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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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Praemunire, , - , - AJournal of Medieval Studies. Thebirth of maxim Neilsen, York, Dugdale; New ed. Caley, H. Ellis, B. Pie - , Praemunire - : - , , -. Provisores Praemunire , -. Rochester, Prosecution of the Statute of Provisores. Clerical criminals in the fifteenth century. Accounts rendered by papal collectors in England, Transcribed with annotation and introduction by W. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, Calendar of entries in the Papal registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland.

London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, London: Public Record Office, Clark M. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, Londini: sumptibus R. Gosling, F. Gyles, T. Woodward et C. Davis, Hughes J. Pastor and visionaries. Religion and secular life inLate Medieval Yorkshire. Rohester: Woodbridge, New York: Fordham University Press, Lange T.

Cambridge Univ. Lunt W. Financial relations of the Papacy with England from to Cambridge, Mass. Martin D. McHardy A. York: Borthwick texts and Calendars 24, Cal- ey, H. Pantine W. TheEnglish church in the Fourteenth century: Based on the Bircbeck lecturies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Poos L. Flemming Lundgreen. Copenhagen: T. Dahlerup, P. Ingesman, Rotuli Parliamentorum ut et peticiones et placita inParliamento, London: S.

Statutes of the Realm. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, Cambridge: Cambridge University press, Basovskaya N. Myth and Reality], Srednie veka, Moscow: Nauka, vol. Bliss W. Dugdale W. Bandinel , vol. Gosling R. Gosling; F. Gyles; T. Woodward; et C. Davis, p. Graves E. Lunt, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, p. Jones M. Kalmykova E. Knowles D. Press, vol. Lawrens C. Leonova T. Luders A. Malinin Yu. Smith , York: Borthwick texts and Calendars 24, pp.

Lundgreen , Copenhagen: T. Ingesman, pp. Potekhina I. Raymer T. Society Bruno Restif. Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, archbishop of Reims since until his death in , was a major, but complex and enigmatic character, whose capacity to develop several strategies according to changing cir- cumstances, in France and Europe baffled both his contemporaries and historians.

The research on the liturgical policy he conducted in his city, diocese and ecclesiastical province of Reims provides better understand- ing of Cardinals aims and level of seriousness. This investigation is rather instructive, because the history of liturgy has been neglected by histori- ans of the Early modern time, whereas it played a central role in thedioc- esan religious life and in the confessional conflicts of the 16th century.

Theparochial manual printed in reveals an enterprise of moderate, gallican and diocesan reform, which, while perfectly Orthodox also devel- oped the use of the French language. The provincial Council of was a Tridentine turn, but also a logical continuation ofthe liturgical reform of the s, aiming desirable purification of chanting and developing adream of returning to the antique custom.

Finally, the processions clearly expressed the personal devotions of the Cardinal of Lorraine, especially to the Blessed Sacrament and to the Holy Cross, as well as the penitential aspect of the last years of his life. Key words: Catholic Reformation, Council of Trent, local policy, liturgy, ritual, sacraments, chanting, processions, French language, Blessed Sacrament, penitential devotion.

A complex even enigmatic character, mistreated for a long time by French historiography, Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, born in , the archbishop of Reims from until his death in , played an important part in politics, religion and culture, inFrance as well as inEurope1. His role has not always been under- stood, on the one hand because he mixed religious, politics, social andcultural issues, onthe other hand because he could adapt with an unusual flexibility tothe changing circumstances, lastly because he was able tohold simultaneously different speeches forhis various interlocutors thus keeping todevelop several strategies.

His leading action inhis town, diocese andecclesiastical province ofReims has been too much neglected by historians2 infavour ofhis rle inFrench politics, hisspeech inPoissys colloquy andhis choices during thecoun- cil of Trent, all fundamental subjects that needed to be linked to his activity inReims.

As amatter offact, theCardinal ofLorraines propos- als forthe reformation inFrench Church orofthe whole Catholicity, forthe reabsorption ofschism or thefight against Calvinism, forcol- legial decisions indioceses or theassertion ofprelates authority could only be considered as credible inFrance andEurope only if they had been put into practice inhis own diocese.

Andit is atthis level that we can weigh his ability tocooperate with local actors, tokeep abalance between reformation and conservatism and to manage the complex reality ofrunning adiocese ona daily basis. As Catholicity, ofwhich it is asort ofreduced copy, thediocese lives at the liturgys rhythm, to which administrative and pastoral management should be connected. However, the history of liturgy 1 See particularly: Balsamo J.

Un prlat franais dela Renaissance. Lecardinal deLorraine entre Reims etlEurope. Genve, ; Carroll S. Martyrs and Murderers. Genve, ; Taylor Th. Univer- sity ofVirginia, ; Guillemin J. LeCardinal deLorraine, son influence politique etreligieuse au xvie sicle.

To which one could add some very shorts but riches developments in: Evennett H. The Cardinal of Lorraine andtheCouncil ofTrent. AStudy inthe Counter-Reformation. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims although it was atthe heart ofreligious life ofclergymen andlaymen.

Afew recent works showed its importance3, so real inthe sixteenth century that it was at the centre of the confessional confrontation. Moreover, the successive positions adopted by the Cardinal of Lor- raine onboth liturgical andtheological issues atthe colloquy ofPoissy in, themeeting ofSaverne in andthe council ofTrent in 63 question on the share of sincerity and the share of strategy of his attitude4.

Aclose look into thepolicy conducted inthis field inReims should help toanswer thequestion ofthe real ideas ofCharles ofGuise. It is in that theCardinal ofLorraine began toreform his diocese, first in a gallican way, which took a confessional turn in , after- wards in a tridentine way, from , which became post-tridentine in Forthese reasons, this article examines first thelitur- gical policy conducted inReims inthe early s, then thedebates onthis issue during thecouncil oftheecclesiastical province in, finally how theprocessions reveal thepersonal choices oftheCardinal andtheevolution ofhis devotions.

Theparochial manual of andthe logic ofalocal liturgical policy In , Nicolas Bacquenois printed inReims abook called Man- uale, seu ut vocant agenda, ad usum insignis Ecclesiae Rhemensis: inquo omnia, quae ad sacramentorum administrationem necessaria sunt, i. TheStripping ofthe Altars. Traditional Religion inEngland, c. New Haven; London, ; among recent publications we must make mention of: Grosse Ch. LesRituels dela Cne.

Leculte eucharistique rform Genve xvie xviie sicles. Genve, ; Davy-Rigaux C. LesCrmoniaux catholiques enFrance lpoque moderne. Une littrature decodification desrites liturgiques. Turnhout, La France et le concile de Trente Rome, ; Evennett H. TheCardinal ofLorraine andthe Council ofTrent. Liturgical issues began tobe studied by Patrick Demouy: DemouyP. This publication was an episcopal enterprise, according toastatement contained inthis book andthe fact that it has been printed inReims. Asamatter of fact, Charles of Guise took the initiative to set up aprinting-house inReims inthe early s, andit was even more the case with Nicolas Bacquenois who was favoured by the arch- bishop; his activity began in and he was given the monopo- ly of printing the liturgical books of the diocese.

In point of fact, Bacquenois printed that same year a Missale Rhemense, mis- sal ofReims, ofwhich no copy seems tohave been preserved and ofwhich thefirst copies might even have been printed since theyear before 6. Before thesetting-up ofa printing-house inReims, litur- gical books forReims were printed inParis: missals in, , and, breviaries alittle after andin and This breviary contains an indication that it was published by the Cardinal of Lorraines authority, but is without much real originality8.

Regarding manuals or rituals, it should be noted that a Manuale seu instructorium curatorum ad usum Remensis dioce- sis was published inParis in, one or two others maybe during thepreceding years9, andas early as theParisian printer Simon Vostre published theOfficiarium sacerdotum ecclesie continens sacra- menta etmodum administrandi ea, cum aliis commodatibus que incet- eris desiderantur. Now, thecontents ofthe Manuale of are not very different from those ofthe Officiarium of Inother words, theCardinal ofLorraines liturgical policy placed itself first inthecon- tinuity ofhis predecessors, andprobably it was done inclose collabo- ration with thecathedral chapter, who considered itself asthekeep- er ofthe liturgical tradition ofReims especially as there was since thes some absenteeism ofthearchbishops ofReims.

The use of printing by bishops and secondarily by chapters was ageneral phenomenon inFrance atthe end ofthe 15th century 6 Fontaine J. Rpertoire desrituels etprocession- naux imprims et conservs en France. Meanwhile this inventory seems very little sure here. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims gical books. Theaim was, atone andthe same time, tofit inthe dioc- esan traditions andto develop afirst French Catholic Reformation, which it is tempting tocall gallican, even if it did not manifest any hostility tothe Roman leadership atleast this movement developed itself independently ofRoman policies.

Inpoint offact, thecontents ofthe Reims Manuale was not very different from other French rituals, forexample themanual ofRennes printed inRouen around This first French Catholic Reformation, inspired by Ger- sons heritage, aimed primarily atthe vicars, tomake them more competent andremove their abuses. Theprinting ofthe Manu- ale is an illustration ofthe pastoral ofsacraments, first expressed inthesynodal statutes11, because theobjective is totake advantage ofprinting tospread standardized texts inthe parishes with spe- cific guidance onhow one must administer sacraments andsacra- mentels.

Precisely, thegeneral policy ofreformation conducted by theCardinal ofLorraine inhis diocese in was character- ized by collaboration with thechapter, theuse ofpractices already existing inthe diocese visit ofdeaneries andsynods , theutilization ofprinting andthe insistance onimproving thelevel ofcompetence and knowledge of vicars His liturgical policy appeared conform tothis general policy, as apartofit. But theCardinal ofLorraine was also ahumanist, who conceived partly theimprovement ofthe level ofthe vicars through thehuman- istic perspective of promotion of knowledge.

Here is the explana- tion ofthe foundation ofthe University ofReims in andofhis insistence on predication in the city. In this last point we can see a result of the experimentations and failures of Guillaume Brion- net inMeaux, but also theinfluence ofGerson, who both promoted theuse ofthe French language. Intheearly s, theuse ofFrench was also a feature of the attempt of gallican reformation directed bythemonarchy, andespecially by Catherine de Medici. In she gave tothe Cardinal ofLorraine who was leaving France forthe council 10 Manuale ad usum Redonensem.

Rouen, vers Laliturgie dans lhistoire. Reims, un ple dela Rforme catholique Yet, theuse ofFrench language is quite important intheManuale of It is thecase forthe long text ofgeneral confession, which had to be recited by all together, during the celebration of Holy Thursday, following the list of the five senses, the seven deadly sins and the Ten Commandments, then the priest gave collective absolution forvenial sins, inciting then theaudience toindividual confession forthe deadly sins.

However, it must be pointed out that theuse ofFrench forthe sermon was general inmost oftheFrench parishes15; this should encourage us to put in perspective the full significance of Catherine de Medicis instructions. But it is also true that a generalization of the use of French for the texts to be recited by lay people reveals an undeniable pastoral will. Similarly, it is in French that one can find the text of universal prayers whose recitation by theparishioners was led by thepriest every Sunday. Inthis long list there were prayers fortheHoly Land, which is maybe amark ofthe influence ofthe Cardinal, who along with his brother Francis were at the head of the Guises family, descendent of Godefroy of Bouillon and who for this reason had claims on Jerusalem.

The developments on the administration ofsacraments also contained parts inFrench, when it corresponded tosentences that lay persons had topronounce, during baptism or marriage ceremonies forexample, but ingeneral therest ofthe text is inLatin. SotheCardinal ofLorraine was probably sincere when he promoted theuse ofFrench insermons andcatechism eight years later and the same for the administration of sacraments but then it is necessary tospecify how important ashare was given toeither French or Latin. Astothe chanting ofpsalms inFrench, this initiative oftheQueen Mother in did not correspond atall tothe content ofthe manual inwhich all thechants are inLatin, thepsalms 14 Tallon A.

LaFrance etle concile deTrente La Rvolution des paroisses. Culture paroissiale et Rforme catholique en Haute-Bretagne aux xvie et xviie sicles. Rennes, Forthecase ofthe parishes ofUpper Britanny. But thesermon was not nec- essarily in French in the churches where the main part of the audience was ecclesiastic, asinthecathedrals.

It seems that theCardinal might have agreed inthe second half ofthes with this proposition ofCatherine de Medici of, but maybe any earlier atall events fora generalization ina diocese. The use of French is more important in the manual ofReims than inother manuals ofthe same period, without being absolutely original inthis domain. As amatter offact, themanual ofRennes printed in also uses French andit is similarly thecase oftheOfficiarium ofReims of Inaword, as signalled by Alain Tallon, theideas ofCharles ofGuise onthe Churchs Reformation were not very original inthe s17, even if they became alittle bit more novel atthe end ofthis decade.

Besides, one will have ahard time finding some indications ofan inclination towards Lutheran- ism inthe Manuale, even ina strict liturgical domain which would try tokeep thetheological issues ata distance. Thetexts onthe Eucharist are perfectly orthodox andnever consider thepossibility ofcommun- ion under both species. Onthecontrary, theManuale specifies that ateach faithful is indicated ina few words andinFrench themean- ing of the Eucharist when they received communion at Easter. Inthesame way, when giving theextreme unction, thepriest should ask thedying person, inFrench, toconsider that thesacraments ofthe Church, especially theEucharist, highly help tosave ones soul.

So theconfessional turn adopted by the Caholic Reformation inReims in was not adisrupting but only an inflexion. Inthat year acatechism was published inParis, it was approved by theFaculty ofTheology ofReims, which through questions andanswers forchil- dren dealt with thesacraments, Faith, theCommandments, thePater Noster, theAve Maria andtheChurch By many aspects this catechism seems tobe acontinuation ofthe liturgical policy ofthe s. La liturgie rmoise au temps du cardinal deLorraine; Dri- cotM. Lavie musicale Reims dans laseconde moiti du xvie sicle: Thse dedoctorat enmusicologie.

Universit Paris IV-Sorbonne, Theprovincial council of Implementing theTridentine reform After leaving thecouncil ofTrent, ofwhich he delivered theclos- ing speech in December , the Cardinal of Lorraine returned to Reims and there ordered a French translation of the Triden- tine decrees to be printed in May These were rather vague onliturgical issues, giving only very general indications, so Roman commissions were later in charge of accomplishing the liturgi- cal reform. Besides, the council of Trent had ordered to organ- ise provincial councils to carry the Tridentine decrees into effect.

TheCardinal ofLorraine wanted tobe thefirst toproceed inthis domain, so he summoned a council of the ecclesiastical province of Reims to be held in November and December , in a tense political context; asamatter offact, Catherine de Medici was hos- tile to the Tridentine reform and to the new initiatives of Charles ofGuise. Theprovincial council adopted decreees ofreform which were widely inscribed in the line of the synodal statutes of Reims of, onthe reform ofclergy mainly, andin addition decided thefounding ofthe first seminary, incompliance with theTriden- tine decrees.

Theassembly also dealt with liturgy. What happened during this provincial council is very well known, through minutes, copied inthe 17th century though they maybe slightly summarized? The official report itself, which was inthe archives ofthe archbishopric orinthose ofthe cathedral chapter, was probably destroyed during theFrench Revo- lution. Nineteen sessions followed from November 27th toDecember 23th As early as thefirst session, theCardinal ofLorraine asked themembers ofthe council towork onpublic worship, ceremonies, breviary and missal, and ordered the delegates of the chapters toprepare areport onthese subjects.

This text, inLatin, was then delivered toall theparticipants atthe end ofthe 5th session, Charles of Guise asking them to consider it and to debate on the subject the next day. The text proposed a light reform of the breviary, 19 Histoire dela ville, cit etUniversit deReims par leR. Reims, The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims sals about proses hymns sung during thesolemn Masses.

The next day, December 1st , during the6th session, theCar- dinal ofLorraine began tospeak todefine thedirection ofthe litur- gical reform toachieve, following partly themiddle ofthe road text written by the canons and given to he participants of the council thepreceding day. Inhis opinion, it was necessary toavoid refined or lascivious music andto restrain theuse ofthe organ; canons should recite themselves theDivine Office inthe choir; nothing should beadd- ed to the missal or the ceremonies of Mass, which meant amending thediocesan missals which had integrated new elements; it was nec- essary to remove superstition in the use of images and relics, which should not be carried during processions out ofthecities.

Sothearch- bishop appeared toside with theframe established bythecanons, but only toredirect it partially andto add thequestion ofimages andrelics, which was all themore important forhim as he had played an important role inthe elaboration andadoption oftheTridentine decree onthis issue Thebishops or their representatives some bishops being absen- tees were then invited tospeak. Thebishop ofSenlis said he agreed ineverything with theCardinal ofLorraine, while therepresentative ofthe bishop ofNoyon affirmed that themanuals rituals , breviaries andmissals should really beamended but only bythePapacy.

Therep- resentative ofthe bishop ofAmiens, not wishing tosettle this question, declared that canons should devote themselves toreciting theDivine Office andthat it was necessary toreturn tothe ancient custom ofthe Church by removing therecent additions but he gave no details about it.

The bishop of Chlons appeared to support the preparatory text written by thecanons andhe added thenecessity tocompose aprovin- cial manual, which would harmonize theadministration ofsacraments in the whole province. The discussions continued in the afternoon during the7th session. Richard Dupr, representative ofthe cathedral chapter ofReims, spoke first. Criticizing those who did not want toact immediately, claiming not towish toinnovate, which seemed totar- get therepresentative ofthebishop ofNoyon, he stated that return- ing tothe ancient custom was not an innovation.

Then, he proposed toalleviate thebreviary, because thetext ofthecanonical hours was 20 Fabre P. Dcrter limage? La xxve session du concile de Trente, Paris, In the name ofthe Reims chapter andin accordance with theTridentine decrees, Richard Dupr asked fora reform ofchanting so that what was sung could be easily understood. This speech is essentially a support to the proposals of the Cardinal, and Dupr convinced the repre- sentatives ofthechapters ofSoissons, Laon andBeauvais; thelatter insisted onthenecessity ofa reform ofchanting andof putting an end totheuse ofthe organ forthe chanting ofthe Passion.

More cautious or moderate, with sometimes the will not to take a clear cut posi- tion, are thespeeches ofthe representatives ofthe chapters ofNoyon, Amiens, Throuanne andChlons, ofasecond representative ofthe bishop ofAmiens, ofthe abbot ofVauclair andof theprior ofSaint- Remi. Finally, theCardinal ofLorraine closed theday saying that all were agreed now this however was not quite thecase andthat it was necessary toadopt adecree torestore theancient custom thanks totrimming andsimplification ofthe music which inno way should hinder theunderstanding ofthemeaning ofwords.

Afterwards, it was really no longer aquestion ofcult. Neverthe- less, onDecember 6th, it was decided toadopt adecree onimages most likely theTridentine one which would be added tothe decree on the cult, to make the celebration of the Mass at the high altar ofthecathedrals reserved tothe canons andto require ofthe laity toattend Mass atleast one Sunday onthree.

But, forpolitical rea- sons, the Queen mother Catherine deMedici, who was opposed tothereception ofTridentine decrees inFrance, prohibited publi- cation ofthe decrees oftheprovincial council ofReims. Itseems that theCardinal ofLorraine planned todeal again with thelitur- gical issue ina second provincial council, in, but once again Catherine de Medici intervened toforbid themeeting this time If these political obstacles hindered thespread ofthe s deci- sions inthe ecclesiastical province, they could not prevent theimple- menting ofthese decisions inReims.

In, then in and, 21 Simiz S. Conciles provinciaux des xvie et xviie sicles. Charles, second Cardinal ofLorraine. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims fected chanting that allowed tounderstand words, tocondemn alas- civious or too ornate music andto restrict theuse ofthe organ It is important tonote that thearchbishop could not really reform liturgy without thecollaboration ofthe chapter, so these revisions ofthe capit- ular statutes were a sweeping success fortheCardinal. Theinitiatives taken around inthe Saint-Jacques parish ofReims forchanting inFrench went inthe same direction ofareform which was apurifi- cation ofchanting andmusic They seemed encouraged by thevicar general Pierre Remi andso they were openly tolerated bytheCardi- nal ofLorraine who, atthis period, was residing inhis diocese.

We must finally mention two elements linking the deci- sions ofthe s council andthe general policy ofthe Cardinal of Lorraine in Reims. On the one hand, there is a link between theinsistence onthe Tridentine decree onimages andtheinstal- lation of numerous statues of the Virgin in the streets of Reims in, inresponse tothe Protestant iconoclasm, andthe publi- cation thesame year ofa book which aimed both todefend images andto condemn their superstitious uses Ontheother hand, both the Tridentine and antique features of the liturgical policy were spectacularly exhibited in byinstallation ofanew high altar in the cathedral, the contract being signed by two canons who were supporters oftheCardinal La liturgie rmoise au temps du cardinal deLorraine.

Present, receu etapprouv enlassemble faite Saint Germain lunzime jour defevrier As early as or he founded inReims aprocession onEaster Sunday inhonor ofthe Blessed Sacra- ment, ofwhich he assured theannual financing in This proces- sion seems tohave been established inresponse toiconoclast actions perpetrated in or inthe ecclesiastical province. TheCardinal ensured thesuccess ofthis penitential procession by agrant ofindulgenc- es.

Guillaume Marlot affirms that this Easter procession was followed by several other urban processions in to ask God for the union ofthe Catholic princes against heresy. Thereafter, anEaster procession was held every year before dawn. Clerics andaltar boys carried alight- ed candle andthe Cardinal ofLorraine carried areliquary containing the Blessed Sacrament.

In his brother Francis duke of Guise offered avery precious reliquary forthe display oftheBlessed Sac- rament inprocession, ofwhich we know thanks toan inventory ofthe cathedrals treasure carried out in TheProcessional published in accurately describes thecourse ofthe procession Thecortege went tofetch thesacred host placed since Holy Thursday onthe altar ofthe Holy Cross andthen went onprocession inthe cathedral.

Hav- ing rejoined thechoir, thearchbishop incensed theBlessed Sacrament onthe high altar andthen presented thereliquary containing theCor- pus Christi tothe public. Then all made thesign ofthe cross insilence. Therefore itwas areal salutation tothe Blessed Sacrament. In the Cardinal of Lorraine founded a large proces- sion of the Holy Thursday in the honour of the Blessed Sacrament andtheHoly Cross, inimitation ofa similar procession which was made inRome andfor which he obtained apapal bull ofindulgence Theprop- er foundation was only achieved in, andin theProcessional accurately described theprocession which involved all theclergy ofthe cathedral andthe seminary Attheend ofthe day, theCorpus Christi was carried from thehigh altar tothe altar ofthe Holy Cross, which was located inthe back-choir ofthe cathedral andthus renamed inthe late 27 Histoire dela ville, cit etUniversit deReims.

Trsors des glises de Reims. After Tenebrae theprocession began; it was astational pro- cession as it made stops atseven stations corresponding toseven altars. The first station was celebrated at the altar of the Holy Cross. Then theprocession left thecathedral togo tothe hospital church, managed by both thearchbishop andthechapter, where thesecond andthird sta- tions were celebrated. Then it went onto theparish church ofSaint- Michel, located in the cloister managed by the canons to administer thesacraments tolay people living inthecloister, where thefourth sta- tion was celebrated onthe high altar Theprocession then returned to the cathedral where the stations were successively celebrated: atthealtar dedicated tothe saints James andPhilip, intheambulatory, atthealtar ofthe Virgin which was inthe nave near therood screen, atthe high altar atleast.

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Thebig reliquary cross oftheCardinal was carried from an altar tothe other, followed bythecensers andcandle- sticks transported by subdeacons. Theritual included prayers forthe Pope, thearchbishop, thelame in thehospital church , thefruits ofthe earth, theking, peace, theforgiveness ofsins. We can also note theuse ofthepenitential psalms andofthehymns Vexilla regis andOcrux ave.

It is certain that this liturgical practice was also theobject ofan agree- ment between thearchbishop andthe chapter. Besides, theProcessional printed inReims in contains apreface written by acanon, Antoine Colard, who praises thearchbishop. It is also certain that this proces- sion ofthe Holy Thursday bears theimprint ofthe Cardinal ofLorraine. Theday ofhis death, December 26th , he kissed thecross, recited theseven penitential psalms, theVexilla regis hymn andother prayers from thePassion33 echoing theprocession ofthe Holy Thursday.

Other processions expressed theCardinals devotion fortheBless- ed Sacrament andthe Holy Cross, often with apenitential dimension. The Processional gives the details of two other processions 32 Desportes P. Decrock, P.

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Langres, Bocherio theologo, Paris, It is tobe noted that thechant, here also, hymns Vexilla regis andO crux ave were present, as well as theadoration ofthecross. During theprovincial council of, theCardinal ofLorraine organ- ised ageneral procession onthe Thursday ofthe first week, theday ofthe Blessed Sacrament, after fasting onthe Wednesday Thepro- cession took place around the cathedral and the canonical cloister. The Cardinal carried the Blessed Sacrament whereas each canons, bishops and chapters representatives, abbots and priors carried acandle.

Then amass was celebrated inthe cathedral during which the Cardinal blessed the people. The processions were therefore away forthe Cardinal togo towards thedevotees. Forthis reason he founded aprocession from thechoir tothe nave ofthe cathedral each Sunday during Advent andChristmas time upto Candlemas. These were paid by foundations that he recapitulated inthe Procession- al TheCardinal blessed thedevotees while coming out ofthe choir.

To all this can be added the extraordinary processions in town. Itwas thecase in toimplore Gods help toface theplagues that were war, famine andProtestant heresy. TheBlessed Sacrament was carried around the town followed by the barefoot canons holding acandle In king Henri II participated tothe Corpus Christis procession inReims, his Swiss guards marching with atorch inhand, before going totouch thescrofula sick people inCorbeny, where Saint- Marcouls relics were worshipped Theannual procession ofCorpus Christi acquired more importance in the beginning of the years when the Catholic Reformation inReims took aconfessional turn.

The devotees came from all the parishes around a temporary altar installed atthe boundaries ofthe canonical cloister andlistened toasermon onthe Blessed Sacrament InNovember asolemn andpenitential procession took place after Protestants had damaged across, andin August another procession took place as amend 34 Processionale. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims the Cardinal of Lorraine ordered for a special procession to invoke Gods help against theProtestants. All theholy relics inthe city were carried onprocession, including saint Remi whose reliquary was car- ried by the members of the city community.

The Cardinal walked barefoot andon thenext day he gave communion tothe devotees atthe altar ofthe Cross In, during aprocession theday before Roga- tion, Charles ofGuise walked barefoot again inthe streets ofReims Many of such penitential processions seem to have happened from to andduring some ofthem, theCardinal ofLorraine might have covered himself with mud In December in Avignon, while he was accompanying the new king Henri III, on whom he had high hopes, the Cardinal of Lorraine participated, barefoot, at the procession of penitents fraternities.

He caught cold anddied onDecember 26th from alung infection. His body was taken back toReims anda big procession took place forhis funerals. This was his last procession. Conclusion Thus, the study of the liturgical policy of the Cardinal of Lor- raine inReims help toidentify this complex andessential character of the 16th century France andEurope. Beyond theusual questions about thesincerity ofthe Cardinal who developed varying strategies depending onboth context andinterlocutors, aresearch onhis lead- ing action in Reims reveals his close collaboration with the cathe- dral chapter and his conception of balance between conservatism and reform.

This enquiry also brings out the centrality of liturgy, around which thepastoral policy is articulated. The Manuale of shows thelogic ofa local liturgical pol- icy based on printing diocesan liturgical books. It is a moder- ate, gallican and diocesan reform, inf luenced both by Gerson and by humanism. It is characterized by the will to improve the knowledge and competence of parish priests, to develop 40 Histoire dela ville, cit etUniversit deReims.

Table chronologique et abbrg de lhistoire de lglise, ville etprovince deReims. It is not atall directed towards heterodoxy, even if theuse ofvernacular language could be considered as apossible forum fordiscussion with Protestants around The provincial council of is more aTridentine than acon- fessional turn and it is partly a logical continuation of the reform ofthes. It centres around thewill toamend, ease andsimplify themissal, breviary, chanting andmusic.

There is atouch ofantiq- uity in this reform which strives after an original purity and which emphasizes theneed tounderstand andmeditate onthe words which are spoken andsung. Although theroyal power impedes its diffusion throughout theecclesiastical province andthe kingdom, this reform develops in Reims through several achievements and experiments from thelate s onwards.

At last, these processions clearly express the personal devotions of the Cardinal of Lorraine. First, and with great permanence, his special devotion tothe Blessed Sacrament andthe Holy Cross. They express his profound rejection of iconoclasm and Calvinism, more- over they make his inclination for Lutheranism unlikely, at least onthe doctrinal issue, as he makes use ofindulgences, fasts andrel- ics ofChrist. Thepenitential aspect ofthese processions is marked, andisconsiderably strengthened atthe end ofthe life ofthe Cardi- nal who died as apenitent.

Angier M. Balsamo J. Balsamo I. Boucher N. Boucher , Paris: Federici Morelli, p. Carroll S. Cuisiat D. Davy-Rigaux C. Une littrature de codification des rites liturgiques, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, p. Demouy P. Balsamo, Th. Nocklas, B. Restif , Genve: Droz, pp. Desportes P. Demouy , Langres: Langres Editions, pp. Dricot M. Duffy E. Evennett H. Fabre P. Foigny J. Fontaine J. Gousset Th. Gousset , Reims: L. Jacquet, t. Grosse Ch. Guillemin J. Lorraine Ch. Marlot G. Jacquet, vol. Molin J. Nicolas Bacquenois LAdvis des docteurs theologiens deParis, etde ceux du reverendisssime etillustrissime cardinal deFerrare legat du Sainct Siege apostolique enFrance, touchant lusage desimages.

Present, receu etapprouv enlassemble faite Saint Germain lunzime jour defevrier , Reims: pour Nicolas Bacquenois etJean deFoigny, 12p. Pettegree A. Restif B. Simiz S. Lexemple dela mtropole rmoise, LaProvince ecclsiastique deReims, special issue of Travaux de lAcadmie nationale de Reims, vol.

Tallon A. Tarb P. Taylor Th. Venard M. Bellenger , Paris: Champion, pp. Vincent Sertenas Catechisme ouinstruction chrestienne, pour toutes personnes, veue et approuvee par la facult de theologie deRheims, lan , Paris: Vincent Sertenas, 40 p. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims 1. Un prlat franais delaRenaissance. Genve: Droz, Breviarium Remense. Paris: Jean Kerbriant impensis Thielman Vivian, Caroli Lotharingi card.

Bocherio theologo. Paris: Federici Morelli, The Guise Family andtheMaking ofEurope. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Catechisme ouinstruction chrestienne, pour toutes personnes, veue et approuvee par la facult de theologie de Rheims, lan Paris: Vincent Sertenas, Cocquault P. Table chronologique et abbrg de lhistoire delglise, ville etprovince deReims. Reims: Bernard, Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, Unprlat franais de la Renaissance. Le cardinal de Lorraine entre Reims etlEurope. Langres: Langres Editions, The Stripping of the Altars. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the Council ofTrent.

La XXVe session du concile deTrente. Paris: LesBelles Lettres, Les Rituels de la Cne. Genve, Droz, Paris: Joubert, Paris: Cerf; Saint-Paul, Histoire dela ville, cit etUniversit deReims par leR. Reims: L. Jacquet, LAdvis des docteurs theologiens de Paris, et de ceux du reverendisssime etillustrissime cardinal deFerrare legat du Sainct Siege apostolique en France, touchant lusage des images.

Reims: pour Nicolas Bacquenois etJean deFoigny, Reims: Imprimeur de son excellence monseigneur larchevque, Genve; Paris: Droz, Manuale ad usum Redonensem. Rpertoire des rituels etprocessionnaux imprims etconservs enFrance. Paris: Editions du C. Leiden; Boston: MA, Processionale secundum usum insignis ac metropolis Ecclesiae Rhemensis. Reims: Jean deFoigny, Reims: Imprimerie deAssy etCie, University ofVirginia: Proquest, Paris: Champion, Society Dmitrii Nikolaevich Kopelev. Investigating the situation in France in the period of the Huguenot Wars after the assassination of the leader of the Catholic League of France, Henry I, Duke of Guise, the author analyses mechanisms of information wars genesis and discovers different aspects of campaigns aimed to discredit theRoyal power.

On the one hand, as a result of aggressive visual, virtual and printed attacks against the organizer of this murder King HenryIII, thevery basement of the French monarchy reeled, and a figure oftheruler obtained the image of the universal evil.

Virtual International Authority File

On the other hand, public opinion, a new mystical force, that was able to threwthe earth power and open arode for a tyrannicide, started to influence on political war. Transformation of the idea of an enemy into the instrument of ideological and political struggle and debunking of political opponents with help of psychologi- cal tools became components of the new political reality.

Mental explo- sion happened in Paris in with its infernality and eschatological fears that turned the first manifestation on the new information reality. The author discloses tendencies ofmanipulation of public opinion radicalized in that time and led to the grand-scale propagandist campaigns aimed atdiscreditation and overthrow theOld Rgime and the dynasty. Key words: late Middle ages, the Early Modern time, France, Wars ofReligion, Catholics, Huguenots, Court, duke de Guise, Catholic League, propaganda, political image, satire, public opinion, radicalization, infer- nality, eschatological fears.

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