. Attractive and affectionate to oneself. Strong mentality. Loves attention. Consoling, friendly and solves people's problems. Brave and fearless. Loving and caring. Suave and generous. Usually you have many friends. Enjoys to make love. Moving, motivates oneself and others. Loves to travel and explore. Sometimes sexy in a way that only their lover can understand. Loves those who love them.

Loves to takes things at the centre. Inner and physical beauty. Lies but doesn't pretend. Gets angry often. Treats friends importantly. Always making friends. Easily hurt but recovers easily. Does not care to control emotions. Extremely smart, but definitely the hottest AND sexiest of them all. Very passionate and dangerous. Wild at times. Knows how to have fun.

Sexy and mysterious. Everyone is drawn towards your inner and outer beauty and independent personality. Playful, but secretive. Very emotional and temperamental sometimes. Meets new people easily and very social in a group. Fearless and independent. Can hold their own. Stands out in a crowd. Essentially very smart. Usually, the greatest men are born in this month. If you ever begin a relationship with someone from this month, hold on to them because their one of a kind. Loyal and generous.

Competitive in everything. Active in games and interactions. Impatient and hasty. Influential in organizations. Fun to be with. Easy to talk to, though hard to understand. Thinks far with vision, yet complicated to know. Easily influenced by kindness. Polite and soft-spoken. Having lots of ideas. Active mind. Hesitating, tends to delay. Choosy and always wants the best.

Good debating skills. Knows how to make friends. Able to show character. Prone to getting colds. Hey guys, I am on so please support me I'll give you the like to it in a moment. But I'd think you'd like to know what the rewards will be. Only available. Old stories: If anyone sees a story they want to try out, help yourself.

I am going to still work on them however. Like everyone that's been doing lately, I am not going to accept anymore 'Guest Reviews' very few have ruined it for everyone else. Since those Guest can't be decent people, but I got you to read it so that's on you. Story Story Writer Forum Community. Arsao Tome hide bio. Poll: Okay, I have decided to start on some of my older stories.

But, I don't know which ones. So I need your help, which story should have the next new chapter? I'll write new chapters for the top 3. Vote Now! Samurai Girls! Sort: Category. Sister of Potter by Nuincalion Griffondor reviews James Potter has a younger sister, one who is a year younger than him. But on the night of James and Lily's deaths, she was ambushed and left in a coma. When she wakes up in the few months before the Tri Wizard Tournament, there's going to be hell to pay. Dumbledore Bashing, selective Weasly bashing.

What secrets will be revealed, will they learns something about themselves and their friend, and will Jaune get a girlfriend out of this, maybe even a few? You'll just have to find out. Rated M just in case. Spider-Network by RebukeX7 reviews Social media has had many uses. Finding old friends, keeping up with the news, finding love, and even It started with a "stupid" idea Peter had during a date night with MJ but little did he know it would change the multiverse forever.

A series of loosely connected one-shots that tell how an app saved existence. Canon relationships, rating may vary. Recreated Fire by Mai Kusakabe reviews Harry Potter has always dreamed about a dark haired boy, his thrilling life and adventures. When his Hogwarts letter arrives, he discovers a new, magical world, and that not everything is what it seems to be, all in the form of a mythical bird that insists on befriending him.

Uchiha Heiress Remix by JGResidentEvil reviews They say that you can't expect everything, so what would happen when a crazy secret is revealed? You just have to wait and see!


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Sakura and Civilian Council Bashing. Don't like, don't read. Fate: A time to live by welly reviews An attack on the third child forces Nerv to bring in a replacement pilot, however as Shinji goes through some dramatic changes, he begins to fall for the new girl Mari. With danger threatening and a mysterious ally in the shadows, Shinji will be confronted with the biggest dilemma of his life.

Just how far are you willing to go, to protect the ones you love? Shinji OOC. Path of the King by Neoalfa reviews "With swords that aren't yours, with skills that aren't yours, for dreams that aren't yours. Your entire existence is a lie! Midoryia's Sexual Adventures by Herolover27 reviews Midoriya is often seen as just plain and a little bit cute. But in bed, he's a monster, and soon every girl in the franchise would know it. Sealkeeper: He Who Binds by Eyazahrid reviews His sister may have been given the Kyuubi, but armed with Namikaze Minato's greatest sealing masterpiece, Uzumaki Naruto will carve his way through the shinobi world- one body at a time.

Vampi, Spidey, and Sonja by Musikman50 reviews Spidey has to live with and team up with two sexy and deadly women to stop dark forces from destroying everything. The Roar of Kyoto's Wizarding Lion Discontinued by SlashFan reviews When the Goblet of Fire spits out two names for the Hogwarts Champion at the same time, Dumbledore is beyond stunned, because one of those names is of an underage student, and the other is of a person he thought was dead long ago. No Chance for Fate by Tribun reviews Ranma's fate is written in stone.

Actually not. And in the wake of a guardian finally freeing herself from her chains, fate loses its hold on Ranma. Anything Goes Game Changer by Vimesenthusiast reviews Using a sensor technique Ranma finds Miya, recently married woman who has more ki than anyone he has ever seen. After a Ranma style meeting, the two become sparring partners in return for Ranma's help in repairing Izumo house. Poseidon is a god. That makes their son one powerful SOB. Zeus' Master Bolt suddenly grows legs and walks off, and now a bunch of girls in silver are asking Anteiku where Perseus Jackson is Summoner of the League by KyuubiGoku reviews All it takes is one choice.

All it takes is one chance. When others want to give up. When others want to surrender there is just one thing that can turn everything around. All it takes it one thought to be put into action. All it takes is one person to be unique. All it takes is one. Short Story Drabbles by sakurademonalchemist reviews A series of one-shots or random ideas I'm not sure how will go over with the fans.

Any idea that randomly pops in my head will likely be posted unless I have more than four chapters. This will mostly be for Harry Potter and HP crossovers. Will also include older works. They're tired of always being expected to forgive others, no matter what. They're tired of always being the one who saves the day when the people they save aren't worth it.

Naruto, Twilight, and Sunset now travel to other worlds looking for a place to call home. Neither a Bird nor a Plane, it's Deku! A different tale of Ash Ketchum! Rated M to be safe! Pokemon who were abandon by their trainers, are being given to Ash ketchum, a 14 year old who is just starting his pokemon journey! Can he get them to trust him and become close friends to another on his quest? Dumbledore Gets Ripped a New One by sheltie reviews This will have witches and wizards of my choosing venting at Dumbledore for whatever dumb decision the old wizard has made concerning Harry.

Like in HBG I will only have brainy girls in this, but I will be adding guys in a non-romantic fashion. So no Ginny at all. Only warning in these are for language being used. So you've been warned ahead of time on that. Snippets and Fix-its by Elunas reviews Random thoughts, ideas born of nothing, or gathered from Inspiration.

Everything is AU, obviously, and liberties are heavily taken most of the time. But a Portkey misshap merely sent him through the cracks of reality. Now, as Voldemort gathers his forces, and the Ministry sticks its head in the sand, Harry Potter returns from a future in another world Everyday Life with a Futa by snakebit reviews In a different version of the story Miia and the others are placed in the care of Desirae Hanafuda, a Japanese girl.

Only she's not just a girl she's a Futanari. Now Desirae has to deal with the unique needs of her new roommates and the struggles of managing her own little dream Monster Girl Harem. Forged in Hellfire: Lost Soul Reborn by RainthelingeringSentiment reviews Uzumaki Naruto sacrificed his life to protect the precious person but instead of going to the afterlife, Naruto finds himself face to face with the remains of a soul that was locked away deep within his own soul. A soul filled with fury and vengeance of a family and clan that was taken from him.

How will this chance meeting change Naruto and will it be for better? Arkos Primary Fic. Cinder never attacks Beacon. The group deals with problems as they arise and grow into the Huntsmen and Huntresses they are destined to become. From now on if I am not planning on focusing on a story, then it will be posted in one of my various Anthologies, or my One Shot Catalog.

For twelve years, Danzo has kept them hidden but now they've escaped. A family reunited, they will have their revenge, and help their son become the legend he was destined to be. Starts up after the Wave ARC. Cambion by Quatermass reviews Inspired by, but not an answer to, whitetigerwolf's 'Hogwarts Pieces' challenge!

Disowned by James Potter for being illegitimate, Harry was raised by the Tonks family, but he often wondered who his true father was. Hermione's got the answer, and it may lead him into a marriage with Rias Gremory, and a fight with his true father, Riser Phenex The Wizard World is about to find out they are even more far behind than they ever imagined.

For Harry Potter will be the summer vacation and adventure of a lifetime. But with the apparition of the metahumans the criminality began to flourish everywhere. The so-called superheroes have risen to stand against them, but why will the villains fear them when the worst they can get is a nice and warm place in jail? One of Gotham's delinquents is about to change that. After going through hell a true vigilante is born. Each girl is infatuated with the teen and they will do whatever it takes to have him.

Watch as Ochako, Itsuka, Momo, Toru, Tsuyu and the other girls dote on their little brother through the series of one-shots and short chapters to show how much appreciative and loving they are of their cinnamon roll. Book of Arkos by Izlawake reviews A collection of Arkos one shots, from romance, fluff, smut, adventures, angst, headcanons, AUs, and so on. For the Arkos fans. What if Danny decided to not only protect the Human realm but the Ghost realm as well? What decisions will he make as King? Will he be satisfied, or will he conquer?

On the third anniversary of his death, the team is given chance to save him by going back in time to warn their younger selves. Full summary inside! T for language and violence. Dis Lexics vault of Secrets by Dis Lexic reviews Ideas, plot bunnys that won't let go, possible future stories. Cover by Elandil. To erase the damage caused by Salem and the mistakes of Ozpin? But to do so, you must face many of our trials, earn our gifts and end this bloodshed once and for all. So, Commands the Gods of Remnant! The Azure Flame by dicknouget reviews Betrayed by his friends and disowned by his family due his transcripts being revealed, Jaune has been thrown into a deep depression.

When an old friend comes along to train him, Jaune's will to live and to fight become stronger than ever. Silver by Imyoshi reviews Forced to admit that Crocea Mors didn't feel right in his hands—no matter how he held it—Jaune Arc struggled to overcome this obstacle through the insane idea that Aura could become more than just the armor that protected him. Barriers broke as he pushed past the limits of what Aura was capable of, creating and forging his very own weapons from the manifestation of his soul.

Ren, Nora V. With him left to fix the Realm of Renmant he must do a few things before attending to the matter at hand. Change Of Fate by kiki56 reviews Harry potter has been orphaned, and the only person that's even close to being able to take care of him is a certain red headed princess from sparks. Harry is going to be living in a magical world, and he's going to get the life he should have gotten. Each girl is infatuated with the teen and they will do whatever it takes to have him or else. Watch as the women sporting their extra appendage dote on their little brother through the series of one-shots and short chapters to show how much appreciative and loving they are of their cinnamon roll.

My Hero's Dragon Maid by Shadow Joestar reviews Izuku has took his first step on becoming the greatest hero in the world after completing his training with All Might and inherited his Quirk: One for All, and then suddenly a dragon girl shows up out of nowhere says she wants to become Izuku's maid after saving her in the forest. Now Izuku will have to deal with dragons showing up in his life. Female Dragons. Watch as Naruto is reborn into something more than just a human because his dragon blood has awakened.

With new allies and new enemies Naruto will do his best to gain the title of king of monsters and how will he rule over them? How far can Naruto go to gain something only a few have ever had in their hands before? Izuku and Katsuki, along with their moms, are going on an unexpected vacation trip overseas, but then they suddenly find themselves on a strange island inhabited by only women and girls as they are also fierce trained warriors known as Amazons.

Fate has brought these boys here to fulfill a destiny to become the heroes to save the world. A Screaming Eagle at Beacon by JC of the Corn reviews Jaune is displaced through a dust accident, and sent to the th Infantry regiment of the st airborne to fight in Europe. How will he get back? And how will he adjust back to the life he had before? Experiment fic, first chapter sucks. Slight Band of brothers xover. Naruto - Aura of an Alpha by Red-Eyes Pendulum Dragon reviews Being dumped into the forest of death, Naruto stumbles upon a den of a special type of wolf. He will become the leader of the pack and have his morals twisted into that of an Alpha.

Better summary inside. What Is Best In Life? Starts with Canon Pairings but that changes very quickly. Formerly "Harry Potter's Golden Rule" The characters actions have changed the plot to the point that the original title didn't fit the story I was telling. Jaune's Wrath! It allows him to pull three souls from the afterlife into his body and allows him to gain their abilities, experience, memories, and powers.

These three lucky souls are named Asura, Yasha, and Deus. From the game: Asura's Wrath. Lives were left damaged and now Harry is sent back to make a better future. Tonks, Narcissa M. Phoenix of the Web by HandAssassinSpider-man reviews The Phoenix Force was supposed to bond with Hope when it returned to Earth but a third party thought differently and intervened, greatly altering events to come. Now Peter finds himself imbued with the power of the Phoenix and has no idea what to do now.

Does he give into the dark urges it brings out or does he try to use this great power responsibly? Time will tell But when he was told by All Might himself that he couldn't be a Hero, his dreams are slowly crushed until he was offered the chance by All-Might. But what if Izuku had a Quirk, one that would allow him to endure the hardships of life and become the greatest hero ever. Unbeknownst to him, he is the son of Aquaman, King of Atlantis.

Inspired by Nimbus Llewelyn's Child of the Storm. Features a blonde haired Harry. What if All Might adopted a young girl named Medaka after his epic battle against All for One, she would play an important role in life alongside with her father's successor Izuku Midoriya as they walk the path of heroes together and becoming closer to each other than they realizes with some other girls too.

Different Medaka, but the same. Devil Warrior: Shinji Marbas by redwarrioroflight reviews Three years after he averted Third Impact, Shinji Ikari is finally given his true second chance at life. Walking the path of devildom as the new leader of the Marbas Clan, watch as he brings back his clan's honor and shows the Underworld why you don't mess with a Marbas. Drunken Marriage of Triple Red-Hot-Grimm by Shadow Joestar reviews Jaune and Pyrrha were out enjoying themselves with their friends one night at a club, until they wake together in bed with two other women and one of them is like a sexy human Grimm, they also found themselves to be married together of the three wives with one husband.

Jaune's life has been turned upside-down and worry of what will happen next. In a world where they are the lowest of the foodchain, it doesn't mean they can't kickass. I don't need a second one. Kizuna nodded. That's enough for me. Fate wants them to make things right. But will they keep everything the same or change things for the better?

Aspect of the Wolf by Lo'Gosh reviews Harry's summer isn't going well. Voldemort has returned and he is being shut out and abandoned by all he knows. Unsure of his path, he discovers an elven ranger who journeys with him as they return to Azeroth. He will create a legend, and become the greatest champion of Azeroth. He will forge a legend and all who stand against him will fear the Wolf. Proper Lady High School by Darth Ceberous reviews Proper Lady High School is a school with a all futa faculty who has a tendency to use there students as stress relief. Fighting Smart by Jiu-jitsu dude reviews Winter: You want to be a player and not a piece?

Start thinking like one. Being mean isn't enough, you have to use your head. You need to fight smart. What if Kallen and Lelouch both became Zero together and C. Even demons have an angel in their life. The Godfist of Remnant by smilingsamurai reviews Jaune Arc was never seen as a fighter by his family. And so, they never instructed him. However, his life changes when he meets a mysterious man with seven bullet-shaped scars on his chest, who trains him in the ways of the martial arts. After four years of his tutelage, Jaune comes to Beacon, wielding powers and techniques unlike any Huntsman.

The coming storm by scarface reviews The age of Pirates has long since ended. Now is the age of Ninjas, a time of constant greed and betrayal. But now, a new power is rising. And it will consume all in its path. Naruto x Large Harem. Some Konoha bashing. You were fairly warned. Drunken Marriage of Arc-Aoi by Shadow Joestar reviews After the Fall of Beacon, Jaune went through a deep depression for three weeks after his beloved Pyrrha died in battle there, but he wasn't alone. A girl named Kimi Aoi who too was very close to Pyrrha, was with him for comfort and helping him feel better then they woke up finding each other in bed and married of being drunk as this marriage couple will face danger together.

But not his world but a whole new world where devils, angels, youkai and gods lives in. What will Naruto do when a Shinto goddess ask him to save their world? Now watch as the Maelstrom rages prevail evil. What kind of challenge will he face in this new world. Maelstrom goes Wild by PeezyNguyen23 reviews Being head of the most successful Corporation in a very young age, Naruto Seung Uzumaki wants to live a normal life fighting in martial arts tournament and forging bonds.

He got his wish when he got a invitation to Wild High, will Naruto adjust to a school full of girls. What happen when he reunite with his childhood friend, will he keep his promise to her? Naruto knows this after meeting a spirit who had been sealed away for centuries.

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Now attending Kuoh Academy, his eyes are opened to a world full of Devils, Fallen Angels, and other supernatural beings. Watch as he fights with a power never used by a Devil before. Dumbledore isn't doing a good enough job, so she calls on the only man she feels can get it right. Prophecies fear him, demons flee from him and Slayers love him. Enter Xander Harris. A rewrite of Potter's Protector, by mjimeyg. OP Harry!

Bashing but hopefully not stupidly so. On hiatus. He decided to go on an adventure to conquer Hell itself and seven sexy she-demons while battling against forces from both Hell and Heaven, and other supernaturals. Moroboshi Ataru is not real. The aftereffects of that decision rebound across the world and galaxy beyond. Much to Tomobiki's despair, the Trickster of the Show is bringing sisters and friends to the scene!

Naruto: The Devilish Sage by Plasma Assassin reviews Born with all of his love and attention taken from him by his twin sister Rias Gremory he shows everyone just what happens when you give a Devil and his peerage far too much freedom. I absolutely suck at summaries, pls read before skipping over. Naruto the Male Valkyrie by brown phantom reviews Naruto inherited a strange otherworldly power from Kushina and it's not just the Kyuubi.

Once it's revealed, the realms will never be the same again. Rating may change later. But every legend is based on some truth, something that once was. One such tale, the tale of Four Horseman, is one that few know today. But all of Remnant shall soon learn that not only did the Horsemen once roam their world but that they do so once again.

Here Kitty Kitty by yugiohfan reviews What if a young ichigo found a lost kitten a year before his mother's death, and what if that same cat disappeared only to reappear years later in a familiar event. Don't tell by blue-eye-white-wing reviews Ron was caught by the worst possible person at the worst possible time. Can he survive whats to come? Ron harem. This is basically nothing but sex, lemons, and limes.

At age 18, after having his heart broken by his girlfriend Annabeth and spending three months doing nothing but remain within his misery, Percy James Jackson is forced by a sacred law to have sex with every Greek goddess. Literally all. I can't stress that enough. After his rebirth he finally learns what a true shinobi is. Naruto Naruxharem. This is the rewrite, trust me this will be much better than the first. Proud Parents by robst reviews Despite how impossible it seemed, Harry was sure his dad had saved the three of them from the dementors.

After Hermione's time turner took them both back three hours, he was desperate to discover if who he'd seen casting that patronus was truly his dad. Harry certainly wasn't disappointed when his mum turned up instead, and changed the entire course of his life. However, in his blood legacy, is something powerful. The power to form a contract with the most powerful of Remnant. Watch as Jaune Ryu-Long rises from banishment and show the world his power and legacy. A web of Devils, Fallen Angels and everything in between by HandAssassinSpider-man reviews Peter Parker the Great Grandson to the most powerful Devil to have ever lived has been selected to wed the Heir to the Gremory Clan, Rias Gremory and is transferred from the Underworld to Earth to attend the same school as Rias in both his clan and Rias's hope to grow closer.

Too bad no one mentioned the crazed Fallen Angles, Goblins, Priests and women that all want a piece of him. The powers that be decides to have 7 reincarnated girls and woman from other universes protect Harry Potter. And a couple of the ones chosen might end up destroying Hogwarts But at least Harry is well protected Spider-Man must marry twelve women in order to save the multiverse. They can return, typically in a time of crisis, if they are deemed worthy. This is about two such souls.

Separated by houses. Will they find each other again? Will they even know? One Gryffindor, one Slytherin. Two months after the events at the warehouse, the Cage family is trying to pick up the shambled pieces of their lives. Not the easiest feat when each member has to contend with and conquer their own demons. Rated for language and content. But despite having gained great power in exchange for a bargain with the hidden Fae, she is still unable to kill the immortal Dark Lord.

His general colouring, too, must be copied from Nature: The sky must be clouded or serene, according to the climate, and the general tints must be those which prevail in a natural landscape. So far the painter is bound down by the rules of his art, to a precise imitation of the features of Nature; but it is not required that he should descend to copy all her more minute features, or represent with absolute exactness the very herbs, flowers, and trees, with which the spot is decorated.

It is true, that this license is confined in either case within legitimate bounds. The painter must introduce no ornament inconsistent with the climate or country of his landscape; he must not plant cypress trees upon Inch-Merrin, or Scottish firs among the ruins of Persepolis; and the author lies under a corresponding restraint.

However far he may venture in a more full detail of passions and feelings, than is to be found in the ancient compositions which he imitates, he must introduce nothing inconsistent with the manners of the age; his knights, squires, grooms, and yeomen, may be more fully drawn than in the hard, dry delineations of an ancient illuminated manuscript, but the character and costume of the age must remain inviolate; they must be the same figures, drawn by a better pencil, or, to speak more modestly, executed in an age when the principles of art were better understood.

His language must not be exclusively obsolete and unintelligible; but he should admit, if possible, no word or turn of phraseology betraying an origin directly modern. It is one thing to make use of the language and sentiments which are common to ourselves and our forefathers, and it is another to invest them with the sentiments and dialect exclusively proper to their descendants.

This, my dear friend, I have found the most difficult part of my task; and, to speak frankly, I hardly expect to satisfy your less partial judgment, and more extensive knowledge of such subjects, since I have hardly been able to please my own. I am conscious that I shall be found still more faulty in the tone of keeping and costume, by those who may be disposed rigidly to examine my Tale, with reference to the manners of the exact period in which my actors flourished: It may be, that I have introduced little which can positively be termed modern; but, on the other hand, it is extremely probable that I may have confused the manners of two or three centuries, and introduced, during the reign of Richard the First, circumstances appropriated to a period either considerably earlier, or a good deal later than that era.

It is my comfort, that errors of this kind will escape the general class of readers, and that I may share in the ill-deserved applause of those architects, who, in their modern Gothic, do not hesitate to introduce, without rule or method, ornaments proper to different styles and to different periods of the art.

Those whose extensive researches have given them the means of judging my backslidings with more severity, will probably be lenient in proportion to their knowledge of the difficulty of my task. My honest and neglected friend, Ingulphus, has furnished me with many a valuable hint; but the light afforded by the Monk of Croydon, and Geoffrey de Vinsauff, is dimmed by such a conglomeration of uninteresting and unintelligible matter, that we gladly fly for relief to the delightful pages of the gallant Froissart, although he flourished at a period so much more remote from the date of my history.

If, therefore, my dear friend, you have generosity enough to pardon the presumptuous attempt, to frame for myself a minstrel coronet, partly out of the pearls of pure antiquity, and partly from the Bristol stones and paste, with which I have endeavoured to imitate them, I am convinced your opinion of the difficulty of the task will reconcile you to the imperfect manner of its execution. Of my materials I have but little to say. They may be chiefly found in the singular Anglo-Norman MS.

Adieu, my dear friend; I have said enough to explain, if not to vindicate, the attempt which I have made, and which, in spite of your doubts, and my own incapacity, I am still willing to believe has not been altogether made in vain. I hope you are now well recovered from your spring fit of the gout, and shall be happy if the advice of your learned physician should recommend a tour to these parts.

Several curiosities have been lately dug up near the wall, as well as at the ancient station of Habitancum. Talking of the latter, I suppose you have long since heard the news, that a sulky churlish boor has destroyed the ancient statue, or rather bas-relief, popularly called Robin of Redesdale. Reverend as you write yourself, be revengeful for once, and pray with me that he may be visited with such a fit of the stone, as if he had all the fragments of poor Robin in that region of his viscera where the disease holds its seat.

But there is no end to lamentation, when we betake ourselves to such subjects. My respectful compliments attend Miss Dryasdust; I endeavoured to match the spectacles agreeable to her commission, during my late journey to London, and hope she has received them safe, and found them satisfactory. I send this by the blind carrier, so that probably it may be some time upon its journey. The last news which I hear from Edinburgh is, that the gentleman who fills the situation of Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 7 is the best amateur draftsman in that kingdom, and that much is expected from his skill and zeal in delineating those specimens of national antiquity, which are either mouldering under the slow touch of time, or swept away by modern taste, with the same besom of destruction which John Knox used at the Reformation.

Believe me to be,. See General Preface to the present edition, Vol I. I mention this circumstance, that a gentleman attached to the cause of learning, who now holds the principal control of the post-office, may consider whether by some mitigation of the present enormous rates, some favour might not be shown to the correspondents of the principal Literary and Antiquarian Societies. I understand, indeed, that this experiment was once tried, but that the mail-coach having broke down under the weight of packages addressed to members of the Society of Antiquaries, it was relinquished as a hazardous experiment.

Surely, however it would be possible to build these vehicles in a form more substantial, stronger in the perch, and broader in the wheels, so as to support the weight of Antiquarian learning; when, if they should be found to travel more slowly, they would be not the less agreeable to quiet travellers like myself. In that pleasant district of merry England which is watered by the river Don, there extended in ancient times a large forest, covering the greater part of the beautiful hills and valleys which lie between Sheffield and the pleasant town of Doncaster.

The remains of this extensive wood are still to be seen at the noble seats of Wentworth, of Warncliffe Park, and around Rotherham. Here haunted of yore the fabulous Dragon of Wantley; here were fought many of the most desperate battles during the Civil Wars of the Roses; and here also flourished in ancient times those bands of gallant outlaws, whose deeds have been rendered so popular in English song. Such being our chief scene, the date of our story refers to a period towards the end of the reign of Richard I.

The nobles, whose power had become exorbitant during the reign of Stephen, and whom the prudence of Henry the Second had scarce reduced to some degree of subjection to the crown, had now resumed their ancient license in its utmost extent; despising the feeble interference of the English Council of State, fortifying their castles, increasing the number of their dependants, reducing all around them to a state of vassalage, and striving by every means in their power, to place themselves each at the head of such forces as might enable him to make a figure in the national convulsions which appeared to be impending.

The situation of the inferior gentry, or Franklins, as they were called, who, by the law and spirit of the English constitution, were entitled to hold themselves independent of feudal tyranny, became now unusually precarious. If, as was most generally the case, they placed themselves under the protection of any of the petty kings in their vicinity, accepted of feudal offices in his household, or bound themselves by mutual treaties of alliance and protection, to support him in his enterprises, they might indeed purchase temporary repose; but it must be with the sacrifice of that independence which was so dear to every English bosom, and at the certain hazard of being involved as a party in whatever rash expedition the ambition of their protector might lead him to undertake.

On the other hand, such and so multiplied were the means of vexation and oppression possessed by the great Barons, that they never wanted the pretext, and seldom the will, to harass and pursue, even to the very edge of destruction, any of their less powerful neighbours, who attempted to separate themselves from their authority, and to trust for their protection, during the dangers of the times, to their own inoffensive conduct, and to the laws of the land.

A circumstance which greatly tended to enhance the tyranny of the nobility, and the sufferings of the inferior classes, arose from the consequences of the Conquest by Duke William of Normandy. Four generations had not sufficed to blend the hostile blood of the Normans and Anglo-Saxons, or to unite, by common language and mutual interests, two hostile races, one of which still felt the elation of triumph, while the other groaned under all the consequences of defeat. The power had been completely placed in the hands of the Norman nobility, by the event of the battle of Hastings, and it had been used, as our histories assure us, with no moderate hand.

The whole race of Saxon princes and nobles had been extirpated or disinherited, with few or no exceptions; nor were the numbers great who possessed land in the country of their fathers, even as proprietors of the second, or of yet inferior classes.

The royal policy had long been to weaken, by every means, legal or illegal, the strength of a part of the population which was justly considered as nourishing the most inveterate antipathy to their victor. All the monarchs of the Norman race had shown the most marked predilection for their Norman subjects; the laws of the chase, and many others equally unknown to the milder and more free spirit of the Saxon constitution, had been fixed upon the necks of the subjugated inhabitants, to add weight, as it were, to the feudal chains with which they were loaded.

At court, and in the castles of the great nobles, where the pomp and state of a court was emulated, Norman-French was the only language employed; in courts of law, the pleadings and judgments were delivered in the same tongue. In short, French was the language of honour, of chivalry, and even of justice, while the far more manly and expressive Anglo-Saxon was abandoned to the use of rustics and hinds, who knew no other. Still, however, the necessary intercourse between the lords of the soil, and those oppressed inferior beings by whom that soil was cultivated, occasioned the gradual formation of a dialect, compounded betwixt the French and the Anglo-Saxon, in which they could render themselves mutually intelligible to each other; and from this necessity arose by degrees the structure of our present English language, in which the speech of the victors and the vanquished have been so happily blended together; and which has since been so richly improved by importations from the classical languages, and from those spoken by the southern nations of Europe.

This state of things I have thought it necessary to premise for the information of the general reader, who might be apt to forget, that, although no great historical events, such as war or insurrection, mark the existence of the Anglo-Saxons as a separate people subsequent to the reign of William the Second; yet the great national distinctions betwixt them and their conquerors, the recollection of what they had formerly been, and to what they were now reduced, continued down to the reign of Edward the Third, to keep open the wounds which the Conquest had inflicted, and to maintain a line of separation betwixt the descendants of the victor Normans and the vanquished Saxons.

The sun was setting upon one of the rich grassy glades of that forest, which we have mentioned in the beginning of the chapter. Hundreds of broad-headed, short-stemmed, wide-branched oaks, which had witnessed perhaps the stately march of the Roman soldiery, flung their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of the most delicious green sward; in some places they were intermingled with beeches, hollies, and copsewood of various descriptions, so closely as totally to intercept the level beams of the sinking sun; in others they receded from each other, forming those long sweeping vistas, in the intricacy of which the eye delights to lose itself, while imagination considers them as the paths to yet wilder scenes of silvan solitude.

Here the red rays of the sun shot a broken and discoloured light, that partially hung upon the shattered boughs and mossy trunks of the trees, and there they illuminated in brilliant patches the portions of turf to which they made their way. A considerable open space, in the midst of this glade, seemed formerly to have been dedicated to the rites of Druidical superstition; for, on the summit of a hillock, so regular as to seem artificial, there still remained part of a circle of rough unhewn stones, of large dimensions.

Seven stood upright; the rest had been dislodged from their places, probably by the zeal of some convert to Christianity, and lay, some prostrate near their former site, and others on the side of the hill. One large stone only had found its way to the bottom, and in stopping the course of a small brook, which glided smoothly round the foot of the eminence, gave, by its opposition, a feeble voice of murmur to the placid and elsewhere silent streamlet.

The human figures which completed this landscape, were in number two, partaking, in their dress and appearance, of that wild and rustic character, which belonged to the woodlands of the West-Riding of Yorkshire at that early period. The eldest of these men had a stern, savage, and wild aspect. His garment was of the simplest form imaginable, being a close jacket with sleeves, composed of the tanned skin of some animal, on which the hair had been originally left, but which had been worn off in so many places, that it would have been difficult to distinguish from the patches that remained, to what creature the fur had belonged.

This primeval vestment reached from the throat to the knees, and served at once all the usual purposes of body-clothing; there was no wider opening at the collar, than was necessary to admit the passage of the head, from which it may be inferred, that it was put on by slipping it over the head and shoulders, in the manner of a modern shirt, or ancient hauberk. The man had no covering upon his head, which was only defended by his own thick hair, matted and twisted together, and scorched by the influence of the sun into a rusty dark-red colour, forming a contrast with the overgrown beard upon his cheeks, which was rather of a yellow or amber hue.

His jacket had been stained of a bright purple hue, upon which there had been some attempt to paint grotesque ornaments in different colours. To the jacket he added a short cloak, which scarcely reached half way down his thigh; it was of crimson cloth, though a good deal soiled, lined with bright yellow; and as he could transfer it from one shoulder to the other, or at his pleasure draw it all around him, its width, contrasted with its want of longitude, formed a fantastic piece of drapery.

He was provided also with a cap, having around it more than one bell, about the size of those attached to hawks, which jingled as he turned his head to one side or other; and as he seldom remained a minute in the same posture, the sound might be considered as incessant. Around the edge of this cap was a stiff bandeau of leather, cut at the top into open work, resembling a coronet, while a prolonged bag arose from within it, and fell down on one shoulder like an old-fashioned nightcap, or a jelly-bag, or the head-gear of a modern hussar.

It was to this part of the cap that the bells were attached; which circumstance, as well as the shape of his head-dress, and his own half-crazed, half-cunning expression of countenance, sufficiently pointed him out as belonging to the race of domestic clowns or jesters, maintained in the houses of the wealthy, to help away the tedium of those lingering hours which they were obliged to spend within doors. He bore, like his companion, a scrip, attached to his belt, but had neither horn nor knife, being probably considered as belonging to a class whom it is esteemed dangerous to intrust with edge-tools.

In place of these, he was equipped with a sword of lath, resembling that with which Harlequin operates his wonders upon the modern stage. The outward appearance of these two men formed scarce a stronger contrast than their look and demeanour. That of the serf, or bondsman, was sad and sullen; his aspect was bent on the ground with an appearance of deep dejection, which might be almost construed into apathy, had not the fire which occasionally sparkled in his red eye manifested that there slumbered, under the appearance of sullen despondency, a sense of oppression, and a disposition to resistance.

The looks of Wamba, on the other hand, indicated, as usual with his class, a sort of vacant curiosity, and fidgetty impatience of any posture of repose, together with the utmost self-satisfaction respecting his own situation, and the appearance which he made. The dialogue which they maintained between them, was carried on in Anglo-Saxon, which, as we said before, was universally spoken by the inferior classes, excepting the Norman soldiers, and the immediate personal dependants of the great feudal nobles.

But to give their conversation in the original would convey but little information to the modern reader, for whose benefit we beg to offer the following translation:. Here, Fangs! Mynheer Calf, too, becomes Monsieur de Veau in the like manner; he is Saxon when he requires tendance, and takes a Norman name when he becomes matter of enjoyment. The finest and the fattest is for their board; the loveliest is for their couch; the best and bravest supply their foreign masters with soldiers, and whiten distant lands with their bones, leaving few here who have either will or the power to protect the unfortunate Saxon.

One word to Reginald Front-de-Boeuf, or Philip de Malvoisin, that thou hast spoken treason against the Norman, — and thou art but a cast-away swineherd, — thou wouldst waver on one of these trees as a terror to all evil speakers against dignities.

Rafael Sabatini

Hark, how the thunder rumbles! Thou canst play the rational if thou wilt; credit me for once, and let us home ere the storm begins to rage, for the night will be fearful. Wamba seemed to feel the force of this appeal, and accompanied his companion, who began his journey after catching up a long quarter-staff which lay upon the grass beside him. This second Eumaeus strode hastily down the forest glade, driving before him, with the assistance of Fangs, the whole herd of his inharmonious charge.

A most sensible grievance of those aggrieved times were the Forest Laws. These oppressive enactments were the produce of the Norman Conquest, for the Saxon laws of the chase were mild and humane; while those of William, enthusiastically attached to the exercise and its rights, were to the last degree tyrannical. The formation of the New Forest, bears evidence to his passion for hunting, where he reduced many a happy village to the condition of that one commemorated by my friend, Mr William Stewart Rose:.

Such lawing also shall be done by the assize commonly used, and which is, that three claws shall be cut off without the ball of the right foot. The horsemen, therefore, soon overtook them on the road. Their numbers amounted to ten men, of whom the two who rode foremost seemed to be persons of considerable importance, and the others their attendants.

It was not difficult to ascertain the condition and character of one of these personages. He was obviously an ecclesiastic of high rank; his dress was that of a Cistercian Monk, but composed of materials much finer than those which the rule of that order admitted. His mantle and hood were of the best Flanders cloth, and fell in ample, and not ungraceful folds, around a handsome, though somewhat corpulent person.

His countenance bore as little the marks of self-denial, as his habit indicated contempt of worldly splendour. His features might have been called good, had there not lurked under the pent-house of his eye, that sly epicurean twinkle which indicates the cautious voluptuary. In other respects, his profession and situation had taught him a ready command over his countenance, which he could contract at pleasure into solemnity, although its natural expression was that of good-humoured social indulgence.

In defiance of conventual rules, and the edicts of popes and councils, the sleeves of this dignitary were lined and turned up with rich furs, his mantle secured at the throat with a golden clasp, and the whole dress proper to his order as much refined upon and ornamented, as that of a quaker beauty of the present day, who, while she retains the garb and costume of her sect continues to give to its simplicity, by the choice of materials and the mode of disposing them, a certain air of coquettish attraction, savouring but too much of the vanities of the world.

This worthy churchman rode upon a well-fed ambling mule, whose furniture was highly decorated, and whose bridle, according to the fashion of the day, was ornamented with silver bells. In his seat he had nothing of the awkwardness of the convent, but displayed the easy and habitual grace of a well-trained horseman.

Indeed, it seemed that so humble a conveyance as a mule, in however good case, and however well broken to a pleasant and accommodating amble, was only used by the gallant monk for travelling on the road. A lay brother, one of those who followed in the train, had, for his use on other occasions, one of the most handsome Spanish jennets ever bred at Andalusia, which merchants used at that time to import, with great trouble and risk, for the use of persons of wealth and distinction.

The saddle and housings of this superb palfrey were covered by a long foot-cloth, which reached nearly to the ground, and on which were richly embroidered, mitres, crosses, and other ecclesiastical emblems. The companion of the church dignitary was a man past forty, thin, strong, tall, and muscular; an athletic figure, which long fatigue and constant exercise seemed to have left none of the softer part of the human form, having reduced the whole to brawn, bones, and sinews, which had sustained a thousand toils, and were ready to dare a thousand more.

His countenance was therefore fully displayed, and its expression was calculated to impress a degree of awe, if not of fear, upon strangers. High features, naturally strong and powerfully expressive, had been burnt almost into Negro blackness by constant exposure to the tropical sun, and might, in their ordinary state, be said to slumber after the storm of passion had passed away; but the projection of the veins of the forehead, the readiness with which the upper lip and its thick black moustaches quivered upon the slightest emotion, plainly intimated that the tempest might be again and easily awakened.

His keen, piercing, dark eyes, told in every glance a history of difficulties subdued, and dangers dared, and seemed to challenge opposition to his wishes, for the pleasure of sweeping it from his road by a determined exertion of courage and of will; a deep scar on his brow gave additional sternness to his countenance, and a sinister expression to one of his eyes, which had been slightly injured on the same occasion, and of which the vision, though perfect, was in a slight and partial degree distorted. The upper dress of this personage resembled that of his companion in shape, being a long monastic mantle; but the colour, being scarlet, showed that he did not belong to any of the four regular orders of monks.

On the right shoulder of the mantle there was cut, in white cloth, a cross of a peculiar form. This upper robe concealed what at first view seemed rather inconsistent with its form, a shirt, namely, of linked mail, with sleeves and gloves of the same, curiously plaited and interwoven, as flexible to the body as those which are now wrought in the stocking-loom, out of less obdurate materials.

In his girdle he wore a long and double-edged dagger, which was the only offensive weapon about his person.

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He rode, not a mule, like his companion, but a strong hackney for the road, to save his gallant war-horse, which a squire led behind, fully accoutred for battle, with a chamfron or plaited head-piece upon his head, having a short spike projecting from the front. He also carried his small triangular shield, broad enough at the top to protect the breast, and from thence diminishing to a point. It was covered with a scarlet cloth, which prevented the device from being seen. These two squires were followed by two attendants, whose dark visages, white turbans, and the Oriental form of their garments, showed them to be natives of some distant Eastern country.

Silk and embroidery distinguished their dresses, and marked the wealth and importance of their master; forming, at the same time, a striking contrast with the martial simplicity of his own attire. They were armed with crooked sabres, having the hilt and baldric inlaid with gold, and matched with Turkish daggers of yet more costly workmanship. The steeds of these attendants were in appearance as foreign as their riders.

They were of Saracen origin, and consequently of Arabian descent; and their fine slender limbs, small fetlocks, thin manes, and easy springy motion, formed a marked contrast with the large-jointed heavy horsastic vows. Yet so loose were the ideas of the times respecting the conduct of the clergy, whether secular or regular, that the Prior Aymer maintained a fair character in the neighbourhood of his abbey.

His free and jovial temper, and the readiness with which he granted absolution from all ordinary delinquencies, rendered him a favourite among the nobility and principal gentry, to several of whom he was allied by birth, being of a distinguished Norman family.

The ladies, in particular, were not disposed to scan too nicely the morals of a man who was a professed admirer of their sex, and who possessed many means of dispelling the ennui which was too apt to intrude upon the halls and bowers of an ancient feudal castle. The Prior mingled in the sports of the field with more than due eagerness, and was allowed to possess the best-trained hawks, and the fleetest greyhounds in the North Riding; circumstances which strongly recommended him to the youthful gentry. With the old, he had another part to play, which, when needful, he could sustain with great decorum.

His knowledge of books, however superficial, was sufficient to impress upon their ignorance respect for his supposed learning; and the gravity of his deportment and language, with the high tone which he exerted in setting forth the authority of the church and of the priesthood, impressed them no less with an opinion of his sanctity.

Even the common people, the severest critics of the conduct of their betters, had commiseration with the follies of Prior Aymer. He was generous; and charity, as it is well known, covereth a multitude of sins, in another sense than that in which it is said to do so in Scripture. The revenues of the monastery, of which a large part was at his disposal, while they gave him the means of supplying his own very considerable expenses, afforded also those largesses which he bestowed among the peasantry, and with which he frequently relieved the distresses of the oppressed.

If Prior Aymer rode hard in the chase, or remained long at the banquet, — if Prior Aymer was seen, at the early peep of dawn, to enter the postern of the abbey, as he glided home from some rendezvous which had occupied the hours of darkness, men only shrugged up their shoulders, and reconciled themselves to his irregularities, by recollecting that the same were practised by many of his brethren who had no redeeming qualities whatsoever to atone for them. It is probable, too, that the language in which the benediction was conferred, and the information asked, sounded ungracious, though not probably unintelligible, in the ears of the Saxon peasants.

This he spoke with a tone of conscious importance, which formed a strong contrast to the modest terms which he thought it proper to employ. Gurth darted at him a savage and revengeful scowl, and with a fierce, yet hesitating motion, laid his hand on the haft of his knife; but the interference of Prior Aymer, who pushed his mule betwixt his companion and the swineherd, prevented the meditated violence.

This reverend brother has been all his life engaged in fighting among the Saracens for the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre; he is of the order of Knights Templars, whom you may have heard of; he is half a monk, half a soldier. The Abbot thanked his sage adviser; and the cavalcade, setting spurs to their horses, rode on as men do who wish to reach their inn before the bursting of a night-storm. I am not so bad a woodsman as to show the dog where the deer lies, if I have no mind he should chase him.

But, like good servants let us hear and see, and say nothing. We return to the riders, who had soon left the bondsmen far behind them, and who maintained the following conversation in the Norman-French language, usually employed by the superior classes, with the exception of the few who were still inclined to boast their Saxon descent. Marry, sir, you must be aware of the poison and the dagger; for they use either with free will when you give them the slightest opportunity.

Remember what I told you: this wealthy franklin is proud, fierce, jealous, and irritable, a withstander of the nobility, and even of his neighbors, Reginald Front-de-Boeuf and Philip Malvoisin, who are no babies to strive with. He stands up sternly for the privileges of his race, and is so proud of his uninterrupted descend from Hereward, a renowned champion of the Heptarchy, that he is universally called Cedric the Saxon; and makes a boast of his belonging to a people from whom many others endeaver to hide their descent, lest they should encounter a share of the vae victis, or severities imposed upon the vanquished.

Her guardian, however, he is, self-constituted as I believe; but his ward is as dear to him as if she were his own child. Ran it not so? Yet, brother, take my advice, and file your tongue to a little more courtesy than your habits of predominating over infidel captives and Eastern bondsmen have accustomed you. Cedric the Saxon, if offended, — and he is noway slack in taking offence, — is a man who, without respect to your knighthood, my high office, or the sanctity of either, would clear his house of us, and send us to lodge with the larks, though the hour were midnight.

And be careful how you look on Rowena, whom he cherishes with the most jealous care; an he take the least alarm in that quarter we are but lost men. It is said he banished his only son from his family for lifting his eyes in the way of affection towards this beauty, who may be worshipped, it seems, at a distance, but is not to be approached with other thoughts than such as we bring to the shrine of the Blessed Virgin.

Doubt not that we shall be strong enough to make good our quarters. He bid us turn, I think to the left. And he caused one of his attendants to mount his own led horse, and give that upon which he had hitherto ridden to the stranger, who was to serve for a guide. Their conductor pursued an opposite road from that which Wamba had recommended, for the purpose of misleading them. This was a joyful intimation to Aymer, whose nerves were none of the strongest, and who had suffered such agitation and alarm in the course of passing through the dangerous bogs, that he had not yet had the curiosity to ask his guide a single question.

Finding himself now at his ease and near shelter, his curiosity began to awake, and he demanded of the guide who and what he was. The Templar would have made an angry reply, but was interrupted by the Prior, who again expressed his astonishment, that their guide, after such long absence, should be so perfectly acquainted with the passes of the forest.


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Rotherwood was not, however, without defences; no habitation, in that disturbed period, could have been so, without the risk of being plundered and burnt before the next morning. A deep fosse, or ditch, was drawn round the whole building, and filled with water from a neighbouring stream. A double stockade, or palisade, composed of pointed beams, which the adjacent forest supplied, defended the outer and inner bank of the trench. There was an entrance from the west through the outer stockade, which communicated by a drawbridge, with a similar opening in the interior defences.

Some precautions had been taken to place those entrances under the protection of projecting angles, by which they might be flanked in case of need by archers or slingers. Before this entrance the Templar wound his horn loudly; for the rain, which had long threatened, began now to descend with great violence. The severe accuracy of some critics has objected to the complexion of the slaves of Brian de Bois-Guilbert, as being totally out of costume and propriety.

I remember the same objection being made to a set of sable functionaries, whom my friend, Mat Lewis, introduced as the guards and mischief-doing satellites of the wicked Baron, in his Castle Spectre. Mat treated the objection with great contempt, and averred in reply, that he made the slaves black in order to obtain a striking effect of contrast, and that, could he have derived a similar advantage from making his heroine blue, blue she should have been. I do not pretend to plead the immunities of my order so highly as this; but neither will I allow that the author of a modern antique romance is obliged to confine himself to the introduction of those manners only which can be proved to have absolutely existed in the times he is depicting, so that he restrain himself to such as are plausible and natural, and contain no obvious anachronism.

In this point of view, what can be more natural, than that the Templars, who, we know, copied closely the luxuries of the Asiatic warriors with whom they fought, should use the service of the enslaved Africans, whom the fate of war transferred to new masters? I am sure, if there are no precise proofs of their having done so, there is nothing, on the other hand, that can entitle us positively to conclude that they never did. Besides, there is an instance in romance.

John of Rampayne, an excellent juggler and minstrel, undertook to effect the escape of one Audulf de Bracy, by presenting himself in disguise at the court of the king, where he was confined. He effected, by stratagem, the escape of the prisoner. Negroes, therefore, must have been known in England in the dark ages. In a hall, the height of which was greatly disproportioned to its extreme length and width, a long oaken table, formed of planks rough-hewn from the forest, and which had scarcely received any polish, stood ready prepared for the evening meal of Cedric the Saxon.

The roof, composed of beams and rafters, had nothing to divide the apartment from the sky excepting the planking and thatch; there was a huge fireplace at either end of the hall, but as the chimneys were constructed in a very clumsy manner, at least as much of the smoke found its way into the apartment as escaped by the proper vent. The constant vapour which this occasioned, had polished the rafters and beams of the low-browed hall, by encrusting them with a black varnish of soot. On the sides of the apartment hung implements of war and of the chase, and there were at each corner folding doors, which gave access to other parts of the extensive building.

The other appointments of the mansion partook of the rude simplicity of the Saxon period, which Cedric piqued himself upon maintaining. What section of our Bible do we commence in these studies? What can you say, in general, of the literature on this section? What helps commended and what the special feature commended, or what the reservation in each case? What the time limits of the prophetic period and what the special mission of the prophets? What is the definition of the word "prophet"?

By what words or terms were the prophets known? Give an illustration of each. What can you say of the psychological process in the inspiration of the prophets? What can you say of prophecy and fulfilment, in general, and what says Orelli as to fulfilment of prophecy? Who the prophets before Moses and what the biblical proof? Who the prophets in the age of Moses and what the proof? Who the prophets in the period of the judges and what the proof? Who were the prophets from Samuel to the division of the kingdom? Cite proof. Who the prophets from the division of the kingdom to the time of Elijah and what the proof?

Who the prophets in the period of Elijah and Elisha and what the proof? What three great periods of the canonical prophets and who the canonical prophets of each of these periods? What other prophets contemporary with the canonical prophets? What the three distinct elements for which a student of the prophets should look?

What certain things should be remembered in a study of the prophets? What important considerations in the interpretation of prophecy? In considering predictive prophecy what may especially be recognized? What the special fitness in the arrangement of the prophetic books as we have them in the Hebrew Bible and in our English versions? Illustrate the one ruling purpose which pervades all the prophets by the book of Jonah.

What the naturalistic speculation with reference to this view and what the reply to such contention? To what conclusion have these naturalistic interpreters come with respect to the date of many of these prophecies? What the order that we shall follow in our studies of the prophets? Obadiah Following the chronology of Sampey's Syllabus we commence our studies of the prophets with Obadiah. This name means servant or worshiper of Jehovah and is found to be of frequent occurrence in the Old Testament, but cannot be identified with any other. His father's name is not given.

So, it is utterly impossible to know much about him. It has been determined with a good degree of certainty that he was a prophet of Judah. The vision of Obadiah against Edom, or the punishment of Edom for its cruel and unbrotherly conduct toward Judah at the time of some great national calamity is the theme of his prophecy. The date of this prophecy is a matter of great dispute. The time, according to the various scholars, ranges from B. This occurred in the reign of Jehoram 2 Chron. The description of this event is brief, but doubtless many other captives were taken besides the royal family as herein indicated.

The attitude of Edom toward Israel was one of perpetual hostility. The history of this hatred for Israel commences with the trouble between Jacob and Esau, after which Esau settled the country about Mount Seir, afterward called Edom. Here Esau dispossessed the Horites, the original inhabitants. At the time of the Exodus the Edomites refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their territory and then continued in this state of hostility after the occupation of Canaan.

This attitude toward Israel is seen in the succession of events in their history. They never lost an opportunity to show their dislike for the descendants of Jacob. It is this hatred which found expression in the time of Obadiah in their rejoicing at Israel's calamities for which Obadiah pronounces the curse upon them. The style of Obadiah is remarkably original. He uses many words and forms found nowhere else. The language is full of thought and pregnant with meaning. It has a vigor, terseness, and rapidity which carry the reader along and place him by the prophet's side in fullest sympathy.

One special characteristic of this prophecy is that of the close connection of its members without a break or interruption. There are several other passages of Scripture which should be studied in connection with Obadiah:. Joel to , in many particulars, seems to parallel Obadiah and, in all probability, Joel was acquainted with the prophecy of Obadiah and refers to it in A close study of the two prophecies reveals a striking parallel in them.

Whether Joel borrowed from Obadiah, is a disputed question. However, the evidence seems to indicate that he did. If this be true, then the date of Obadiah is practically settled as being that of B. Jeremiah is, doubtless, an expansion of Obadiah A careful inspection of the two prophecies leads to the conclusion that Obadiah is the original from which Jeremiah borrowed.

Ezekiel , Lamentations , Psalm , all seem to parallel the feeling of Obadiah expressed in Obadiah , yet they doubtless refer to a different occasion though they have a similar cause, viz: the perpetual attitude of hostility of Edom toward Israel. A brief outline, or analysis, of Obadiah is as follows: Introduction:. The title la. The theme lb I. A judgment announced lc The summons of the nations lc Edom, though proud and secure, shall be humbled The destruction shall be complete II.

A reason assigned The charge specified A prohibition of the repetition of such offenses The day of restitution at hand III. A victory assured The forces in general The work of each in particular The kingdom established There is a summons in verses to the nations to arise against Edom and bring her to desolation.

The reference is not very clear but the passage refers to someone, as seen by the prophet in the vision, going among the heathen to stir them up against Edom. In verses we have a description of their pride. They were irreligious, proud, and self-centered. The position of the Edomites was secluded, they being dwellers of the mountains and living in houses hewn in rocks on the mountainsides.

Their dwelling places were like the nests of eagles in the clefts of the highest rocks and almost inaccessible to an enemy. Petra, the capital, lay completely hidden in a rocky defile some two miles long, and could easily be defended by a handful of men. This remarkable place has been most graphically described by a late traveler. This description may be found in the "Pulpit Commentary" and the student will do well to read it. Note the comparison in verse 4. The completeness of the desolation here foretold is described by contrasting it with the work of thieves, robbers, and grape-gatherers in which the prophet shows that, unlike the thief or the grape-gatherer, the destroyer will not leave anything of them but will bring them to complete desolation.

The prophet assigns as the reason for their desolation the fact that Edom had sided with the enemy against Israel and had rejoiced at the calamity of God's people in their defeat; he issues a prohibition against the repetition of such acts, and then he shows that the measure of their penalty should be their own treatment of Israel in view of the approaching day of restitution for the nations. In this dark picture of the destruction of Edom and the other nations the prophet holds out the hope of Israel's final victory over all the nations.

According to this prophecy a remnant shall escape and shall become a fire and the house of Joseph a flame while Esau shall be as stubble. As fire burns stubble, so shall Jacob and Joseph consume Esau. Then follows a description of the details of the work of desolation out of which shall come the establishment of the kingdom of Jehovah over the whole earth. The question naturally arises just here as to the fulfilment of these several prophecies. There are three of these that now claim our attention.

The first of these was to be effected by the heathen which is not very easily found in history on account of the loss of Edom's historical records from to B. At the latter date we find the Nabataeans, a people of the Chaldean race and origin, in full possession of Edom. It was this people who made Petra famous for its buildings and commerce, but just when they got possession is not known.

Josephus tells us of an invasion of this country by Nebuchadnezzar about five years after the destruction of Jerusalem. Probably he conquered this country and transported the Chaldeans and settled them there, upon which the Edomites established themselves in southern Judah where they were afterward exclusively found. This history fulfils the first prophecy. The fulfilment of the second prophecy, viz: the conquest of Edom by the Jews, may be recognized more distinctly. He allowed them to remain where they were on the condition that they would be circumcised and adopt the Jewish customs. This they did and thus lost their nationality, but they still hung together as a party who were plundered by Simon of Gerasa.

The few Edomites left were slain at the capture of Jerusalem and there was "not any remaining of the house of Esau; for Jehovah had spoken it. The promise that an escaped remnant should occupy Mount Zion was literally fulfilled at the return under Zerubabbel but the idea of the expansion was not. It had a typical and partial fulfilment in the days of the Maccabees but this expansion idea finds its fuller completion in Christianity and will be consummated in the millennium.

There are several important lessons in this book for us:. There is the lesson of the family feud, which is usually the most bitter and the most difficult to settle. Let us remember the lesson of Jacob and Esau. There is the lesson of the dangers of pride and arrogance. Truly, "pride goeth before a fall. There is the lesson of false confidence. No one is secure against the law of retribution.

The clefts of Petra may be too difficult for man to scale but nothing can withstand God. There is the lesson of God's method of dealing out his wrath. There is the lesson of hope in a dark hour. God's plan and purpose are not accomplished in a day but he will see to it that no prophecy shall fail. Let Israel of today learn the lesson of patient, persistent pursuit of God's plan for her, and his glory will cover the earth as the waters cover the sea. Who was Obadiah?

What the theme of his prophecy? What the date and circumstances of this prophecy? What was the attitude of Edom toward Israel and what the history which evidences this attitude? What of the general character of the book? What other passages of Scripture should be studied in this connection. Give a brief analysis of the book. What the summons of verses and what the reference here? What the characteristics of the Edomites and what of the place of their security? How is the completeness of the desolation, which is here foretold, described?

What reason did the prophet here assign for such desolation, what prohibition issued and what the measure of their penalty? What hope for Israel's victory does the prophet here hold out to the people and how is it to be realized? What can you say of the fulfilment of these several prophecies by Obadiah? What the lessons of the prophecy of Obadiah? Joel to Helps commended: 1 Hengstenberg, 2 Pusey. Many men of different periods of the history of Israel bore the name Joel. All that we know of Joel, the prophet, is gleaned from the book of his prophecies and that is little indeed.

He was the son of Pethuel, a man otherwise unknown to us. From a study of the prophecies of Joel we learn that he was almost certainly an inhabitant of Judah and Jerusalem. He was well acquainted with the services of Jehovah's Temple. His name means "Jehovah is God" and thus indicates something of the religious convictions of his parents. There is a legend that he was born at Beth-horon, ten miles northwest from Jerusalem, and that he was buried there.

We know not the grounds on which this tradition rests and therefore cannot determine these things with any degree of certainty. Nowhere in the Scriptures are we told just the time when Joel lived and prophesied. The date of his prophecy becomes, therefore, purely a question of literary and historical criticism. Like Obadiah, we find an earlier and a later date assigned to it. The earlier date is B. The author prefers the earlier date as being far more consistent with the internal evidence. The occasion of this prophecy is determined according to the position taken with reference to the interpretation of the "locusts.

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As the author holds to the symbolical theory of the locusts he sees the occasion of this prophecy to be the decline of Judah which is so evident in the latter part of the reign of Joash see history of his reign and which calls forth this great summons of the people by the prophet to repentance or to the judgments that would follow. The canonicity of this book has never been called in question.

It is classical and almost matchless in style. Joel is the prince of prophets as to description. His description of the army of locusts, the battle of Jehoshaphat, the outpouring of the Holy Spirit and the suffering of brute creation is unequaled in literature. It is impossible to read his prophecies and not be impressed with his culture and literary skill. The Hebrew scholars tell us that his book is a fine specimen of pure classic Hebrew.

With the strength of Micah it combines the tenderness of Jeremiah, the vividness of Nahum and the sublimity of Isaiah.

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This prophecy was given to Judah. There is no mention of the Northern Kingdom. The name "Israel" ; , 16 refers to the whole people, while the author mentions Zion, Judah, and Jerusalem many times. The analysis of this book consists of the title and three main divisions, as follows:.

The title The coming of the locusts to An unusual desolation A call to mourning Forebodings of the "day of Jehovah" The alarm sounded in view of the approaching day A description of the army and their destructive work A promise of forgiveness and blessings upon the condition of repentance Repentance vouchsafed and the blessings assured The coming of the Holy Spirit The spirit poured upon all flesh and the results The perspective of the final judgment day A hope for God's remnant The coming of judgments A summons to the battle of judgment and the reason The result of the judgment here and the hope of Israel Judah's final victory over all and her final cleansing In the title to this book we have one of the three common formulas of introduction to the prophets:.

Lamentations and Daniel have no formal introduction, the former being an elegy in poetic form and the latter being regarded by the Jews as history rather than prophecy. These formulas are significant of the authority by which the prophet spoke and the point of view from which the prophecy is considered, whether "the word of Jehovah," "the vision of [the prophet]" or "the burden [or oracle of Jehovah.

In the interpretation of the coming of the locusts it must be kept in mind that Joel is an apocalypse and therefore these locusts must be considered apocalyptical. What the author sees is a swarm of locusts and he describes them as such. So the coming of these locusts is not to be understood literally, but allegorically and, therefore, symbolically. The four invasions here are invasions by locusts under four different names, and represent the curses of the four national powers, viz: Syro-Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Greco-Macedonian, and Roman.

This corresponds to the apocalypse of Daniel in which is set forth the relation of Israel to these same powers. Joel I sets forth the chastisements sent upon the Jews and the reasons therefore. The book is a book of judgments showing the divine order, viz: "Judgment begins at the house of God. They begin with the Babylonian captivity and culminate in the destruction of Jerusalem and the taking away of the Jewish nation by the Romans. The arguments showing that the literal view of the plague of locusts is inconsistent are as follows:.

They are described as "the northern" scourge and locusts never came to Palestine that way. The priests are directed to pray, "Give not thine heritage to reproach, that the heathen should rule over them" The scourge is to be destroyed "because he hath done great things," or literally, "hath magnified to do" , an expression unsuitable to irrational creatures. The figurative expressions used in connection with the locusts, viz: The fire and the flame and beasts being desired to rejoice in the tree. These expressions are unquestionably figurative; therefore, the whole may be so regarded.

The imagery goes beyond the plague of locusts, in that 1 the people are terrified, 2 the air is darkened and 3 they enter the city , The effects are greater than would be produced by mere locusts, in that 1 the meal offering is destroyed, 2 the fruits of more than one year are destroyed and 3 the plague is described as worse than any that was remembered , 9; Locusts could not have been driven at once into the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean. The day of the Lord is identified with the scourge, and is far beyond the plague of locusts , The locust is used elsewhere in the Bible symbolically, to represent a curse Rev.

According to this position the prophet announces a complete desolation of the land, as if locusts had laid it waste. Upon the occasion of this approaching curse he calls for mourning and penitence. Then he gives the foreboding of the "day of Jehovah" and orders the sounding of an alarm and follows that with a masterful description of an invading army and its destructive work.

In the prophet holds out the hope of forgiveness and blessings if they will really repent; at verse 18 he introduces the prediction which stretches across the messianic age to the introduction of the millennium. In verse 23, we have the promise of "the teacher of righteousness" marginal reading as in 2 Kings ; Job ; Proverbs ; Isaiah ; ; Habakkuk So the order here seems to be 1 Christ comes, "the teacher of righteousness," 2 come Pentecost and the Holy Spirit, 3 comes the destruction of Jerusalem which is the climax of the "day of the Lord" on the Jewish people.

In we have the first distinct prediction of the advent of the Holy Spirit, fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, following which is the far distant judgment day, adumbrated by the destruction of Jerusalem from which destruction escapes a remnant who are specially called of Jehovah see Isa. In we have a forecast of the judgments on the anti-Christian nations. First, there is a summons to the battle of judgments in which God pours out his wrath upon these nations because of their treatment of his people, Israel.

This accords with Isaiah ; Daniel ; Zechariah ; and Revelation , in which is described the great battle of Jehoshaphat at which the Jews are to be converted, a result of the interposition of God, as described here in This ushers in the millennium in which Judah or the prince of Judah will win the victory over the world in bringing in the Messiah's kingdom and disseminating the knowledge of him to the ends of the earth.

There appears in this book for the first time the expression, "The day of the Lord," which refers to the time of God's judgments and has partial fulfilment in the destruction of Jerusalem, then another in God's judgments on the ungodly nations above described, and then finds its final and complete fulfilment at the last great judgment. There appears also, for the first time in this book, the idea of the fountain. This idea expands as we follow it through the Bible to its fulfilment. Here it is briefly stated, showing its source and its objective; the valley of Shittim with no interpretation given.

In Ezekiel we have the idea very much enlarged, showing this fountain developed into a great river which symbolizes the river of life presented in Revelation Then in Zechariah we have an additional idea presented, viz: that it is "for sin and uncleanness" from which we derive the beautiful hymn, "There is a fountain filled with blood.

There are two other ideas that appear in this book for the first time which have already been explained, viz: The coming of the Holy Spirit and the battle of Jehoshaphat and the conversion of the Jews. Some of the most important lessons of this book are as follows:. God's retribution for disobedience. This is plain from the calls to repentance and the threatened judgments in the book.

God's long forbearance toward a gainsaying and disobedient people, showing that his "mercy endureth forever. God's blessings of the Holy Spirit. They are for all people in all ages. Though he selected and elected one nation as his own peculiar people, yet "whosoever calleth on the Lord shall be saved. God's blessing of final victory for his cause and people.

Evil may triumph and Jerusalem be trodden down for a time but the promises of God are sure and the Jew, though rejecting his Messiah and scattered to the ends of the earth, shall eventually accept this Messiah and become a mighty factor in the spread of his kingdom. Who was Joel? What the date of this prophecy? What the occasion of this prophecy?

What of the canonicity of this book? What of the style and character of the book? To whom was this prophecy given and how do you explain the use of the name "Israel" in ; , 16? What the essential points in the analysis of this book? What formula of introduction found in the title to this book and what the three formulas found in the introductions to the prophets?

What the interpretation of the coming of the locusts? What the arguments showing that the literal view of the plague of locusts is inconsistent? According to this position, then how interpret to ? What promise in and where do we find the fulfilment? What the judgments of and when their fulfilment? What ideas appear for the first time in Joel and what their application? What the most important lessons of this book? Jonah is both the author and the hero of the book by this name.

He was the son of Amittai, a reference to whom is also found in 2 Kings "He [Jeroboam II] restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath unto the sea of the Arabah, according to the word of Jehovah, the God of Israel, which he spake by his servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher.

The place of his birth was Gath-hepher, a town in Zebulun Josh. The time in which he lived is clearly shown to be the reign of Jeroboam II, the "Indian Summer" of Israel's history after the division of the kingdom 2 Kings There are several traditions relating to Jonah. It is needless to say that these traditions are without foundation in history but they indicate somewhat the impress of this striking character upon the literature of the world. There is a reference to this prophecy of Jonah in Tobit , 15, an apocryphal book, in which Nineveh is said to have been overthrown according to this prophecy of Jonah.

There are three references to Jonah the prophet in the Koran, viz: In chapter X, p. He adds several items of detail to the story of Jonah's extraordinary experience in the sea, giving his objective as Tarsus in Cilicia and the point of landing as the Euxine Sea. There is little weight of authority to these statements but they indicate a conviction as to the historicity of the book of Jonah.

There are three legends that illustrate the extraordinary features of the book of Jonah, viz: 1 Hesione and Hercules, 2 Andromeda and Perseus, and 3 Saint George and the Dragon. These legends, the scenes of which are located on the Mediterranean Sea, reflect, perhaps, the impression made upon the ancient mind by this story of Jonah. There are several scriptural references to the book, viz: 2 Kings ; Matthew ; ; Luke , the import of which is that the book is historical and that Jonah is typical of our Lord Jesus Christ. The occasion of this prophecy against Nineveh was the. To this, other prophets add their I testimony: "Woe to the bloody city I" Nah.

The annals of Assyria are nothing but a register of militarycampaigns, spoilations, and cruelties. Their monuments display men of calm and unmoved ferocity, whose moral and mental qualities are overborne by the faculties of the lower, brutal nature. The style of this book is simple, pure Hebrew.

The author believed that God prepared everything and the book bears the stamp of a simple, truthful narrative. It is not prophecy, in the strict sense of the word, but history, inserted among the prophets because written by a prophet. There is no moralizing I and no reflection. The tale is told graphically and has quite a dramatic interest, advancing in regular stages to the conclusion, and leaving an impression upon the mind as though its various scenes had been enacted before the eyes of the reader.

The miraculous element of the book is twofold: 1 the physical, 2 the moral. The physical miracles are the experience of Jonah in the sea and the incident of the gourd. The moral miracle is the salvation of the Ninevites. There are three great doctrines illustrated in the incidents of the book. No one can doubt this who reads Matthew Man and beast together wear the symbols of penitence.

See his forbearance toward wicked Nineveh and his great loving kindness as here displayed toward a lost world. Nineveh, the great city here referred to, was founded by Nimrod, a descendant of Ham Gen. After this simple statement in Genesis the record is silent respecting Nineveh for a long time. The next mention of these people we find in the prophecy of Balaam Num. The next reference to Assyria is found in Psalm which finds its historical reality in 2 Chronicles This is the real beginning of Assyria's strength and greatness.

Her power is now beginning to be felt for the first time in her history. This brings us in the Bible account of Assyria up to the time of Jonah and Jeroboam II, where Nineveh again enters by name on the biblical record. This reappearing of the name Nineveh is incidental, and shows that the Bible does not profess to give an orderly and systematic history of the world. The record here in Jonah says that Nineveh was a "great city.

Its walls were sixty feet high, with 1, towers, feet high. The walls were broad enough on top to receive three chariots driving side by side. It is almost certain that this city was larger than Babylon, especially if we include in the estimate its suburbs. Jonah calls it "an exceeding great city of three days' -journey" and with , infants, all of which indicate that Nineveh was no ordinary city. Nineveh was destroyed by the combined forces of the Medes and Babylonians, the Median king being Cyaxares and the city was complete. Xenophon with 10, Greeks passed by it two centuries later and did not even mention it, unless he referred to it as one of the "uninhabited" cities of which he speaks.

The remains of this city must have been in evidence in the days of the Roman emperors, since Tacitus refers to a Nineveh on the Tigris, and there is another reference to it as late as the thirteenth century. The ruins now present a rampart and foss, four miles in circuit, with a moss-covered wall about twenty feet high.

The archaeologists in recent years have done much to make Nineveh live before the minds of this generation. Their discoveries of the libraries have thrown a flood of light on the history of these people of the Far East; but the Bible account of Nineveh and the rest of the Oriental empires remains unmolested. The Ninevites worshiped the fish god and in excavating in this vicinity many stone images of a fish have been found with a man coming out of its mouth. There is evidently a connection between Jonah's experience and these stone images.

This seems to be a confirmation of the story of Jonah as a sign to the Ninevites. Since they worshiped the fish god, the Lord accredited Jonah unto them by means of such a miracle as would leave no doubt in their minds as to the superior power of Jehovah over their object of worship. There is an abundance of literature on this book but I will name only a few of the very best helps to its interpretation. Rowland's monograph on Jonah is very fine.

The article on Jonah in Smith's Bible Dictionary is a pretty fair article. Sampey's Syllabus is fine. A sermon on Jonah by Melville, a Scotch preacher, is able and good. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown, and Matthew Henry are also good. The chapters constitute the divisions of the analysis of this book, as follows:. Jonah's mission, disobedience, and punishment His call, commission, and flight God's intervention and Jonah's revelation Jonah's prayer, thanksgiving, and deliverance His prayer His thanksgiving His deliverance Jonah's recall, obedience, and success His recall His obedience His success Jonah's displeasure and correction His displeasure His correction The word "now" v.

We come across the expression, "the word of Jehovah," in our Bible first in Genesis and there it means the Son of God, the Logos of John There seems to be the same meaning here. The word of Jehovah came "saying. We find three parallels in the Bible to Jonah , "their wickedness has come up before me," viz: 1 the case of Cain, 2 the case of the flood, and 3 the case of Sodom and Gomorrah, in each of which most solemn judgment followed.

The striking difference in this case and those mentioned above is the repentance of the Ninevites which moved God to repentance and averted the awful judgment. In his going from the presence of Jehovah, Jonah renounced his prophetic office; he went away from "standing before Jehovah"; gave up his credentials and "took to the woods" waters , to Tarshish, a city in Spain, far away from the Jehovah country. Thus he thought to leave the land of Jehovah was to get away from the call of Jehovah.