After treatment, the goal often is to reduce the risk of recurrence by making changes in diet. For cancer prevention, the best advice -- as it relates to your diet -- is the simplest:. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention What you eat can reduce your risk of cancer Eating for treatment is quite different than eating for survivorship.
For cancer prevention, the best advice -- as it relates to your diet -- is the simplest: Eat mostly plant foods, limit red meat and avoid processed meat. Be physically active however you can for at least 30 minutes per day. Aim for a healthy weight throughout your life. In addition, the following pages contain information on nutrition to cancer prevention: Preparing Foods with Antioxidants Tips an easy ways to include these foods in your favorite recipes All About Soy Frequently Asked Questions Soy Foods Can I eat them if my cancer is Estrogen-Receptor positive?
Frequently Asked Questions The following articles are specifically for cancer survivors and were written for Thrive our publication for patients : Help or Harm? A group of Adventist vegetarians was found to have a higher amount of beneficial bacteria and lower amount of potentially pathogenic bacteria compared to non-vegetarians on a conventional American diet [ ]. Differences in bacterial populations were seen between patients who recently had a colon polyp removed, Japanese-Hawaiians, North American Caucasians, native rural Japanese, and rural native Africans.
Lactobacillus species and Eubacterium aerofaciens , both producers of lactic acid, were associated with the populations with the lower risk of colon cancer, while Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium species were associated with higher risk of colon cancer [ ]. There is a solid theoretical basis for why probiotics should help prevent cancer, especially colon cancer, and even reverse cancer.
Probiotics produce short chain fatty acids in the colon, which acidify the environment. Lower colon pH is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer. Probiotic bacteria reduce the level of procarcinogenic enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, and azoreductase [ ]. The second trial also showed that the probiotics worked better than the placebo, except for multiple recurring tumors [ ].
Except for the two studies noted above, most of the research of probiotics and cancer has been done in animals. Studies have looked at markers of tumor growth or at animals with chemically induced tumors. Studies in rats have shown that probiotics can inhibit the formation of aberrant crypt foci, thought to be a pre-cancerous lesion in the colon. Some of the best results were obtained with a probiotic strain consumed with inulin, a type of fructooligosaccharide. There was a synergistic effect in using both products together. Similar synergy was seen in rats with azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in another study.
Rats fed Raftilose, a mixture of inulin and oligofructose, or Raftilose with Lactobacilli rhamnosus LGG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the control group [ ]. In lab mice bred to be susceptible to colitis and colon cancer, a probiotic supplement, Lactobacillus salivarium ssp.
Salivarius UCC, reduced fecal coliform levels, the number of potentially pathogenic Clostridium perfringens , and reduced intestinal inflammation. In this small study two mice died of fulminant colitis and 5 mice developed adenocarcinoma in the control group of 10 mice, while there was no colitis and only 1 mouse with adenocarcinoma in the probiotic test group [ ]. The research on probiotics and disease is still an emerging field.
There is a high degree of variation of health benefits between different strains of bacteria. As new methods for selecting and screening probiotics become available, the field will be able to advance more rapidly. Many people diagnosed with cancer have digestion or intestinal tract disorders as well. Impaired digestion will greatly hinder a nutritional approach to treating cancer. If the nutrients cannot be released from the food and taken up by the body, then the excellent food provided by the Hallelujah Diet will go to waste.
Digestive enzyme supplements are used to ensure proper and adequate digestion of food. Even raw foods, which contain many digestive enzymes to assist in their digestion, will be more thoroughly digested with less of the body's own resources with the use of digestive enzymes. So, the enzymes taken with meals do not have a direct effect upon a tumor, but assist the body in getting all of the nutrition out of the food for healing and restoring the body to normal function.
Recently, an in vitro system was used to test the use of supplemental digestive enzymes. The digestive enzymes improved the digestibility and bioaccessibility of proteins and carbohydrates in the lumen of the small intestine, not only under impaired digestive conditions, but also in healthy human digestion [ ]. There is evidence that indicates the presence of an enteropancreatic circulation of digestive enzymes [ ]. Digestive enzymes appear to be preferentially absorbed into the bloodstream and then reaccumulated by the pancreas for use again. There appears to be a mechanism by which digestive enzymes can reach systemic circulation.
Enzymes, especially proteases, if they reach systemic circulation, can have direct anti-tumor activity. Wald et al [ ] reported on the anti-metastatic effect of enzyme supplements. Mice inoculated with the Lewis lung carcinoma were treated with a proteolytic enzyme supplement, given rectally to avoid digestion. The primary tumor was cut out, so that the metastatic spread of the cancer could be measured. In the third group, which received the enzyme treatment since the initial inoculation of the Lewis lung carcinoma, no metastatic spread of the tumor was discernible.
In a similar experiment, an enzyme mixture of papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, as used in the preparation Wobe-Mugos E, was rectally given to mice that were inoculated with melanoma cells. Survival time was prolonged in the test group 38 days in the enzyme group compared to 24 days in the control mice and 3 of the 10 enzyme-supplemented mice were cured.
Again, a strong anti-metastatic effect of the proteolytic enzymes was seen [ ]. Further evidence of the efficacy of oral enzyme supplementation is available from clinical trials in Europe. In the Slovak Republic an oral enzyme supplement was tested in a placebo-controlled trial of multiple myeloma. For stage III multiple myeloma, control group survival was 47 months, compared to 83 months a 3 year gain for patients who took the oral enzymes for more than 6 months [ ].
Enzyme supplements have also been shown to reduce side effects of cancer therapy. Enzyme supplementation resulted in fewer side effects for women undergoing radiation therapy for carcinomas of the uterine cervix [ ], for patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancers [ ], and for colorectal cancer patients undergoing conventional cancer treatments [ ]. In a large multi-site study in Germany women undergoing conventional cancer therapy were put into a control group or a group that received an oral enzyme supplement.
Disease and therapy related symptoms were all reduced, except tumor pain, by the enzyme supplement. Also, survival was longer with less recurrence and less metastases in the enzyme group [ ]. In all of these studies the oral enzyme supplements were well tolerated, with only a small amount of mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Even though these few studies don't give a lot of evidence of the effectiveness of oral enzyme supplementation, it is clear that there are some circumstances that will be helped by enzyme supplementation, with very little danger of negative side effects.
At the least, enzymes will improve digestion and lessen the digestive burden on the body, leaving more reserves for disease eradication. However, as the research indicates, the effect may be much greater than that, with the potential for direct anti-tumor activity. A diet-based cancer therapy, the Gerson Therapy, was used to treat melanoma cancer. An Italian cohort of 8, women was followed for an average of 9. Their diets were analyzed by patterns — salad vegetables raw vegetables and olive oil , western potatoes, red meat, eggs and butter , canteen pasta and tomato sauce , and prudent cooked vegetables, pulses, and fish.
The overall dietary pattern does make a very significant difference. In US-based studies the "prudent" diet has been shown to be protective for colon cancer, while the "western" diet has been shown to be detrimental. The "salad vegetable" pattern is still more likely to be protective compared to the prudent dietary pattern, but this pattern did not exist in this study population. About 3, women who were treated for an early stage of breast cancer have been randomized into two groups.
No guidelines were given for animal product intake, and initial results seem to confirm, since there were no changes in body weight, total cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol [ ], which would be affected by animal protein intake. Also, plasma carotenoid concentrations increased significantly in the intervention group, but not in the control group. It will be very interesting to follow the results of this study. What is the result when all of these things are put together? What if all of these factors reviewed here were taken into account and put into practice?
This anticancer diet would have:. As reviewed above, reductions of 60 percent in breast cancer rates have already been seen in human diet studies, and a 71 percent reduction in colon cancer for men without the known modifiable risk factors. These reductions are without taking into account many of the other factors considered in this review, such as markedly increased fruit and vegetable intake, balanced omega 3 and 6 fats, vitamin D, reduced sugar intake, probiotics, and enzymes — factors which all are likely to have an impact on cancer.
Certainly cancer prevention would be possible, and cancer reversal in some cases is quite likely. Michael Donaldson is a research scientist at the Hallelujah Acres Foundation, a foundation for investigations pertaining to the Hallelujah Diet. Funding for this review was provided by the Hallelujah Acres Foundation.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nutr J v. Nutr J. Published online Oct Michael S Donaldson 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Michael S Donaldson: moc. Received Sep 28; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract It has been estimated that 30—40 percent of all cancers can be prevented by lifestyle and dietary measures alone.
Review Background The field of investigation of the role of nutrition in the cancer process is very broad.
Over Consumption of Energy Calories Eating too much food is one of the main risk factors for cancer. Glucose Metabolism Refined sugar is a high energy, low nutrient food — junk food. Low Fiber Unrefined plant foods typically have an abundance of fiber. Red Meat Red meat has been implicated in colon and rectal cancer.
Omega Ratio Imbalance Omega 3 fats alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA have been shown in animal studies to be protect from cancer, while omega 6 fats linoleic acid, arachidonic acid have been found to be cancer promoting fats. Table 1 Breast Cancer and Omega Ratio. Adipose tissue N-6 fat content signif. Open in a separate window. Flax seed Flax seed provides all of the nutrients from this small brown or golden hard-coated seed.
Fruits and Vegetables One of the most important messages of modern nutrition research is that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables protects against cancer. Cruciferous Vegetables Cruciferous vegetables broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts contain sulforophane, which has anti-cancer properties.
Selenium Selenium is a mineral with anti-cancer properties. These functions are as follows: 1. Selenium is a component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Selenium improved the immune systems' ability to respond to infections. Selenium causes the formation of natural killer cells. Selenium inhibits prostaglandins that cause inflammation.
Selenium enhances male fertility by increased sperm motility. Selenium can decrease the rate of tumor growth. Chlorophyll All green plants also contain chlorophyll, the light-collecting molecule. Protective Vitamins Vitamin B Vitamin B has not been proven to be an anti-cancer agent, but there is some evidence indicating that it could be beneficial. Folic Acid Folic acid is the dark green leafy vegetable vitamin. Vitamin D Vitamin D is produced primarily from the exposure of the skin to sunshine.
Relative risk was 0. Table 6 Studies of Carotenoids and Lung Cancer. Lycopene Of the various carotenoids lycopene has been found to be very protective, particularly for prostate cancer. Vitamin C Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, has been studied in relation to health and is the most common supplement taken in the USA. Other Antioxidants There are many more substances that will have some benefit for cancer therapy.
Probiotics The bacteria that reside in the intestinal tract generally have a symbiotic relationship with their host. Lactobacillus species and Eubacterium aerofaciens , both producers of lactic acid, were associated with the populations with the lower risk of colon cancer, while Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium species were associated with higher risk of colon cancer [ ] There is a solid theoretical basis for why probiotics should help prevent cancer, especially colon cancer, and even reverse cancer.
Together we will beat cancer
Oral Enzymes Many people diagnosed with cancer have digestion or intestinal tract disorders as well. Whole Diet Studies A diet-based cancer therapy, the Gerson Therapy, was used to treat melanoma cancer. Table 7 Gerson Therapy for Melanoma . Conclusions What is the result when all of these things are put together? Competing Interests Michael Donaldson is a research scientist at the Hallelujah Acres Foundation, a foundation for investigations pertaining to the Hallelujah Diet. Obesity Is Now on Everyone's Plate. Increases in clinically severe obesity in the United States, — Arch Intern Med.
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BLP Study Group.