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The Georgicks of Virgil, with an English Translation and Notes Virgil, John Martyn Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora, Pierius says it is confecto in the Roman manuscript. And Tacitus also says the Germans used to make caves to defend them from the severity of winter, .

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JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. The Manifesto collection launched on 13 November is a real statement of intent: a look at the world that's "as honest as an animal", wich also aims to amalgamate its creative DNA in a collection of bold, confortable and iconic garments full of rock'n'roll attitude and femenine alegance, with all the confort and quality that the brand's fabrics and patterns always deliver.

In its Manifesto campaign, The Animals Observatory wanted to give glamour wings while paying homage to those childhood swings which, like the brand's logo, always took us soaring up and away, cradling our dreams and lifting our feet from the ground. That's what childhood is all about: flying high in throught and deed, watching the lives of grown-ups from the peak of our flight, relishing the present and laying down memories for the future. The Manifesto by The Animals Observatory, voiced by a young girl and enveloped in the emotion of music specially composed for the occassion, has become the purest essence of the brand.

By Dennis Normile Jul. By Charles Piller Jul. By Ann Finkbeiner Jun. All rights Reserved. Got a tip? How to contact the news team. Science Insider. Jason—a secretive group of Cold War science advisers—is fighting to survive in the 21st century By Ann Finkbeiner Jun. Giant cometlike object is not an alien ship, astronomers confirm By Katie Camero Jul.

Could a gut bacterium boost athletic performance? By Katie Camero Jun. But if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and create works such as men do, horses like horses and cattle like cattle also would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the form they themselves have. Xenophanes said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind". Both Judaism and Islam reject an anthropomorphic deity, believing that God is beyond human comprehension.

Judaism's rejection of an anthropomorphic deity grew during the Hasmonean period circa BCE , when Jewish belief incorporated some Greek philosophy. Hindus do not reject the concept of a deity in the abstract unmanifested, but note practical problems. Lord Krishna said in the Bhagavad Gita , Chapter 12, Verse 5, that it is much more difficult for people to focus on a deity as the unmanifested than one with form, using anthropomorphic icons murtis , because people need to perceive with their senses. In secular thought, one of the most notable criticisms began in with Francis Bacon , who argued against Aristotle 's teleology , which declared that everything behaves as it does in order to achieve some end, in order to fulfill itself.

The latter, for instance, embedded his arguments in his wider criticism of human religions and specifically demonstrated in what he cited as their "inconsistence" where, on one hand, the Deity is painted in the most sublime colors but, on the other, is degraded to nearly human levels by giving him human infirmities, passions, and prejudices.

There are also scholars who argue that anthropomorphism is the overestimation of the similarity of humans and nonhumans, therefore, it could not yield accurate accounts. There are various examples of personification as a literary device in both Hebrew Bible and Christian New Testament and also in the texts of some other religions. Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification, is a well established literary device from ancient times.

Collections of linked fables from India, the Jataka Tales and Panchatantra , also employ anthropomorphized animals to illustrate principles of life. Many of the stereotypes of animals that are recognized today, such as the wily fox and the proud lion, can be found in these collections. Aesop 's anthropomorphisms were so familiar by the first century CE that they colored the thinking of at least one philosopher:.

And there is another charm about him, namely, that he puts animals in a pleasing light and makes them interesting to mankind. For after being brought up from childhood with these stories, and after being as it were nursed by them from babyhood, we acquire certain opinions of the several animals and think of some of them as royal animals, of others as silly, of others as witty, and others as innocent. Apollonius noted that the fable was created to teach wisdom through fictions that are meant to be taken as fictions, contrasting them favorably with the poets' stories of the deities that are sometimes taken literally.

Aesop, "by announcing a story which everyone knows not to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events". A story, a story; let it come, let it go. Anthropomorphic motifs have been common in fairy tales from the earliest ancient examples set in a mythological context to the great collections of the Brothers Grimm and Perrault. Later an ant feels sorry for her and helps her in her quest.

Building on the popularity of fables and fairy tales, specifically children's literature began to emerge in the nineteenth century with works such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll , The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi and The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling , all employing anthropomorphic elements.

In many of these stories the animals can be seen as representing facets of human personality and character. Non-animal examples include Rev. W Awdry 's children's stories of Thomas the Tank Engine and other anthropomorphic locomotives. The fantasy genre developed from mythological, fairy tale, and Romance motifs [26] and characters, sometimes with anthropomorphic animals. Tolkien , books peopled with talking creatures such as ravens, spiders, and the dragon Smaug and a multitude of anthropomorphic goblins and elves.

John D. Rateliff calls this the " Doctor Dolittle Theme" in his book The History of the Hobbit [29] and Tolkien saw this anthropomorphism as closely linked to the emergence of human language and myth : " The first men to talk of 'trees and stars' saw things very differently. To them, the world was alive with mythological beings To them the whole of creation was "myth-woven and elf-patterned".


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Richard Adams developed a distinctive take on anthropomorphic writing in the s: his debut novel, Watership Down , featured rabbits that could talk, with their own distinctive language Lapine and mythology, and included a warren, Efrafa, run along the lines of a police state. Despite this, Adams attempted to ensure his characters' behavior mirrored that of wild rabbits, engaging in fighting, copulating and defecating, drawing on Ronald Lockley 's study The Private Life of the Rabbit as research.


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Adams returned to anthropomorphic storytelling in his later novels The Plague Dogs and Traveller By the 21st century, the children's picture book market had expanded massively. Anthropomorphism in literature and other media led to a sub-culture known as furry fandom , which promotes and creates stories and artwork involving anthropomorphic animals, and the examination and interpretation of humanity through anthropomorphism. This can often be shortened in searches as "anthro", used by some as an alternative term to "furry". Anthropomorphic characters have also been a staple of the comic book genre.

The most prominent one was Neil Gaiman 's the Sandman which had a huge impact on how characters that are physical embodiments are written in the fantasy genre. Other Pixar films like Monsters, Inc. Discussing anthropomorphic animals from DreamWorks movies Madagascar , Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , and Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted , Laurie suggests that "social differences based on conflict and contradiction are naturalized and made less 'contestable' through the classificatory matrix of human and nonhuman relations".

All of the characters in Walt Disney Animation Studios ' Zootopia are anthropomorphic animals, that is entirely a nonhuman civilization. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles , first aired in , features four pizza-loving anthropomorphic turtles with a great knowledge of ninjutsu, led by their anthropomorphic rat sensei, Master Splinter. Nickelodeon 's longest running animated TV series SpongeBob SquarePants —present , revolves around SpongeBob , a yellow sea sponge , living in the underwater town of Bikini Bottom with his anthropomorphic marine life friends.

Cartoon Network 's animated series The Amazing World of Gumball — takes place about anthropomorphic animals and inanimate objects.

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Brian shows many human characteristics — he walks upright, talks, smokes, and drinks Martinis — but also acts like a normal dog in other ways; for example he cannot resist chasing a ball and barks at the mailman, believing him to be a threat. She comes down out of the sky to serve as a tutor of international culture to the three main characters: a boy frog and wombat and a girl butterfly, who are supposed to be preschool children traveling a world populated by anthropomorphic animals with a circus run by their parents.

Sonic the Hedgehog , a video game franchise debuting in , features a speedy blue hedgehog as the main protagonist. This series' characters are almost all anthropomorphic animals such as foxes, cats, and other hedgehogs who are able to speak and walk on their hind legs like normal humans. As with most anthropomorphisms of animals, clothing is of little or no importance, where some characters may be fully clothed while some wear only shoes and gloves.

Another popular example in video games is the Super Mario series, debuting in with Super Mario Bros. Other games in the series, as well as of other of its greater Mario franchise, spawned similar characters such as Yoshi , Donkey Kong and many others. Claes Oldenburg 's soft sculptures are commonly described as anthropomorphic. Depicting common household objects, Oldenburg's sculptures were considered Pop Art. Reproducing these objects, often at a greater size than the original, Oldenburg created his sculptures out of soft materials.

The anthropomorphic qualities of the sculptures were mainly in their sagging and malleable exterior which mirrored the not so idealistic forms of the human body. In "Soft Light Switches" Oldenburg creates a household light switch out of vinyl. The two identical switches, in a dulled orange, insinuate nipples. The soft vinyl references the aging process as the sculpture wrinkles and sinks with time. In the essay "Art and Objecthood", Michael Fried makes the case that " Literalist art " Minimalism becomes theatrical by means of anthropomorphism.

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The viewer engages the minimalist work, not as an autonomous art object, but as a theatrical interaction. Fried references a conversation in which Tony Smith answers questions about his "six-foot cube, Die. Q: Why didn't you make it larger so that it would loom over the observer? A: I was not making a monument.

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Q: then why didn't you make it smaller so that the observer could see over the top? A: I was not making an object. Fried implies an anthropomorphic connection by means of "a surrogate person-that is, a kind of statue. The minimalist decision of "hollowness" in much of their work, was also considered by Fried, to be "blatantly anthropomorphic.

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Fried considers the Literalist art's "hollowness" to be "biomorphic" as it references a living organism. Curator Lucy Lippard 's Eccentric Abstraction show, in , sets up Briony Fer 's writing of a post minimalist anthropomorphism. Reacting to Fried's interpretation of minimalist art's "looming presence of objects which appear as actors might on a stage", Fer interprets the artists in Eccentric Abstraction to a new form of anthropomorphism. She puts forth the thoughts of Surrealist writer Roger Caillois , who speaks of the "spacial lure of the subject, the way in which the subject could inhabit their surroundings.

Instead, like the insect, the work must come into being in the "scopic field For branding , merchandising , and representation , figures known as mascots are now often employed to personify sports teams , corporations , and major events such as the World's Fair and the Olympics.


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  7. These personifications may be simple human or animal figures, such as Ronald McDonald or the ass that represents the United States's Democratic Party. Other times, they are anthropomorphic items, such as " Clippy " or the " Michelin Man ".

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    The practice is particularly widespread in Japan, where cities, regions, and companies all have mascots, collectively known as yuru-chara. Two of the most popular are Kumamon a bear who represents Kumamoto Prefecture [44] and Funassyi a pear who represents Funabashi , a suburb of Tokyo.

    Other examples of anthropomorphism include the attribution of human traits to animals, especially domesticated pets such as dogs and cats. Examples of this include thinking a dog is smiling simply because he is showing his teeth, or a cat is bored because it is not reacting to commands. Anthropomorphism may be beneficial to the welfare of animals. A study by Butterfield et al. In science, the use of anthropomorphic language that suggests animals have intentions and emotions has traditionally been deprecated as indicating a lack of objectivity. Biologists have been warned to avoid assumptions that animals share any of the same mental, social, and emotional capacities of humans, and to rely instead on strictly observable evidence.

    Despite the impact of Charles Darwin 's ideas in The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Konrad Lorenz in called him a " patron saint " of ethology [54] ethology has generally focused on behavior , not on emotion in animals.