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Thus, while some aspects of the regulation of positioning cytokinesis have emerged from studies in model organisms and systems, understanding the mechanisms operating in a variety of intact tissues represents a major challenge. We thank all members of the Balasubramanian and Oliferenko laboratories for discussion, and Wanzhong Ge, Ramanujam Srinivasan, Meredith Calvert, and Mithilesh Mishra for critical reading of the manuscript.

Work in the laboratories of M. View all Previous Section Next Section. View this table: In this window In a new window. Table 1. Protein families participating in cytokinesis. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure Previous Section.

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Cao, L. Cell 7 : — Carazo-Salas, R. Casamayor, A. Celton-Morizur, S. Cell Sci. Chant, J. Cell Dev. Cell 65 : — Chen, W. PLoS Biol. Cleary, A. Protoplasma : — Plant Cell 10 : — Corbin, B. EMBO J. Daga, R. Dajkovic, A. Das, T. Neuron 37 : — Cell 56 : — Dechant, R. Cell 4 : — Devore, J. Diaz, M. Medline Web of Science Google Scholar. Drechsel, D. Ebersbach, G. Edwards, D.

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Chopko BW. Long-term results of percutaneous lumbar decompression for LSS: Two-year outcomes.

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Degenerative magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Fusion may not be a necessary procedure for surgically treated burst fractures of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spines. Surgery for low back pain: A review of the evidence for an American pain society clinical practice guideline. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: An evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American pain society.

Chou R. Low back pain chronic. Clinical Evidence. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Chou R, Huffman LH. American College of Physicians. Comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity and musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. A prospective study of patients with chronic back pain randomised to group exercise, physiotherapy or osteopathy.

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion vs. Christensen FB. Lumbar spinal fusion. Outcome in relation to surgical methods, choice of implant and postoperative rehabilitation. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica Supplementum. Circumferential lumbar spinal fusion with brantigan cage versus posterolateral fusion with titanium cotrel-dubousset instrumentation: A prospective, randomized clinical study of patients. Radiological and functional outcome after anterior lumbar interbody spinal fusion. Importance of the back-cafe concept to rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a randomized clinical study with a 2-year follow-up.

Christensen KD. Low back pain and ambulatory traction. A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: a randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients. Drug therapy for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lumbar total disc replacement using ProDisc II: a prospective study with a 2-year minimum follow-up.

The effectiveness of shoe insoles for the prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. A systematic review of efficacy of McKenzie therapy for spinal pain. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica. Traction for low back pain with or without sciatica: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane collaboration. Slump stretching in the management of non-radicular low back pain: a pilot clinical trial.

Orthopaedic Division Review. Comparison of the effectiveness of three manual physical therapy techniques in a subgroup of patients with low back pain who satisfy a clinical prediction rule: A randomized clinical trial. Manual Therapy. Comparison of the effectiveness of three manual physical therapy techniques in a subgroup of patients with low back pain who satisfy a clinical prediction rule: study protocol of a randomized clinical trial [NCT] BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Effects of valdecoxib in the treatment of chronic low back pain: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical comparison of effectiveness of epidural triamcinolone and betamethasone in discal radiculalgia: A prospective, randomized study. Analgesic efficacy and safety of controlled-release hydrocodone and acetaminophen tablets, dosed twice daily, for moderate to severe mechanical chronic low-back pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal trial.

Group education interventions for people with low back pain. An overview of the literature. Group outpatient physical and behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Cohen SP. Efficacy of epidural etanercept in the treatment of sciatica. Epidural steroid injections for low back pain. Epidural steroid injections compared with gabapentin for lumbosacral radicular pain: multicenter randomized double blind comparative efficacy study.

Multicenter, randomized, comparative cost-effectiveness study comparing 0, 1, and 2 diagnostic medial branch facet joint nerve block treatment paradigms before lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation. Can changes in vital signs be used to predict the response to lumbar facet blocks and radiofrequency denervation? A prospective, correlational study. Epidural steroids: a comprehensive, evidence-based review. Effect of MRI on treatment results or decision making in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy referred for epidural steroid injections: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

Etofenamate and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation treatment of painful spinal syndromes. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research. Collazo CE. Exercise and auricular acupuncture for chronic low-back pain. Revista Internacional De Acupuntura. Conijn FJJ. A randomized trial of medical care with and without physical therapy and chiropractic care with and without physical modalities for patients with low back pain: 6-month follow-up outcomes from the UCLA low back pain study.

Spine ; Systematic review of caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain. Manual therapy provided by physical therapists in a hospital-based setting: a retrospective analysis. Cook C, Hegedus E. Diagnostic utility of clinical tests for spinal dysfunction. Early use of thrust manipulation versus non-thrust manipulation: a randomized clinical trial.

Predictors of pain and disability outcomes in one thousand, one hundred and eight patients who underwent lumbar discectomy surgery. International Orthopaedics. Cooper K, Wilcock S. The effectiveness of peer support interventions for community-dwelling adults with chronic non-cancer pain: A systematic review protocol. A limited functional restoration program for injured workers: A randomized trial.

Prospective study of disc repair with allogeneic chondrocytes presented at the Joint Spine Section Meeting. Motor control exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Evaluation of analgesia obtained with steroids epidurals in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

Revista Mexicana De Anestesiologia. Annals of Physical Medicine. Coxhead CE. A clinical trial of the management of sciatica with or without low back pain. Multicentre trial of physiotherapy in the management of sciatic symptoms. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for low back pain. A comparison of surgery and chemonucleolysis in the treatment of sciatica. A prospective randomized trial. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three types of physiotherapy used to reduce chronic low back pain disability: a pragmatic randomized trial with economic evaluation.

Ozone-augmented percutaneous discectomy: a novel treatment option for refractory discogenic sciatica. Clinical Radiology. Estimating cost of care for patients with acute low back pain: a retrospective review of patient records. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Effects of a six-week Pilates intervention on balance and fear of falling in women aged over 65 with chronic low-back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

Meralgia paresthetica and low back pain. Deep water running and general practice in primary care for non-specific low back pain versus general practice alone: randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rheumatology. Clinical effect of deep water running on non-specific low back pain: a randomised trial. Exercise, manual therapy, and education with or without high-intensity deep-water running for nonspecific chronic low back pain: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

Spanish version of the screening Orebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire: a cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. Working Backs Project - implementing low back pain guidelines. Occupational Medicine. Cunningham S. Diagnostic accuracy: sensitivity and specificity of the ScreenAssist Lumbar Questionnaire in comparison with primary care provider tests and measures of low back pain: a pilot study. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy.

Altered motor control, posture and the Pilates method of exercise prescription. Laboratory gait analysis in patients with low back pain before and after a pilates intervention. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. Intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions prolotherapy for spinal pain: a critical review of the literature. Synthesis of recommendations for the assessment and management of low back pain from recent clinical practice guidelines.

Prolotherapy injections for chronic low-back pain. The predictive validity of the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire and the clinicians' prognostic assessment following manual therapy treatment of patients with LBP and neck pain. Outcome following unilateral versus bilateral instrumentation in patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a single-center randomized prospective study. Neurosurgical Focus. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica. Epidural morphine and methylprednisolone for low-back pain.

Acute low back pain self-management intervention for urban primary care patients: Rationale, design, and predictors of participation. Arthritis Care and Research. Randomized trial of a self-management program for primary care patients with acute low back pain: short-term effects. Arthritis and Rheumatism. The long-term effects of a self-management program for inner-city primary care patients with acute low back pain. Dananberg HJ, Guiliano M. Chronic low-back pain and its response to custom-made foot orthoses. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. Outcome analyses in surgically treated lumbar disc herniations.

Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery. The inter-examiner reliability of a classification method for non-specific chronic low back pain patients with motor control impairment. Discriminating healthy controls and two clinical subgroups of nonspecific chronic low back pain patients using trunk muscle activation and lumbosacral kinematics of postures and movements: a statistical classification model. A clinical trial of epidural steroid injection depo-medrol in the treatment of chronic low back pain.

Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. A pilot factorial randomised cohort trial of manual therapy or acupuncture for low back pain. The efficacy of minimally invasive discectomy compared with open discectomy: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials. Comparison of caudal steroid epidural with targeted steroid placement during spinal endoscopy for chronic sciatica: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Evidence-based practice of lumbar epidural injections. Systematic assessment of diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic utility of lumbar facet joint interventions.

Fusion versus nonoperative care for chronic low back pain: Do psychological factors affect outcomes? David T. Lumbar disc prosthesis. Surgical technique, indications and clinical results in 22 patients with a minimum of 12 months follow-up. A systematic review of paracetamol for non-specific low back pain. Piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin in the treatment of low-back pain. Controlled study vs etodolac. Dayer-Berenson L. The effect of a culturally competent educational intervention with African American chronic-low-back-pain patients. University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Cost-effectiveness of an education and activation program for patients with acute and subacute shoulder complaints compared to usual care.

Total disc replacement for chronic low back pain: background and a systematic review of the literature. Ozone therapy as a treatment for low back pain secondary to herniated disc: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Immediate effects of region-specific and non-region-specific spinal manipulative therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

Percutaneous treatment of sciatica caused by a herniated disc: an exploratory study on the use of gaseous discography and Discogel in 79 patients. Assessment of a biofeedback program to treat chronic low back pain. Pre-surgical psychological screenings for lumbar fusion: A look at real world practice. Psychology, Health and Medicine. EMG recovery and ratings after back extensor fatigue in patients with lumbar disc herniation and healthy subjects.

European Journal of Applied Physiology. Effect of physical training and ergonomic counselling on the psychological perception of work and on the subjective assessment of low-back insufficiency. Microsurgical treatment of juxta facet cysts of the lumbar spine. Clinical effects of a nine-month web-based intervention in subacute non-specific low back pain patients: a randomized controlled trial. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. ProDisc artificial total lumbar disc replacement: introduction and early results from the United States clinical trial.

Evidence for use of an extension-mobilization category in acute low back syndrome: a prescriptive validation pilot study. A treatment-based classification approach to low back syndrome: identifying and staging patients for conservative treatment. Effects of dynamic lumbar stabilization exercises following lumbar microdiscectomy on pain, mobility and return to work. Randomized controlled trial. Demircan MN. Benefits of a physical training program after back to school for chronic low back pain patients.

Effectiveness of preventive back educational interventions for low back pain: a critical review of randomized controlled clinical trials. The PRESLO study: evaluation of a global secondary low back pain prevention program for health care personnel in a hospital setting. Multicenter, randomized intervention trial. A critical appraisal of the evidence for selective nerve root injection in the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Prospective pilot study of painful lumbar facet joint arthropathy after intra-articular injection of hylan G-F PM and R.

Comparison of intradiscal restorative injections and intradiscal electrothermal treatment IDET in the treatment of low back pain. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with minimally invasive nuclear decompression. The influence of psychologic factors on diskography in patients with chronic axial low back pain. Cost comparisons of various diagnostic medial branch block protocols and medial branch neurotomy in a private practice setting.

Evaluation of a specific home exercise programme for low back pain…. Evaluation of a specific home exercise program for low back pain. The effects of spinal flexion and extension exercises and their associated postures in patients with acute low back pain. Deutsch H. The predictive value of the baseline Oswestry Disability Index in lumbar disc arthroplasty.

The outcomes of lumbar microdiscectomy in a young, active population: correlation by herniation type and level. How many days of bed rest for acute low back pain? A randomized clinical trial. Reducing roentgenography use. Can patient expectations be altered? A prospective cohort study of surgical treatment for back pain with degenerated discs; study protocol. A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS and exercise for chronic low back pain.

Efficacy of antidepressants as analgesics: a review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Comparison between the effects of trigger point mesotherapy versus acupuncture points mesotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a short term randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. Herniated lumbar disc treated with Global Postural Reeducation. A middle-term evaluation.

Di Fabio RP. Efficacy of comprehensive rehabilitation programs and back school for patients with low back pain: a meta-analysis. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement. The efficacy of lumbar extension traction for sagittal alignment in mechanical low back pain: a randomized trial. Diaz K, Wolf B. Alternative therapies: Yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction as adjunctive treatment for chronic axial pain.


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Effectiveness of the Godelieve Denys-Struyf GDS method in people with low back pain: cluster randomized controlled trial. Extradural corticosteroid injection in management of lumbar nerve root compression. Dimaggio A, Mooney V. The McKenzie program: Exercise effective against back pain. Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine. Dimulescu DM, Chiriti G. Posturaltherapyand algo-dysfunctional syndrome in patients with lumbosacral spine diseases. Osteoporosis International.

Ding Y, Yang MY. Electroacupuncture assisted by squatting stances for lumbar disc herniation: cases. World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. The influence of preoperative MRI findings on lumbar fusion clinical outcomes. Health-related quality of life improvements in patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion as a revision surgery. Radiofrequency denervation with or without addition of pentoxifylline or methylprednisolone for chronic lumbar zygapophysial joint pain.

Pharmacological Reports. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from a randomized trial of collaborative care for chronic musculoskeletal pain in primary care. Doherty D. Physiotherapy compared with advice for low back pain: study supports concept of self management of pain. Design considerations of a randomized clinical trial on a cognitive behavioural intervention using communication and information technologies for managing chronic low back pain. Don AS, Carragee E. A brief overview of evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with surgery. Randomized study of the application of single motor unit biofeedback training to chronic low back pain.

Unilateral pedicle screw fixation through a tubular retractor via the Wiltse approach compared with conventional bilateral pedicle screw fixation for single-segment degenerative lumbar instability: a prospective randomized study. Two different techniques in the rehabilitation treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. The significance of spinal canal dimensions in discriminating symptomatic from asymptomatic disc herniations.

Manipulation in treatment of low back pain: a multicentre study. Doran N. Qualitative Health Research. Effectiveness of the Global Posture Reeducation method GPR and segmental stretching in the treatment of chronic back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation. Evaluation of a modified clinical prediction rule for use with spinal manipulative therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

Chiropractic and Manual Therapies. Red flags to screen for malignancy and fracture in patients with low back pain: systematic review. Comparative effectiveness of cervical transforaminal injections with particulate and nonparticulate corticosteroid preparations for cervical radicular pain. Efficacy and tolerability of sustained-release ibuprofen in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain.

Self-management programs for chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. A pilot study on the recovery from paresis after lumbar disc herniation. Treatment of chronic low back pain: a randomized, clinical trial comparing group-based multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation and intensive individual therapist-assisted back muscle strengthening exercises.

Effects of facet joint nerve block addition to radiofrequency in the treatment of low back pain. Does the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire predict outcomes following a work-related compensable injury? Education in the management of low back pain. Literature review and recall of key recom. The influence of anxiety and locus of control on adolescents' response to naproxen sodium for mild to moderate pain. Journal of Adolescent Health Care.

Effects of electrical stimulation program on trunk muscle strength, functional capacity, quality of life, and depression in the patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. How effective is a modified exercise program on its own or with back school in chronic low back pain? A randomized-controlled clinical trial. Duse G. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurolesion of lumbar facet joint in low back pain: Comparison between intraarticular and extraarticular denervation. The outcome of surgery for lumbar disc herniation. A years' follow-up with emphasis on psychosocial aspects.

The effectiveness of a walking programme, supervised exercise programme and usual physiotherapy on sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: 3-month results of a feasibility randomized controlled trial. A study of therapeutic ultrasound and exercise treatment for muscle fatigue in patients with chronic non specific low back pain: a preliminary report.

Therapeutic ultrasound for chronic low-back pain. Twelve-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive physiotherapy following disc herniation operation. Laser discectomy for the treatment of herniated lumbar discs. Automated percutaneous nucleotomy for herniated lumbar discs. Physical therapy management of older adults with chronic low back pain: A systematic review.

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Journal of Pain Management. Nucleoplasty, a minimally invasive procedure for disc decompression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published clinical studies. Addition of choice of complementary therapies to usual care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Surgery versus chemonucleolysis for herniated lumbar discs. A prospective study with random assignment. Magnetic resonance imaging interpretation in patients with sciatica who are potential candidates for lumbar disc surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging in follow-up assessment of sciatica.

Back pain's association with vertebral end-plate signal changes in sciatica. Recurrent lumbar disc herniation: A prospective comparative study of three surgical management procedures. Asian Journal of Neurosurgery. Eley C. Magnetic resonance imaging for low back injuries: appropriate use in managing workers' compensation claims. The effectiveness and risks of fluoroscopically guided cervical transforaminal injections of steroids: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data.

Individual patient education for low back pain. Epstein NE. Lumbar synovial cysts: A review of diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome assessment. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of intramuscular and oral phenyramidol in patients with low back pain in an emergency department. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. Relative effectiveness of an extension program and a combined program of manipulation and flexion and extension exercises in patients with acute low back syndrome. Ernst E.


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Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment for back pain: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. The Alexander technique: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassische Naturheilkunde. A biopsychosocial primary care intervention Back on Track versus primary care as usual in a subgroup of people with chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial. Errico TJ. Why a mechanical disc? Mindfulness-based stress reduction for failed back surgery syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

Predictive value of radiculography in patients with lumbago-sciatica. A prospective study Part II. Meloxicam: A review of its pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability following intramuscular administration. Inflammation Research. Evans DD. Characteristics and outcomes of individuals self-selecting yoga versus physical therapy for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center; Evans G, Richards S. Low back pain: an evaluation of therapeutic interventions. Ultrasound versus fluoroscopic-guided epidural steroid injections in patients with degenerative spinal diseases: a randomised study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. The effects of supervised core stability training on athletic and non-athletic patients with mechnical nonspecific chronic low back pain. Is sequestrectomy a viable alternative to microdiscectomy? A systematic review of the literature.

An update of the systematic assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks. An update of the effectiveness of therapeutic lumbar facet joint interventions. Systematic review of the therapeutic effectiveness of cervical facet joint interventions: an update. Open controlled randomized multicenter comparison of nimesulide and diclofenac in the treatment of subacute and chronic low back pain. Journal of Clinical Research. Comparison between the effects of amitriptyline and bupropione on the quality of life and the reduction in the severity of pain in patients with chronic low-back pain.

Farasyn A, Meeusen R. Effect of roptrotherapy on pressure-pain thresholds in patients with subacute nonspecific low back pain A pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial of roptrotherapy in patients with subacute non-specific low back pain. Farham B. Acupuncture and back pain. South African Medical Journal. Comparison of two conservative treatment approaches.

Medical Journal of Australia. Indirect costs associated with surgery for low back pain-a secondary analysis of clinical trial data. Population Health Management. Fernando CK. Conservative treatment of acute low-back pain, a prospective randomized trial: McKenzie method of treatment versus patient education in mini-back school. Ferrari R. Report of metatarsal pad intolerance in a cohort of 60 patients treated with customized foot orthotics. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. Effect of customized foot orthotics in addition to usual care for the management of chronic low back pain following work-related low back injury.

Does spinal manipulative therapy help people with chronic low back pain? Efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain of less than three months' duration. Comparison of general exercise, motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: A randomized trial. Changes in recruitment of transversus abdominis correlate with disability in people with chronic low back pain.

A randomized trial of walking versus physical methods for chronic pain management. Integration of subclassification strategies in randomised controlled clinical trials evaluating manual therapy treatment and exercise therapy for non-specific chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Field J, Newell D. Relationship between STarT Back Screening Tool and prognosis for low back pain patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy.

The machete and shovel were used to cut down or remove anything from weeds to saplings that got in the way of his camera angle. The parasol, spotted and stained, replaced the usual flashgun reflector when he needed a softer light. The compass helped him figure his lighting when he was caught in strange territory without sunlight.

The bee smoker provided wisps of smoke to create mood or hide a distracting element. Toilet paper was wrapped around flash bulbs to get a diffused light. Bodine preferred early morning light. He got special effects by aiming his camera at the early morning sun. He said that on a hazy morning with the sun just over the horizon it was possible to shoot into it the sun without ruining the picture with glare.

He went out at night, particularly if it was snowing or raining. What Bodine did in his darkroom he taught himself by experimentation; much of what he did was unorthodox. He mixed chemicals by intuition that came from experience, not by following directions on the container. Chemicals recommended by the manufacturer for certain conditions he used in other ways. Bodine used a variety of processes.

Positioning cytokinesis

At one time the PSA circulated a one-man Bodine show that included eleven different processes. Among them were carbros, gum bromides, multiple gums, bromoils, paper negatives and carbons. Finished exhibition prints from his early period are predominantly in non-silver processes, particularly carbro, bromoil, and gum-bi-chromate, and on a variety of paper surfaces. Heavy manipulation of the negative and final print is evident in his work. Bodine was a master of improving his pictures by dubbing in clouds. He kept files of cloud negatives to be added to his prints of landscapes and water scenes.

He developed this technique out of an established nineteenth century pictorialist tradition. To compensate for the limitations of their materials, pictorialists exposed negatives containing only clouds and then double printing the final image, first for the landscape and then for the cloud detail. Bodine made no secret of his use of cloud negatives. He wrote: "For years I have been successfully printing in clouds and think nothing of printing clouds on regular routine assignments. A water scene printed with heavy clouds would appear to be from a negative taken late in the day.

The same negative could be printed with lighter clouds and give the appearance of morning or early afternoon.

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Clouds were not the only elements Bodine added to his photographs. Silhouettes of birds, particularly seagulls, were added to water scenes. To create a well-defined moon or sun, Bodine placed an appropriate size coin on the paper during the darkroom exposure. He added specks of white to simulate snow or rain in his photographs, frequently on the overall image, or, in many instances, simply on certain areas. The snow piled on the ironwork in "Fells Point, Baltimore" was totally added in the darkroom.

He used paintbrush and dye to paint details onto the negative for more moonlight reflecting on the water or when he felt additional white highlights would be an improvement. To create a window or frame, he would add fish nets to the final image. Aubrey Bodine balanced his attachment to a nineteenth-century aesthetic with the daily requirements of a photojournalism. He was a photographic technician who continually experimented with his medium to produce better prints and who maintained worldwide visibility through his professional outlets at the Baltimore Sunday Sun, the PSA and the NPPA.

From this position, Bodine attained a national and international reputation as a salon exhibitor and an award-winning newspaper photographer. Bodine married Nancy Tait in He fathered one daughter, Jennifer Beatty Bodine. After years of ill health Bodine suffered a fatal stroke in his darkroom at the Baltimore Sun and died on October 28, Mencken H. Aubrey Bodine, edited by Jennifer B. Ewing, Kathleen M. Aubrey Bodine Baltimore Pictorialist, Williams, Harold.