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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship from Public Health Perspective

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Relationship of abuse history to functional gastrointestinal disorders and symptoms. Trauma Violence Abus ; 8 Physical health consequences of physical and psychologycal intimate partner violence. Arch Fam Med ; 9 If one spouse desires control and power in the relationship, the spouse may resort to abuse [] This may include coercion and threats, intimidation, emotional abuse, economic abuse, isolation, making light of the situation and blaming the spouse, using children threatening to take them away , and behaving as "master of the castle". Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures.

Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions. Theory suggests that when he is unable to economically support his wife, and maintain control, he may turn to misogyny , substance abuse , and crime as ways to express masculinity. Same-sex relationships may experience similar social stressors.

Additionally, violence in same-sex relationships has been linked to internalized homophobia, which contributed to low self-esteem and anger in both perpetrator and victim. Similarly, heterosexism can play a key role in domestic violence in the LGBT community. As a social ideology that implies "heterosexuality is normative, morally superior, and better than [homosexuality]," [] heterosexism can hinder services and lead to an unhealthy self-image in sexual minorities.

Heterosexism in legal and medical institutions can be seen in instances of discrimination, biases, and insensitivity toward sexual orientation. For example, as of , seven states explicitly denied LGBT individuals the ability to apply for protective orders, [] proliferating ideas of LGBT subjugation, which is tied to feelings of anger and powerlessness.

Power and control in abusive relationships is the way that abusers exert physical, sexual and other forms of abuse to gain control within relationships. A causalist view of domestic violence is that it is a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. This view is in alignment with Bancroft's "cost-benefit" theory that abuse rewards the perpetrator in ways other than, or in addition to, simply exercising power over his or her target s.

He cites evidence in support of his argument that, in most cases, abusers are quite capable of exercising control over themselves, but choose not to do so for various reasons. Sometimes, one person seeks complete power and control over their partner and uses different ways to achieve this, including resorting to physical violence. The perpetrator attempts to control all aspects of the victim's life, such as their social, personal, professional and financial decisions. Questions of power and control are integral to the widely utilized Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project.

They developed a "Power and Control Wheel" to illustrate this: it has power and control at the center, surrounded by spokes techniques used , the titles of which include: coercion and threats , intimidation , emotional abuse , isolation , minimizing , denying and blaming, using children, economic abuse, and privilege. Critics of this model argue that it ignores research linking domestic violence to substance abuse and psychological problems. Some modern research into predictors of injury from domestic violence suggests that the strongest predictor of injury by domestic violence is participation in reciprocal domestic violence.

Nonsubordination theory, sometimes called dominance theory, is an area of feminist legal theory that focuses on the power differential between men and women. Nonsubordination theory tackles the issue of domestic violence as a subset of the broader problem of violence against women because domestic violence victims are overwhelmingly female.

Proponents of nonsubordination theory propose several reasons why it works best to explain domestic violence. First, there are certain recurring patterns in domestic violence that indicate it is not the result of intense anger or arguments, but rather is a form of subordination. Professor Martha Mahoney, of the University of Miami School of Law , also points to the notion of "separation assault"—a phenomenon where a batterer further assaults a victim who is attempting or has attempted to leave an abusive relationship—as additional evidence that domestic violence is used to subordinate victims to their batterers.

A second rationale for using nonsubordination theory to explain domestic violence, beyond the variety of tactics used by abusers, is that the frequency with which domestic violence occurs overpowers the idea that it is merely the result of a batterer's anger. Professor Mahoney explains that because of the sensationalism generated in media coverage of "big" or particularly horrific domestic violence cases, it is difficult for people to conceptualize how frequently domestic violence happens in society.

Critics of nonsubordination theory complain that it offers no solutions to the problems it points out. For example, proponents of nonsubordination theory criticize certain approaches that have been taken to address domestic violence in the legal system, such as mandatory arrest or prosecution policies. Opponents argue that it undermines a victim's autonomy, discourages the empowerment of women by discounting other resources available and puts victims at more risk for domestic abuse. Sociologist Andrew Glover critiques non-subordination theory on the grounds that domestic violence occurs among homosexual couples at the same rate as heterosexual couples.

So it cannot be caused by, or exist to perpetuate, power differentials between the sexes. There has been an increase in acknowledgment that a child who is exposed to domestic abuse during their upbringing will suffer developmental and psychological damage. Some emotional and behavioral problems that can result due to domestic violence include increased aggressiveness, anxiety, and changes in how a child socializes with friends, family, and authorities.

Additionally, in some cases the abuser will purposely abuse the mother or father [] in front of the child to cause a ripple effect, hurting two victims simultaneously. Bruises, broken bones, head injuries, lacerations, and internal bleeding are some of the acute effects of a domestic violence incident that require medical attention and hospitalization. New research illustrates that there are strong associations between exposure to domestic violence and abuse in all their forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions.

Among victims who are still living with their perpetrators high amounts of stress, fear, and anxiety are commonly reported. Depression is also common, as victims are made to feel guilty for 'provoking' the abuse and are frequently subjected to intense criticism. Those who are battered either emotionally or physically often are also depressed because of a feeling of worthlessness. These feelings often persist long-term and it is suggested that many receive therapy for it because of the heightened risk of suicide and other traumatic symptoms. In addition to depression, victims of domestic violence also commonly experience long-term anxiety and panic , and are likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder.

PTSD as experienced by victims is characterized by flashbacks , intrusive images, exaggerated startle response , nightmares , and avoidance of triggers that are associated with the abuse. Several studies have shown that maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD can, despite traumatized mother's best efforts, interfere with their child's response to the domestic violence and other traumatic events.

Once victims leave their perpetrator, they can be stunned with the reality of the extent to which the abuse has taken away their autonomy. Due to economic abuse and isolation, the victim usually has very little money of their own and few people on whom they can rely when seeking help. This has been shown to be one of the greatest obstacles facing victims of DV, and the strongest factor that can discourage them from leaving their perpetrators. In addition to lacking financial resources, victims of DV often lack specialized skills, education, and training that are necessary to find gainful employment, and also may have several children to support.

In , thirty-six major US cities cited DV as one of the primary causes of homelessness in their areas. If a victim is able to secure rental housing, it is likely that her apartment complex will have "zero tolerance" policies for crime; these policies can cause them to face eviction even if they are the victim not the perpetrator of violence. Women and children experiencing domestic violence undergo occupational apartheid ; they are typically denied access to desired occupations.

Oftentimes the victims are very isolated from other relationships as well such as having few to no friends, this is another method of control for the abuser. An analysis in the US showed that of the officer killings between and occurred during domestic violence interventions. Due to the gravity and intensity of hearing victims' stories of abuse, professionals social workers, police, counselors, therapists, advocates, medical professionals are at risk themselves for secondary or vicarious trauma VT , which causes the responder to experience trauma symptoms similar to the original victim after hearing about the victim's experiences with abuse.

Management of domestic violence may take place through medical services, law enforcement, [] [] counseling, and other forms of prevention and intervention. Participants in domestic violence may require medical treatment, such as examination by a family physician , other primary care provider, [] or emergency room physicians. Counseling is another means of managing the effects of domestic violence. For the victim of abuse, counseling may include an assessment of the presence, [] extent and types of abuse. Counseling may be used by offenders to minimize the risk of future domestic violence, [] [] or to stop the violence and repair the harm it has caused.

These are delivered in a group format, one or two hours per week, over a set time period. Programme facilitators guide participants through a curriculum of adult-education style modules, which draw on a variety of therapeutic approaches, but predominantly cognitive behavioural therapy and psycho-education. A debate on the effectiveness of these programmes is on-going. While some ex- partners of offenders have experienced improvements in their situation, others have not, and there also appears to be a risk of doing harm.

Prevention and intervention includes ways to prevent domestic violence by offering safe shelter , crisis intervention , advocacy, and education and prevention programs. Community screening for domestic violence can be more systematic in cases of animal abuse, healthcare settings, emergency departments, behavioral health settings and court systems. Tools are being developed to facilitate domestic violence screening such as mobile apps.

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Domestic violence hotlines offer advice, support and referral services to those in abusive relationships. There exist several strategies that are being used to attempt to prevent or reduce DV. It is important to assess the effectiveness of a strategy that is being implemented. Reforming the legislation in order to ensure that domestic violence falls under the scope of the law is important. This may imply repealing existing laws which discriminate against women: according to the WHO, "when the law allows husbands to physically discipline wives, implementing a programme to prevent intimate partner violence may have little impact".

UN Women has stated that the legislation should ensure that "a perpetrator of domestic violence, including marital rape, cannot use the fact that he paid bride price as a defence to a domestic violence charge". Gender norms that promote the inferiority of women may lead to the abuse of women by intimate partners. The WHO writes that, "Dismantling hierarchical constructions of masculinity and femininity predicated on the control of women, and eliminating the structural factors that support inequalities are likely to make a significant contribution to preventing intimate partner and sexual violence".

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , "A key strategy in preventing domestic violence is the promotion of respectful, nonviolent relationships through individual, community, and societal level change. In Australia, domestic violence refers to occurrences of violence in domestic settings between people in intimate relationships.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Physical abuse. Main articles: Sexual abuse , Marital rape , and Sexual violence by intimate partners. Main article: Emotional abuse. Main article: Economic abuse. Main article: Domestic violence against men. See also: Parental abuse by children. Main article: Teen dating violence. Main article: Child abuse.

Countries where parental child corporal punishment is outlawed. Main article: Domestic violence in same-sex relationships. Main articles: Christianity and domestic violence and Islam and domestic violence. Further information: Forced marriage and Child marriage. No data. Main article: Abusive power and control. Main article: Effects of domestic violence on children. See also: Vicarious traumatization and Burnout psychology. Main article: Management of domestic violence. See also: Outline of domestic violence. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

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